Abstract

At wavelengths slightly shorter than the normal resonance for a fiber Bragg grating, radiation can be coupled into cladding and radiation modes that become visible external to the fiber. We describe experimental measurements on a fiber Bragg grating under broadband illumination, showing the axial variation and angular distribution of side-scattered radiation. The scattering signal can locate the grating position subject to an offset in the backscatter direction. The spectrum of scattered radiation is consistent with a published theoretical model of mode coupling by a grating in a finite cladding fiber.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

Y. Koyamada, “Analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in fiber Bragg gratings with finite cladding radius,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1220–1225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kim, K. Oh, T. S. Park, C. S. Kim, K. Jeong, “Suppression of cladding-mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings by independent control of refractive index and photosensitive profiles in a single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1504–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

K. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. S. Seo, U. C. Paek, M. S. Kim, B. H. Choi, “Suppression of cladding mode coupling in Bragg grating using Ge2O-B2O3 codoped photosensitive cladding optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 423–424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 119–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long- period fiber grating filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1760–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, D. C. Psaila, Z. Brodzeli, A. Higley, M. Janos, “Characterization of apodized fiber Bragg gratings for rejection filter applications,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9378–9382 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Rheims, J. Kosery, T. Wriedtzk, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1989 (1)

Bellemore, D. G.

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, A. D. Kersey, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, R. L. Idriss, M. B. Kodindouma, “High-sensor-count Bragg grating instrumentation system for large-scale structural monitoring applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 303–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brodzeli, Z.

Canning, J.

Choi, B. H.

K. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. S. Seo, U. C. Paek, M. S. Kim, B. H. Choi, “Suppression of cladding mode coupling in Bragg grating using Ge2O-B2O3 codoped photosensitive cladding optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 423–424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, A. D. Kersey, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, R. L. Idriss, M. B. Kodindouma, “High-sensor-count Bragg grating instrumentation system for large-scale structural monitoring applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 303–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

El-Diasty, F.

Erdogan, T.

Ferdinand, P.

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 119–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, A. D. Kersey, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, R. L. