Abstract

We report on the development and performance of a gas sensor based on a quantum cascade laser operating at a wavelength of ∼10 μm to measure ethylene (C2H4) concentrations by use of a rotational component of the fundamental ν 7 band. The laser is thermoelectrically cooled and operates in a pulsed mode. The influence of pulse-to-pulse fluctuations is minimized by use of a reference beam and a single detector with time discriminating electronics. Gas absorption is recorded in a 100-m optical path-length astigmatic Herriott cell. With a 10-kHz pulse repetition rate and an 80-s total acquisition time, a noise equivalent sensitivity of 30 parts per billion has been demonstrated. The sensor has been applied to monitor C2H4 in vehicle exhaust as well as in air collected in a high-traffic urban tunnel.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. G. McGaughey, N. Desai, D. Allen, R. Seila, W. Lonneman, M. Fraser, R. Harley, J. Ivy, J. Price, “Analysis of motor vehicle emission samples collected in a Houston tunnel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000,” prepared for the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, contract 9880077600-19 (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 2002).

2003

M. G. da Silva, E. O. Santos, M. S. Sthel, S. L. Cardoso, A. Cavalli, A. R. Monteiro, J. G. de Oliveira, M. G. Pereira, H. Vargas, “Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 703–705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Quantum cascade laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180–5190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, E. Courtois, P. A. Robert, “Ethylene spectroscopy using a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta A 58, 2533–2539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Giubileo, L. De Dominicis, R. Fantoni, M. Francucci, A. Congiu Castellano, M. G. Furfaro, S. Gaudenzi, A. Antonini, C. C. Lombardi, “Photoacoustic detection of ethylene traces in biogenic gases,” Laser Phys. 12, 653–655 (2002).

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

V. Altuzar, M. Pacheco, S. A. Tomás, J. L. Arriaga, O. Zelaya-Angel, F. Sánchez-Sinencio, “Analysis of ethylene concentration in the Mexico City atmosphere by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Anal. Sci. 17, 541–54 (2001).

2000

1999

F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. te Lintel Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as a biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1761–1762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mürtz, B. Frech, W. Urban, “High resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-μm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 243–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. A. E. Martis, S. Buscher, F. Kühnemann, W. Urban, “Simultaneous ethane and ethylene detection using a CO-overtone laser photoacoustic spectrometer: a new tool for stress/damage studies in plant physiology, Instrum. Sci. Technol. 26, 177–187 (1998).

1996

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, J. M. Harren, “Geometrical optimization of a longitudinal resonant photoacoustic cell for sensitive and fast trace gas detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914–2923 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Eckhoff, R. S. Putnam, S. Wang, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “A continuously tunable long-wavelength cw IR source for high-resolution spectroscopy and trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 437–441 (1996).

1995

1992

J. F. Brannon, P. Varanasi, “Tunable diode laser measurements on the 951.7393 cm-1 line of 12C2H4 at planetary atmospheric temperatures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 237–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. H. Seinfeld, “Urban air pollution: state of the science,” Science 243, 745–752 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abeles, F. B.

F. B. Abeles, P. W. Morgan, M. E. Salveit, Ethylene in Plant Biology, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992).

Allen, D.

G. McGaughey, N. Desai, D. Allen, R. Seila, W. Lonneman, M. Fraser, R. Harley, J. Ivy, J. Price, “Analysis of motor vehicle emission samples collected in a Houston tunnel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000,” prepared for the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, contract 9880077600-19 (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 2002).

Altuzar, V.

V. Altuzar, M. Pacheco, S. A. Tomás, J. L. Arriaga, O. Zelaya-Angel, F. Sánchez-Sinencio, “Analysis of ethylene concentration in the Mexico City atmosphere by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Anal. Sci. 17, 541–54 (2001).

Antonini, A.

G. Giubileo, L. De Dominicis, R. Fantoni, M. Francucci, A. Congiu Castellano, M. G. Furfaro, S. Gaudenzi, A. Antonini, C. C. Lombardi, “Photoacoustic detection of ethylene traces in biogenic gases,” Laser Phys. 12, 653–655 (2002).

Arriaga, J. L.

V. Altuzar, M. Pacheco, S. A. Tomás, J. L. Arriaga, O. Zelaya-Angel, F. Sánchez-Sinencio, “Analysis of ethylene concentration in the Mexico City atmosphere by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Anal. Sci. 17, 541–54 (2001).

Baillargeon, J. N.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berkelmans, R.

F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. te Lintel Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as a biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1761–1762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bijnen, F. G. C.

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, J. M. Harren, “Geometrical optimization of a longitudinal resonant photoacoustic cell for sensitive and fast trace gas detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914–2923 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brannon, J. F.

J. F. Brannon, P. Varanasi, “Tunable diode laser measurements on the 951.7393 cm-1 line of 12C2H4 at planetary atmospheric temperatures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 237–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buscher, S.

A. A. E. Martis, S. Buscher, F. Kühnemann, W. Urban, “Simultaneous ethane and ethylene detection using a CO-overtone laser photoacoustic spectrometer: a new tool for stress/damage studies in plant physiology, Instrum. Sci. Technol. 26, 177–187 (1998).

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Cardoso, S. L.

M. G. da Silva, E. O. Santos, M. S. Sthel, S. L. Cardoso, A. Cavalli, A. R. Monteiro, J. G. de Oliveira, M. G. Pereira, H. Vargas, “Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 703–705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cavalli, A.

M. G. da Silva, E. O. Santos, M. S. Sthel, S. L. Cardoso, A. Cavalli, A. R. Monteiro, J. G. de Oliveira, M. G. Pereira, H. Vargas, “Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 703–705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Congiu Castellano, A.

G. Giubileo, L. De Dominicis, R. Fantoni, M. Francucci, A. Congiu Castellano, M. G. Furfaro, S. Gaudenzi, A. Antonini, C. C. Lombardi, “Photoacoustic detection of ethylene traces in biogenic gases,” Laser Phys. 12, 653–655 (2002).

Courtois, E.

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, E. Courtois, P. A. Robert, “Ethylene spectroscopy using a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta A 58, 2533–2539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Eckhoff, R. S. Putnam, S. Wang, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “A continuously tunable long-wavelength cw IR source for high-resolution spectroscopy and trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 437–441 (1996).

da Silva, M. G.

M. G. da Silva, E. O. Santos, M. S. Sthel, S. L. Cardoso, A. Cavalli, A. R. Monteiro, J. G. de Oliveira, M. G. Pereira, H. Vargas, “Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 703–705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Dominicis, L.

G. Giubileo, L. De Dominicis, R. Fantoni, M. Francucci, A. Congiu Castellano, M. G. Furfaro, S. Gaudenzi, A. Antonini, C. C. Lombardi, “Photoacoustic detection of ethylene traces in biogenic gases,” Laser Phys. 12, 653–655 (2002).

de Oliveira, J. G.

M. G. da Silva, E. O. Santos, M. S. Sthel, S. L. Cardoso, A. Cavalli, A. R. Monteiro, J. G. de Oliveira, M. G. Pereira, H. Vargas, “Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 703–705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dekhuijzen, R.

F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. te Lintel Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as a biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1761–1762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Desai, N.

G. McGaughey, N. Desai, D. Allen, R. Seila, W. Lonneman, M. Fraser, R. Harley, J. Ivy, J. Price, “Analysis of motor vehicle emission samples collected in a Houston tunnel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000,” prepared for the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, contract 9880077600-19 (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 2002).

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eckhoff, W. C.

W. C. Eckhoff, R. S. Putnam, S. Wang, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “A continuously tunable long-wavelength cw IR source for high-resolution spectroscopy and trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 437–441 (1996).

Fantoni, R.

G. Giubileo, L. De Dominicis, R. Fantoni, M. Francucci, A. Congiu Castellano, M. G. Furfaro, S. Gaudenzi, A. Antonini, C. C. Lombardi, “Photoacoustic detection of ethylene traces in biogenic gases,” Laser Phys. 12, 653–655 (2002).

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

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G. McGaughey, N. Desai, D. Allen, R. Seila, W. Lonneman, M. Fraser, R. Harley, J. Ivy, J. Price, “Analysis of motor vehicle emission samples collected in a Houston tunnel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000,” prepared for the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, contract 9880077600-19 (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 2002).

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M. Mürtz, B. Frech, W. Urban, “High resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-μm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 243–249 (1999).
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G. Giubileo, L. De Dominicis, R. Fantoni, M. Francucci, A. Congiu Castellano, M. G. Furfaro, S. Gaudenzi, A. Antonini, C. C. Lombardi, “Photoacoustic detection of ethylene traces in biogenic gases,” Laser Phys. 12, 653–655 (2002).

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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G. Giubileo, L. De Dominicis, R. Fantoni, M. Francucci, A. Congiu Castellano, M. G. Furfaro, S. Gaudenzi, A. Antonini, C. C. Lombardi, “Photoacoustic detection of ethylene traces in biogenic gases,” Laser Phys. 12, 653–655 (2002).

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G. Giubileo, L. De Dominicis, R. Fantoni, M. Francucci, A. Congiu Castellano, M. G. Furfaro, S. Gaudenzi, A. Antonini, C. C. Lombardi, “Photoacoustic detection of ethylene traces in biogenic gases,” Laser Phys. 12, 653–655 (2002).

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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G. McGaughey, N. Desai, D. Allen, R. Seila, W. Lonneman, M. Fraser, R. Harley, J. Ivy, J. Price, “Analysis of motor vehicle emission samples collected in a Houston tunnel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000,” prepared for the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, contract 9880077600-19 (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 2002).

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F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. te Lintel Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as a biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1761–1762 (1999).
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F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, J. M. Harren, “Geometrical optimization of a longitudinal resonant photoacoustic cell for sensitive and fast trace gas detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914–2923 (1996).
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F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. te Lintel Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as a biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1761–1762 (1999).
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Ivy, J.

