Abstract

Measurement of total hemoglobin concentration [Hgb] is a blood test that is widely used to evaluate outpatients, hospital inpatients, and surgical patients, especially those undergoing surgery associated with extensive blood loss, rapid fluid administration, and transfusion of packed red blood cells. Current techniques for measurement of [Hgb] are invasive (requiring blood sampling) and cannot provide real-time, continuous monitoring. We propose to use an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive and continuous monitoring of [Hgb]. The high resolution of the optoacoustic technique may provide accurate measurement of [Hgb] by detection and analysis of optoacoustic signals induced by short optical pulses in blood circulating in arteries or veins. We designed, built, and tested in vitro (in both tissue phantoms and in preliminary in vivo experiments) a portable optoacoustic system for the monitoring of [Hgb] in the radial artery. The system includes a nanosecond laser operating in the near-infrared spectral range and a sensitive optoacoustic probe designed to irradiate the radial artery through the skin and detect optoacoustic signals induced in blood. Results of our studies demonstrated that (1) the slope of optoacoustic waves induced in blood in the transmission mode is linearly dependent on [Hgb] in the range from 6.2 to 12.4 g/dl, (2) optoacoustic signals can be detected despite optical attenuation in turbid tissue phantoms with a thickness of 1 cm, and (3) the optoacoustic system detects signals induced in blood circulating in the radial artery. These data suggest that the optoacoustic system can be used for accurate, noninvasive, real-time, and continuous monitoring of [Hgb].

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, H. B. Kram, K. Waxman, T. S. Lee, “Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients,” Chest 94, 1176–1186 (1988).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. M. K. Calahan, D. S. Prough, “Prevention of transfusions,” Probl. Anesth. 11, 458–470 (1999).
  5. L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. First of two parts—blood transfusion,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 438–447 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. Second of two parts—blood conservation,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 525–533 (1999).
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  7. R. R. Steuer, D. A. Bell, L. L. Barrett, “Optical measurement of hematocrit and other biological constituents in renal therapy,” Adv. Ren. Replace. Ther. 6, 217–224 (1999).
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  13. A. al Odeh, Z. A. Varga, G. D. Angelin, “Haematocrit measurements during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: comparison of three stat methods with a blood cell counter,” Perfusion 9, 127–134 (1994).
    [PubMed]
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  15. J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  20. H. P. Brecht, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, O. Hartrumpf, R. O. Esenaliev, “Noninvasive continuous optoacoustic monitor of total hemoglobin concentration,” in Proceedings of the Second Joint EMBS/BMES Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 2289–2290.
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  22. D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of superior sagittal sinus saturation: in vivo validation in sheep,” Anesthesiology 95, A328 (2001).
  23. D. J. Deyo, R. O. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S140 (2001).
  24. R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722–4731 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (4)

D. S. Prough, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesthesiology 95, A555 (2001).

D. J. Deyo, R. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S139 (2001).

D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of superior sagittal sinus saturation: in vivo validation in sheep,” Anesthesiology 95, A328 (2001).

D. J. Deyo, R. O. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S140 (2001).

1999 (5)

J. Wilson, I. Woods, J. Fawcett, R. Whall, W. Dibb, C. Morris, E. McManus, “Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised controlled trial of preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery,” Br. Med. J. 318, 1099–1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Calahan, D. S. Prough, “Prevention of transfusions,” Probl. Anesth. 11, 458–470 (1999).

L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. First of two parts—blood transfusion,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 438–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. Second of two parts—blood conservation,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 525–533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Steuer, D. A. Bell, L. L. Barrett, “Optical measurement of hematocrit and other biological constituents in renal therapy,” Adv. Ren. Replace. Ther. 6, 217–224 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. Kajiume, Y. Kawano, Y. Takaue, T. Abe, Y. Okamoto, A. Makimoto, T. Watanabe, J. Sato, A. Yokobayashi, Y. Kuroda, “Continuous monitoring of hematocrit values during apheresis for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell collection,” J. Hematother. 7, 493–497 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Horibe, H. Kawanishi, M. Kuroda, M. Tajima, T. Mochizuki, “Continuous monitoring of blood volume change by measuring hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass,” Masui 45, 189–193 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (2)

S. M. Yaskulka, J. Burnside, D. Bennett, V. Olshove, J. Langwell, “Accuracy of in-line venous saturation and hematocrit monitors in pediatric perfusion,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 132–136 (1995).

