Abstract

The development of near-resonant holographic interferometry techniques for use on flows seeded with atomic species is described. A theoretical model for the refractivity that is due to the seed species is outlined, and an approximation to this model is also described that is shown to be valid for practical regimes of interest and allows the number density of the species to be determined without knowledge of line-broadening effects. The details of quantitative number density experiments performed on an air-acetylene flame are given, and a comparison with an alternative absorption-based experiment is made.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Measures, “Spectral line interferometry: a proposed means of selectively measuring the change in the density of a specific atomic population,” Appl. Opt. 9, 737–741 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. E. Craig, M. Azzazy, “Resonant holographic detection of hydroxyl radicals in reacting flows,” AIAA J. 24, 74–81 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. F. Rubin, D. W. Swain, “Near resonant holography,” Opt. Lett. 16, 526–528 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. D. Trolinger, C. F. Hess, B. Yip, B. Battles, R. Hanson, “Hydroxyl density measurements with resonant holographic interferometry,” paper AIAA 92-0582, presented at the 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 6–9 January 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1992).
  5. R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, “Resonant holographic interferometry of laser-ablation plumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 888–890 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, J. S. Lash, G. L. Doll, “Resonant holographic interferometry measurements of laser ablation plumes in vacuum, gas, and plasma environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5457–5472 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Sirota, W. H. Christiansen, “Flow diagnostics by resonant holographic interferometry,” paper AIAA 90-1550, presented at 21st Fluid Dynamics, Plasma Dynamics and Laser Conference, Seattle, Wash., 18–20 June 1990 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1990).
  8. A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Gerber, B. Mischler, P. Radi, K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbulence Combust. 64, 183–196 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. I. Bishop, B. N. Littleton, T. J. McIntyre, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Near-resonant holographic interferometry of hypersonic flow,” Shock Waves 11, 23–29 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. J. McIntyre, A. I. Bishop, T. N. Eichmann, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Enhanced flow visualization with near-resonant holographic interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4445–4451 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. P. Thorne, U. Litzen, S. Johansson, Spectrophysics: Principles and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).
  12. C. Th. J. Alkemade, Metal Vapours in Flames (Pergamon, Oxford, 1982).
  13. W. C. Marlow, “Hakenmethode,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1715–1724 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. I. Bishop, “Spectrally selective holographic interferometry techniques for flow diagnostics,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 2001).

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

A. I. Bishop, B. N. Littleton, T. J. McIntyre, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Near-resonant holographic interferometry of hypersonic flow,” Shock Waves 11, 23–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Gerber, B. Mischler, P. Radi, K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbulence Combust. 64, 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, J. S. Lash, G. L. Doll, “Resonant holographic interferometry measurements of laser ablation plumes in vacuum, gas, and plasma environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5457–5472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, “Resonant holographic interferometry of laser-ablation plumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 888–890 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

J. E. Craig, M. Azzazy, “Resonant holographic detection of hydroxyl radicals in reacting flows,” AIAA J. 24, 74–81 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

1967 (1)

Alkemade, C. Th. J.

C. Th. J. Alkemade, Metal Vapours in Flames (Pergamon, Oxford, 1982).

Azzazy, M.

J. E. Craig, M. Azzazy, “Resonant holographic detection of hydroxyl radicals in reacting flows,” AIAA J. 24, 74–81 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Battles, B.

J. D. Trolinger, C. F. Hess, B. Yip, B. Battles, R. Hanson, “Hydroxyl density measurements with resonant holographic interferometry,” paper AIAA 92-0582, presented at the 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 6–9 January 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1992).

Beaud, P.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Gerber, B. Mischler, P. Radi, K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbulence Combust. 64, 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, A. I.

T. J. McIntyre, A. I. Bishop, T. N. Eichmann, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Enhanced flow visualization with near-resonant holographic interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4445–4451 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Bishop, B. N. Littleton, T. J. McIntyre, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Near-resonant holographic interferometry of hypersonic flow,” Shock Waves 11, 23–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Bishop, “Spectrally selective holographic interferometry techniques for flow diagnostics,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 2001).

Boulouchos, K.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Gerber, B. Mischler, P. Radi, K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbulence Combust. 64, 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ching, C. H.

R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, J. S. Lash, G. L. Doll, “Resonant holographic interferometry measurements of laser ablation plumes in vacuum, gas, and plasma environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5457–5472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, “Resonant holographic interferometry of laser-ablation plumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 888–890 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, W. H.

J. M. Sirota, W. H. Christiansen, “Flow diagnostics by resonant holographic interferometry,” paper AIAA 90-1550, presented at 21st Fluid Dynamics, Plasma Dynamics and Laser Conference, Seattle, Wash., 18–20 June 1990 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1990).

Craig, J. E.

J. E. Craig, M. Azzazy, “Resonant holographic detection of hydroxyl radicals in reacting flows,” AIAA J. 24, 74–81 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Doll, G. L.

R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, J. S. Lash, G. L. Doll, “Resonant holographic interferometry measurements of laser ablation plumes in vacuum, gas, and plasma environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5457–5472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eichmann, T. N.

Frey, H.-M.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Gerber, B. Mischler, P. Radi, K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbulence Combust. 64, 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, T.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Gerber, B. Mischler, P. Radi, K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbulence Combust. 64, 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gilgenbach, R. M.

R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, J. S. Lash, G. L. Doll, “Resonant holographic interferometry measurements of laser ablation plumes in vacuum, gas, and plasma environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5457–5472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, “Resonant holographic interferometry of laser-ablation plumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 888–890 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R.

J. D. Trolinger, C. F. Hess, B. Yip, B. Battles, R. Hanson, “Hydroxyl density measurements with resonant holographic interferometry,” paper AIAA 92-0582, presented at the 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 6–9 January 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1992).

Hess, C. F.

J. D. Trolinger, C. F. Hess, B. Yip, B. Battles, R. Hanson, “Hydroxyl density measurements with resonant holographic interferometry,” paper AIAA 92-0582, presented at the 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 6–9 January 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1992).

Johansson, S.

A. P. Thorne, U. Litzen, S. Johansson, Spectrophysics: Principles and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).

Lash, J. S.

R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, J. S. Lash, G. L. Doll, “Resonant holographic interferometry measurements of laser ablation plumes in vacuum, gas, and plasma environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5457–5472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. C.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Gerber, B. Mischler, P. Radi, K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbulence Combust. 64, 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lindley, R. A.

R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, J. S. Lash, G. L. Doll, “Resonant holographic interferometry measurements of laser ablation plumes in vacuum, gas, and plasma environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5457–5472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, “Resonant holographic interferometry of laser-ablation plumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 888–890 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Littleton, B. N.

A. I. Bishop, B. N. Littleton, T. J. McIntyre, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Near-resonant holographic interferometry of hypersonic flow,” Shock Waves 11, 23–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Litzen, U.

A. P. Thorne, U. Litzen, S. Johansson, Spectrophysics: Principles and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).

Marlow, W. C.

McIntyre, T. J.

T. J. McIntyre, A. I. Bishop, T. N. Eichmann, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Enhanced flow visualization with near-resonant holographic interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4445–4451 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Bishop, B. N. Littleton, T. J. McIntyre, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Near-resonant holographic interferometry of hypersonic flow,” Shock Waves 11, 23–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

Mischler, B.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Gerber, B. Mischler, P. Radi, K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbulence Combust. 64, 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Radi, P.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Gerber, B. Mischler, P. Radi, K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbulence Combust. 64, 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, L. F.

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

T. J. McIntyre, A. I. Bishop, T. N. Eichmann, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Enhanced flow visualization with near-resonant holographic interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4445–4451 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Bishop, B. N. Littleton, T. J. McIntyre, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Near-resonant holographic interferometry of hypersonic flow,” Shock Waves 11, 23–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sirota, J. M.

J. M. Sirota, W. H. Christiansen, “Flow diagnostics by resonant holographic interferometry,” paper AIAA 90-1550, presented at 21st Fluid Dynamics, Plasma Dynamics and Laser Conference, Seattle, Wash., 18–20 June 1990 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1990).

Swain, D. W.

Thorne, A. P.

A. P. Thorne, U. Litzen, S. Johansson, Spectrophysics: Principles and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).

Trolinger, J. D.

J. D. Trolinger, C. F. Hess, B. Yip, B. Battles, R. Hanson, “Hydroxyl density measurements with resonant holographic interferometry,” paper AIAA 92-0582, presented at the 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 6–9 January 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1992).

Tzannis, A.-P.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Gerber, B. Mischler, P. Radi, K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbulence Combust. 64, 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yip, B.