G. McGaughey, N. Desai, D. Allen, R. Seila, W. Lonneman, M. Fraser, R. Harley, J. Ivy, J. Price, “Analysis of motor vehicle emission samples collected in a Houston tunnel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000,” prepared for the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, contract 9880077600-19 (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 2002).

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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A. A. E. Martis, S. Buscher, F. Kühnemann, W. Urban, “Simultaneous ethane and ethylene detection using a CO-overtone laser photoacoustic spectrometer: a new tool for stress/damage studies in plant physiology, Instrum. Sci. Technol. 26, 177–187 (1998).

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F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. te Lintel Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as a biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1761–1762 (1999).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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G. Giubileo, L. De Dominicis, R. Fantoni, M. Francucci, A. Congiu Castellano, M. G. Furfaro, S. Gaudenzi, A. Antonini, C. C. Lombardi, “Photoacoustic detection of ethylene traces in biogenic gases,” Laser Phys. 12, 653–655 (2002).

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G. McGaughey, N. Desai, D. Allen, R. Seila, W. Lonneman, M. Fraser, R. Harley, J. Ivy, J. Price, “Analysis of motor vehicle emission samples collected in a Houston tunnel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000,” prepared for the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, contract 9880077600-19 (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 2002).

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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G. McGaughey, N. Desai, D. Allen, R. Seila, W. Lonneman, M. Fraser, R. Harley, J. Ivy, J. Price, “Analysis of motor vehicle emission samples collected in a Houston tunnel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000,” prepared for the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, contract 9880077600-19 (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 2002).

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D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
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M. Mürtz, B. Frech, W. Urban, “High resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-μm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 243–249 (1999).
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Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Quantum cascade laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180–5190 (2003).
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D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. te Lintel Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as a biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1761–1762 (1999).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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F. B. Abeles, P. W. Morgan, M. E. Salveit, Ethylene in Plant Biology, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992).

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V. Altuzar, M. Pacheco, S. A. Tomás, J. L. Arriaga, O. Zelaya-Angel, F. Sánchez-Sinencio, “Analysis of ethylene concentration in the Mexico City atmosphere by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Anal. Sci. 17, 541–54 (2001).

Santos, E. O.

M. G. da Silva, E. O. Santos, M. S. Sthel, S. L. Cardoso, A. Cavalli, A. R. Monteiro, J. G. de Oliveira, M. G. Pereira, H. Vargas, “Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 703–705 (2003).
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Scheepers, P.

F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. te Lintel Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as a biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1761–1762 (1999).
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S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, E. Courtois, P. A. Robert, “Ethylene spectroscopy using a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta A 58, 2533–2539 (2002).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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G. McGaughey, N. Desai, D. Allen, R. Seila, W. Lonneman, M. Fraser, R. Harley, J. Ivy, J. Price, “Analysis of motor vehicle emission samples collected in a Houston tunnel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000,” prepared for the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, contract 9880077600-19 (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 2002).

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D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
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Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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M. G. da Silva, E. O. Santos, M. S. Sthel, S. L. Cardoso, A. Cavalli, A. R. Monteiro, J. G. de Oliveira, M. G. Pereira, H. Vargas, “Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 703–705 (2003).
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Anal. Chem.

Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Quantum cascade laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180–5190 (2003).
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V. Altuzar, M. Pacheco, S. A. Tomás, J. L. Arriaga, O. Zelaya-Angel, F. Sánchez-Sinencio, “Analysis of ethylene concentration in the Mexico City atmosphere by photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Anal. Sci. 17, 541–54 (2001).

Appl. Opt.

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M. Mürtz, B. Frech, W. Urban, “High resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-μm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 243–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. J. M. Harren, R. Berkelmans, K. Kuiper, S. te Lintel Hekkert, P. Scheepers, R. Dekhuijzen, P. Hollander, D. H. Parker, “On-line laser photoacoustic detection of ethene in exhaled air as a biomarker of ultraviolet radiation damage of the human skin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1761–1762 (1999).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stick diagram of the ν 7 absorption band of ethylene. Inset, tuning range of the QCL used in this study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency calibration curves. (a) Etalon fringe signal obtained from two wedged ZnSe windows separated by 19.6 cm and (b) the resultant calibration when the solid curve is a third-order polynomial fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

QCL-based sensor architecture: BS’s, beam splitters; M, mirror; L, lens; OAPM, off-axis parabolic mirror; NI DACQ Card, National Instruments data acquisition card.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top, oscilloscope trace of the QCL drive current pulse. Bottom, the observed time discrimination of the reference and signal beams.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized signals for 1- and 0-ppm C2H4 recorded without baseline correction. The slight slope in the baseline or nonlinearity between the normalized reference and sample beams is due to the gated integrators and the detector because the reference and sample signals possess different amplitudes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Signal fluctuations in a frequency scan. An empty gas cell background spectrum was recorded and baseline corrected.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectrum of 100 ppb of ethylene in a nitrogen mixture at a 50-Torr total pressure. Five hundred spectra were averaged during a total acquisition time of 80s.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sample absorption versus the calibration mixture absorption. The slope of the best fitting linear function yields the ethylene sample concentration, i.e., 670 ppb.

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