S. Niles, R. Cronbaugh, J. Engle, J. Ploessl, R. Sutton, “Evaluation of five in-line hematocrit monitors,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 24–28 (1995).

1994 (2)

M. E. Brown, J. D. Rawleigh, J. M. Gallagher, “In vitro evaluation of continuous mixed venous oxygen saturation and hematocrit monitors,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 26, 189–193 (1994).

A. al Odeh, Z. A. Varga, G. D. Angelin, “Haematocrit measurements during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: comparison of three stat methods with a blood cell counter,” Perfusion 9, 127–134 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993 (3)

O. Boyd, R. M. Grounds, E. D. Bennett, “A randomized clinical trial of the effect of deliberate perioperative increase of oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 270, 2699–2707 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. H. Eichhorn, “Prevention of intraoperative anesthesia accidents and related severe injury through safety monitoring,” Anesthesiology 70, 572–577 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, H. B. Kram, K. Waxman, T. S. Lee, “Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients,” Chest 94, 1176–1186 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

I. L. Tyler, B. Tantisira, P. M. Winter, E. K. Montoyama, “Continuous monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry during transfer to the recovery room,” Anesth. Analg. 64, 1108–1112 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abe, T.

T. Kajiume, Y. Kawano, Y. Takaue, T. Abe, Y. Okamoto, A. Makimoto, T. Watanabe, J. Sato, A. Yokobayashi, Y. Kuroda, “Continuous monitoring of hematocrit values during apheresis for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell collection,” J. Hematother. 7, 493–497 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Angelin, G. D.

A. al Odeh, Z. A. Varga, G. D. Angelin, “Haematocrit measurements during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: comparison of three stat methods with a blood cell counter,” Perfusion 9, 127–134 (1994).
[PubMed]

Appel, P. L.

W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, H. B. Kram, K. Waxman, T. S. Lee, “Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients,” Chest 94, 1176–1186 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AuBuchon, J. P.

L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. First of two parts—blood transfusion,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 438–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. Second of two parts—blood conservation,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 525–533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, L. L.

R. R. Steuer, D. A. Bell, L. L. Barrett, “Optical measurement of hematocrit and other biological constituents in renal therapy,” Adv. Ren. Replace. Ther. 6, 217–224 (1999).
[PubMed]

Bell, D. A.

R. R. Steuer, D. A. Bell, L. L. Barrett, “Optical measurement of hematocrit and other biological constituents in renal therapy,” Adv. Ren. Replace. Ther. 6, 217–224 (1999).
[PubMed]

Bennett, D.

S. M. Yaskulka, J. Burnside, D. Bennett, V. Olshove, J. Langwell, “Accuracy of in-line venous saturation and hematocrit monitors in pediatric perfusion,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 132–136 (1995).

Bennett, E. D.

O. Boyd, R. M. Grounds, E. D. Bennett, “A randomized clinical trial of the effect of deliberate perioperative increase of oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 270, 2699–2707 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, O.

O. Boyd, R. M. Grounds, E. D. Bennett, “A randomized clinical trial of the effect of deliberate perioperative increase of oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 270, 2699–2707 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brecher, M. E.

L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. First of two parts—blood transfusion,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 438–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. Second of two parts—blood conservation,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 525–533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brecht, H. P.

H. P. Brecht, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, O. Hartrumpf, R. O. Esenaliev, “Noninvasive continuous optoacoustic monitor of total hemoglobin concentration,” in Proceedings of the Second Joint EMBS/BMES Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 2289–2290.

Brown, M. E.

M. E. Brown, J. D. Rawleigh, J. M. Gallagher, “In vitro evaluation of continuous mixed venous oxygen saturation and hematocrit monitors,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 26, 189–193 (1994).

Burnside, J.

S. M. Yaskulka, J. Burnside, D. Bennett, V. Olshove, J. Langwell, “Accuracy of in-line venous saturation and hematocrit monitors in pediatric perfusion,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 132–136 (1995).