J. D. Trolinger, C. F. Hess, B. Yip, B. Battles, R. Hanson, “Hydroxyl density measurements with resonant holographic interferometry,” paper AIAA 92-0582, presented at the 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 6–9 January 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1992).

AIAA J. (1)

J. E. Craig, M. Azzazy, “Resonant holographic detection of hydroxyl radicals in reacting flows,” AIAA J. 24, 74–81 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, “Resonant holographic interferometry of laser-ablation plumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 888–890 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flow Turbulence Combust. (1)

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Gerber, B. Mischler, P. Radi, K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbulence Combust. 64, 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. A. Lindley, R. M. Gilgenbach, C. H. Ching, J. S. Lash, G. L. Doll, “Resonant holographic interferometry measurements of laser ablation plumes in vacuum, gas, and plasma environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5457–5472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Shock Waves (1)

A. I. Bishop, B. N. Littleton, T. J. McIntyre, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Near-resonant holographic interferometry of hypersonic flow,” Shock Waves 11, 23–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. M. Sirota, W. H. Christiansen, “Flow diagnostics by resonant holographic interferometry,” paper AIAA 90-1550, presented at 21st Fluid Dynamics, Plasma Dynamics and Laser Conference, Seattle, Wash., 18–20 June 1990 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1990).

A. P. Thorne, U. Litzen, S. Johansson, Spectrophysics: Principles and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).

C. Th. J. Alkemade, Metal Vapours in Flames (Pergamon, Oxford, 1982).

A. I. Bishop, “Spectrally selective holographic interferometry techniques for flow diagnostics,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 2001).

J. D. Trolinger, C. F. Hess, B. Yip, B. Battles, R. Hanson, “Hydroxyl density measurements with resonant holographic interferometry,” paper AIAA 92-0582, presented at the 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 6–9 January 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1992).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated refractivity and absorption coefficient per sodium atom near an absorption line: solid curves, full Voigt calculation; dashed curves, Sellmeier approximation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the apparatus used to record NRHI interferograms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

NRHI interferograms recorded at different detunings, demonstrating the large absorption and small refractivity enhancement at line center: (a) line center, (b) 15-pm detuning.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

NRHI interferograms for various sodium concentrations: (a) 25 ppm, 15-pm detuning; (b) 50 ppm, 20-pm detuning; (c) 100 ppm, 35-pm detuning; (d) 500 ppm, 45-pm detuning; (e) 1000 ppm, 105-pm detuning.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured number density (in inverse cubic meters) maps for various sodium concentrations: (a) NRHI, 25 ppm; (b) NRHI, 50 ppm; (c) NRHI, 100 ppm; (d) NRHI, 500 ppm; (e) NRHI, 1000 ppm; (f) absorption, 5 ppm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of peak number density versus seed solution concentration for sodium seeded into an air-acetylene flame.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Peak Sodium Number Densities from the NRHI Measurements

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n=n+ik,
nν-1=e2Nf16π20meν0ν0-νν0-ν2+γ/4π2.
kν=e2Nf4π0mecγ/4πν0-ν2+γ/4π2.
Δν=Nv¯22πCnhv¯2/n-1,
v¯=2kT/m,
Δν=2ν0c2RT ln 2m1/27.16×10-7T/mν0,
Δnνnν-1=KNfν0βπ-+y-uy-u2+α2exp-y2dy.
kν=4KNfαπβc-+1y-u2+α2exp-y2dy,
K=e216π20me, y=vν0cβ, α=γ4πβ,β=ν0c2kTm1/2, u=ν-ν0β.
Δn=e2Nf16π20meν01ν0-ν.
Δn=e2Nf16π2c20meλ01/λ0-1/λ.
ϕ=2πnl/λ.
N=8π0c2mee2fl1λ0-1λΔϕ.
Δϕ=ϕres-ϕdet,
ϕλ=ϕsyst+ϕiλ.
ϕres=ϕsyst+ϕflameres,λ1 + ϕflameres,λ2,
Δϕ=ϕflameres,λ1+ϕflameres,λ2-ϕflamedet,λ1-ϕflamedet,λ2.
N=8π0c2mee2lfλ1λ12Δλdet,resΔλres,λ1Δλdet,λ1+fλ2λ22Δλdet,resΔλres,λ2Δλdet,λ2-1Δϕ,
line kνdν=Nf e24π0mec.
kν=1llnI0Iν.

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