Calahan, M. K.

M. K. Calahan, D. S. Prough, “Prevention of transfusions,” Probl. Anesth. 11, 458–470 (1999).

Chraemmer Jorgensen, B.

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, J. B.

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cronbaugh, R.

S. Niles, R. Cronbaugh, J. Engle, J. Ploessl, R. Sutton, “Evaluation of five in-line hematocrit monitors,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 24–28 (1995).

Deyo, D. J.

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722–4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of superior sagittal sinus saturation: in vivo validation in sheep,” Anesthesiology 95, A328 (2001).

D. J. Deyo, R. O. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S140 (2001).

D. J. Deyo, R. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S139 (2001).

H. P. Brecht, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, O. Hartrumpf, R. O. Esenaliev, “Noninvasive continuous optoacoustic monitor of total hemoglobin concentration,” in Proceedings of the Second Joint EMBS/BMES Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 2289–2290.

Dibb, W.

J. Wilson, I. Woods, J. Fawcett, R. Whall, W. Dibb, C. Morris, E. McManus, “Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised controlled trial of preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery,” Br. Med. J. 318, 1099–1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Djernes, M.

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichhorn, J. H.

J. H. Eichhorn, “Prevention of intraoperative anesthesia accidents and related severe injury through safety monitoring,” Anesthesiology 70, 572–577 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engle, J.

S. Niles, R. Cronbaugh, J. Engle, J. Ploessl, R. Sutton, “Evaluation of five in-line hematocrit monitors,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 24–28 (1995).

Esenaliev, R.

D. J. Deyo, R. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S139 (2001).

Esenaliev, R. O.

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722–4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of superior sagittal sinus saturation: in vivo validation in sheep,” Anesthesiology 95, A328 (2001).

D. J. Deyo, R. O. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S140 (2001).

D. S. Prough, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesthesiology 95, A555 (2001).

H. P. Brecht, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, O. Hartrumpf, R. O. Esenaliev, “Noninvasive continuous optoacoustic monitor of total hemoglobin concentration,” in Proceedings of the Second Joint EMBS/BMES Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 2289–2290.

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 274–272.

Espersen, K.

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fawcett, J.

J. Wilson, I. Woods, J. Fawcett, R. Whall, W. Dibb, C. Morris, E. McManus, “Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised controlled trial of preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery,” Br. Med. J. 318, 1099–1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, J. M.

M. E. Brown, J. D. Rawleigh, J. M. Gallagher, “In vitro evaluation of continuous mixed venous oxygen saturation and hematocrit monitors,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 26, 189–193 (1994).

Goodnough, L. T.

L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. Second of two parts—blood conservation,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 525–533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. First of two parts—blood transfusion,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 438–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gravenstein, J. S.

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grounds, R. M.

O. Boyd, R. M. Grounds, E. D. Bennett, “A randomized clinical trial of the effect of deliberate perioperative increase of oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 270, 2699–2707 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gusev, V. E.

V. E. Gusev, A. A. Karabutov, Laser Optoacoustics (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993).

Hartrumpf, O.

D. J. Deyo, R. O. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S140 (2001).

D. J. Deyo, R. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S139 (2001).

H. P. Brecht, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, O. Hartrumpf, R. O. Esenaliev, “Noninvasive continuous optoacoustic monitor of total hemoglobin concentration,” in Proceedings of the Second Joint EMBS/BMES Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 2289–2290.

Heslet, L.

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horibe, M.

M. Horibe, H. Kawanishi, M. Kuroda, M. Tajima, T. Mochizuki, “Continuous monitoring of blood volume change by measuring hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass,” Masui 45, 189–193 (1996).
[PubMed]

Jensen, P. F.

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johannessen, N. W.

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansen, S. H.

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajiume, T.

T. Kajiume, Y. Kawano, Y. Takaue, T. Abe, Y. Okamoto, A. Makimoto, T. Watanabe, J. Sato, A. Yokobayashi, Y. Kuroda, “Continuous monitoring of hematocrit values during apheresis for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell collection,” J. Hematother. 7, 493–497 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kanter, M. H.

L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. Second of two parts—blood conservation,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 525–533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. First of two parts—blood transfusion,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 438–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karabutov, A. A.

V. E. Gusev, A. A. Karabutov, Laser Optoacoustics (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993).

Kawanishi, H.

M. Horibe, H. Kawanishi, M. Kuroda, M. Tajima, T. Mochizuki, “Continuous monitoring of blood volume change by measuring hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass,” Masui 45, 189–193 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kawano, Y.

T. Kajiume, Y. Kawano, Y. Takaue, T. Abe, Y. Okamoto, A. Makimoto, T. Watanabe, J. Sato, A. Yokobayashi, Y. Kuroda, “Continuous monitoring of hematocrit values during apheresis for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell collection,” J. Hematother. 7, 493–497 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klasing, M. H.

D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of superior sagittal sinus saturation: in vivo validation in sheep,” Anesthesiology 95, A328 (2001).

D. S. Prough, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesthesiology 95, A555 (2001).

Kram, H. B.

W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, H. B. Kram, K. Waxman, T. S. Lee, “Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients,” Chest 94, 1176–1186 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, M.

M. Horibe, H. Kawanishi, M. Kuroda, M. Tajima, T. Mochizuki, “Continuous monitoring of blood volume change by measuring hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass,” Masui 45, 189–193 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kuroda, Y.

T. Kajiume, Y. Kawano, Y. Takaue, T. Abe, Y. Okamoto, A. Makimoto, T. Watanabe, J. Sato, A. Yokobayashi, Y. Kuroda, “Continuous monitoring of hematocrit values during apheresis for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell collection,” J. Hematother. 7, 493–497 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Langwell, J.

S. M. Yaskulka, J. Burnside, D. Bennett, V. Olshove, J. Langwell, “Accuracy of in-line venous saturation and hematocrit monitors in pediatric perfusion,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 132–136 (1995).

Larin, K. V.

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722–4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 274–272.

Larina, I. V.

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722–4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 274–272.

Lee, T. S.

W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, H. B. Kram, K. Waxman, T. S. Lee, “Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients,” Chest 94, 1176–1186 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makimoto, A.

T. Kajiume, Y. Kawano, Y. Takaue, T. Abe, Y. Okamoto, A. Makimoto, T. Watanabe, J. Sato, A. Yokobayashi, Y. Kuroda, “Continuous monitoring of hematocrit values during apheresis for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell collection,” J. Hematother. 7, 493–497 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McManus, E.

J. Wilson, I. Woods, J. Fawcett, R. Whall, W. Dibb, C. Morris, E. McManus, “Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised controlled trial of preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery,” Br. Med. J. 318, 1099–1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, T.

M. Horibe, H. Kawanishi, M. Kuroda, M. Tajima, T. Mochizuki, “Continuous monitoring of blood volume change by measuring hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass,” Masui 45, 189–193 (1996).
[PubMed]

Moller, J. T.

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montoyama, E. K.

I. L. Tyler, B. Tantisira, P. M. Winter, E. K. Montoyama, “Continuous monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry during transfer to the recovery room,” Anesth. Analg. 64, 1108–1112 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, C.

J. Wilson, I. Woods, J. Fawcett, R. Whall, W. Dibb, C. Morris, E. McManus, “Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised controlled trial of preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery,” Br. Med. J. 318, 1099–1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M.

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722–4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Deyo, R. O. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S140 (2001).

D. S. Prough, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesthesiology 95, A555 (2001).

D. J. Deyo, R. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S139 (2001).

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 274–272.

Niles, S.

S. Niles, R. Cronbaugh, J. Engle, J. Ploessl, R. Sutton, “Evaluation of five in-line hematocrit monitors,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 24–28 (1995).

Odeh, A. al

A. al Odeh, Z. A. Varga, G. D. Angelin, “Haematocrit measurements during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: comparison of three stat methods with a blood cell counter,” Perfusion 9, 127–134 (1994).
[PubMed]

Okamoto, Y.

T. Kajiume, Y. Kawano, Y. Takaue, T. Abe, Y. Okamoto, A. Makimoto, T. Watanabe, J. Sato, A. Yokobayashi, Y. Kuroda, “Continuous monitoring of hematocrit values during apheresis for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell collection,” J. Hematother. 7, 493–497 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olshove, V.

S. M. Yaskulka, J. Burnside, D. Bennett, V. Olshove, J. Langwell, “Accuracy of in-line venous saturation and hematocrit monitors in pediatric perfusion,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 132–136 (1995).

Pedersen, B. D.

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, T.

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrov, Y. E.

D. S. Prough, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesthesiology 95, A555 (2001).

D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of superior sagittal sinus saturation: in vivo validation in sheep,” Anesthesiology 95, A328 (2001).

Petrov, Y. Y.

H. P. Brecht, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, O. Hartrumpf, R. O. Esenaliev, “Noninvasive continuous optoacoustic monitor of total hemoglobin concentration,” in Proceedings of the Second Joint EMBS/BMES Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 2289–2290.

Ploessl, J.

S. Niles, R. Cronbaugh, J. Engle, J. Ploessl, R. Sutton, “Evaluation of five in-line hematocrit monitors,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 24–28 (1995).

Prough, D. S.

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722–4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of superior sagittal sinus saturation: in vivo validation in sheep,” Anesthesiology 95, A328 (2001).

D. J. Deyo, R. O. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S140 (2001).

D. J. Deyo, R. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S139 (2001).

D. S. Prough, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesthesiology 95, A555 (2001).

M. K. Calahan, D. S. Prough, “Prevention of transfusions,” Probl. Anesth. 11, 458–470 (1999).

H. P. Brecht, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, O. Hartrumpf, R. O. Esenaliev, “Noninvasive continuous optoacoustic monitor of total hemoglobin concentration,” in Proceedings of the Second Joint EMBS/BMES Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 2289–2290.

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 274–272.

Rasmussen, L. S.

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasmussen, N. H.

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravlo, O.

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rawleigh, J. D.

M. E. Brown, J. D. Rawleigh, J. M. Gallagher, “In vitro evaluation of continuous mixed venous oxygen saturation and hematocrit monitors,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 26, 189–193 (1994).

Sato, J.

T. Kajiume, Y. Kawano, Y. Takaue, T. Abe, Y. Okamoto, A. Makimoto, T. Watanabe, J. Sato, A. Yokobayashi, Y. Kuroda, “Continuous monitoring of hematocrit values during apheresis for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell collection,” J. Hematother. 7, 493–497 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shoemaker, W. C.

W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, H. B. Kram, K. Waxman, T. S. Lee, “Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients,” Chest 94, 1176–1186 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steuer, R. R.

R. R. Steuer, D. A. Bell, L. L. Barrett, “Optical measurement of hematocrit and other biological constituents in renal therapy,” Adv. Ren. Replace. Ther. 6, 217–224 (1999).
[PubMed]

Sutton, R.

S. Niles, R. Cronbaugh, J. Engle, J. Ploessl, R. Sutton, “Evaluation of five in-line hematocrit monitors,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 24–28 (1995).

Tajima, M.

M. Horibe, H. Kawanishi, M. Kuroda, M. Tajima, T. Mochizuki, “Continuous monitoring of blood volume change by measuring hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass,” Masui 45, 189–193 (1996).
[PubMed]

Takaue, Y.

T. Kajiume, Y. Kawano, Y. Takaue, T. Abe, Y. Okamoto, A. Makimoto, T. Watanabe, J. Sato, A. Yokobayashi, Y. Kuroda, “Continuous monitoring of hematocrit values during apheresis for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell collection,” J. Hematother. 7, 493–497 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tantisira, B.

I. L. Tyler, B. Tantisira, P. M. Winter, E. K. Montoyama, “Continuous monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry during transfer to the recovery room,” Anesth. Analg. 64, 1108–1112 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyler, I. L.

I. L. Tyler, B. Tantisira, P. M. Winter, E. K. Montoyama, “Continuous monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry during transfer to the recovery room,” Anesth. Analg. 64, 1108–1112 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Gemert, M. J. C.

A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Van Gemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Varga, Z. A.

A. al Odeh, Z. A. Varga, G. D. Angelin, “Haematocrit measurements during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: comparison of three stat methods with a blood cell counter,” Perfusion 9, 127–134 (1994).
[PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

T. Kajiume, Y. Kawano, Y. Takaue, T. Abe, Y. Okamoto, A. Makimoto, T. Watanabe, J. Sato, A. Yokobayashi, Y. Kuroda, “Continuous monitoring of hematocrit values during apheresis for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell collection,” J. Hematother. 7, 493–497 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waxman, K.

W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, H. B. Kram, K. Waxman, T. S. Lee, “Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients,” Chest 94, 1176–1186 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Van Gemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Whall, R.

J. Wilson, I. Woods, J. Fawcett, R. Whall, W. Dibb, C. Morris, E. McManus, “Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised controlled trial of preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery,” Br. Med. J. 318, 1099–1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiberg Jorgensen, F.

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, J.

J. Wilson, I. Woods, J. Fawcett, R. Whall, W. Dibb, C. Morris, E. McManus, “Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised controlled trial of preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery,” Br. Med. J. 318, 1099–1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Winter, P. M.

I. L. Tyler, B. Tantisira, P. M. Winter, E. K. Montoyama, “Continuous monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry during transfer to the recovery room,” Anesth. Analg. 64, 1108–1112 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woods, I.

J. Wilson, I. Woods, J. Fawcett, R. Whall, W. Dibb, C. Morris, E. McManus, “Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised controlled trial of preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery,” Br. Med. J. 318, 1099–1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yaskulka, S. M.

S. M. Yaskulka, J. Burnside, D. Bennett, V. Olshove, J. Langwell, “Accuracy of in-line venous saturation and hematocrit monitors in pediatric perfusion,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 132–136 (1995).

Yokobayashi, A.

T. Kajiume, Y. Kawano, Y. Takaue, T. Abe, Y. Okamoto, A. Makimoto, T. Watanabe, J. Sato, A. Yokobayashi, Y. Kuroda, “Continuous monitoring of hematocrit values during apheresis for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell collection,” J. Hematother. 7, 493–497 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Ren. Replace. Ther. (1)

R. R. Steuer, D. A. Bell, L. L. Barrett, “Optical measurement of hematocrit and other biological constituents in renal therapy,” Adv. Ren. Replace. Ther. 6, 217–224 (1999).
[PubMed]

Anesth. Analg. (3)

I. L. Tyler, B. Tantisira, P. M. Winter, E. K. Montoyama, “Continuous monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry during transfer to the recovery room,” Anesth. Analg. 64, 1108–1112 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Deyo, R. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S139 (2001).

D. J. Deyo, R. O. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 92, S140 (2001).

Anesthesiology (5)

D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of superior sagittal sinus saturation: in vivo validation in sheep,” Anesthesiology 95, A328 (2001).

D. S. Prough, Y. E. Petrov, M. H. Klasing, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration: in vitro validation,” Anesthesiology 95, A555 (2001).

J. H. Eichhorn, “Prevention of intraoperative anesthesia accidents and related severe injury through safety monitoring,” Anesthesiology 70, 572–577 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, T. Pedersen, L. S. Rasmussen, P. F. Jensen, B. D. Pedersen, O. Ravlo, N. H. Rasmussen, K. Espersen, N. W. Johannessen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, M. Djernes, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: I. Design, demography, pulse oximetry failure rate, and overall complication rate,” Anesthesiology 78, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Moller, N. W. Johannessen, K. Espersen, O. Ravlo, B. D. Pedersen, P. F. Jensen, N. H. Rasmussen, L. S. Rasmussen, T. Pedersen, J. B. Cooper, J. S. Gravenstein, B. Chraemmer Jorgensen, M. Djernes, F. Wiberg Jorgensen, L. Heslet, S. H. Johansen, “Randomized evaluation of pulse oximetry in 20,802 patients: II. Perioperative events and postoperative complications,” Anesthesiology 78, 445–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. Med. J. (1)

J. Wilson, I. Woods, J. Fawcett, R. Whall, W. Dibb, C. Morris, E. McManus, “Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised controlled trial of preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery,” Br. Med. J. 318, 1099–1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chest (1)

W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, H. B. Kram, K. Waxman, T. S. Lee, “Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients,” Chest 94, 1176–1186 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Med. Assoc. (1)

O. Boyd, R. M. Grounds, E. D. Bennett, “A randomized clinical trial of the effect of deliberate perioperative increase of oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 270, 2699–2707 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Extra-Corp. Technol. (3)

S. M. Yaskulka, J. Burnside, D. Bennett, V. Olshove, J. Langwell, “Accuracy of in-line venous saturation and hematocrit monitors in pediatric perfusion,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 132–136 (1995).

S. Niles, R. Cronbaugh, J. Engle, J. Ploessl, R. Sutton, “Evaluation of five in-line hematocrit monitors,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 27, 24–28 (1995).

M. E. Brown, J. D. Rawleigh, J. M. Gallagher, “In vitro evaluation of continuous mixed venous oxygen saturation and hematocrit monitors,” J. Extra-Corp. Technol. 26, 189–193 (1994).

J. Hematother. (1)

T. Kajiume, Y. Kawano, Y. Takaue, T. Abe, Y. Okamoto, A. Makimoto, T. Watanabe, J. Sato, A. Yokobayashi, Y. Kuroda, “Continuous monitoring of hematocrit values during apheresis for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell collection,” J. Hematother. 7, 493–497 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Masui (1)

M. Horibe, H. Kawanishi, M. Kuroda, M. Tajima, T. Mochizuki, “Continuous monitoring of blood volume change by measuring hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass,” Masui 45, 189–193 (1996).
[PubMed]

New Engl. J. Med. (2)

L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. First of two parts—blood transfusion,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 438–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Goodnough, M. E. Brecher, M. H. Kanter, J. P. AuBuchon, “Transfusion medicine. Second of two parts—blood conservation,” New Engl. J. Med. 340, 525–533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perfusion (1)

A. al Odeh, Z. A. Varga, G. D. Angelin, “Haematocrit measurements during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: comparison of three stat methods with a blood cell counter,” Perfusion 9, 127–134 (1994).
[PubMed]

Probl. Anesth. (1)

M. K. Calahan, D. S. Prough, “Prevention of transfusions,” Probl. Anesth. 11, 458–470 (1999).

Other (4)

H. P. Brecht, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, O. Hartrumpf, R. O. Esenaliev, “Noninvasive continuous optoacoustic monitor of total hemoglobin concentration,” in Proceedings of the Second Joint EMBS/BMES Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 2289–2290.

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 274–272.

V. E. Gusev, A. A. Karabutov, Laser Optoacoustics (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993).

A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Van Gemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optoacoustic signals induced in Naphthol Green solution irradiated through a 1-cm turbid gelatin slab during incremental dilution of the original solution with saline; (b) absorption coefficients of Naphthol Green solution calculated from the slopes of the optoacoustic signals during incremental dilution of the original solution; (c) absorption coefficients of Naphthol Green solution calculated from the slopes of the optoacoustic signals as a function of concentration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optoacoustic signals induced in blood during incremental dilution of the original sample with saline; (b) blood attenuation coefficients calculated from the slopes of the optoacoustic signals during incremental dilution of the original sample with saline; (c) blood attenuation coefficient calculated from the slopes of the optoacoustic signals at different [Hgb]s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optoacoustic signals induced in blood irradiated through a 1-cm turbid gelatin slab during incremental dilution of the original sample with saline; (b) blood attenuation coefficients calculated from the slopes of the optoacoustic signals during incremental dilution of the original sample with saline; (c) blood attenuation coefficients calculated from the slopes of the optoacoustic signals as a function of [Hgb].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optoacoustic signal recorded from the wrist area (over the radial artery) of a healthy volunteer.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pz=βcs2/CpμaFz=ΓμaFz=ΓμaF0 exp-μaz,
z=cst,
Pt=ΓμaF0 exp-μacst.
μeff=3μaμa+μs1-g1/2,
μablood=CoxyKoxy+CdeoxyKdeoxy,
μablood=CoxyKoxy.

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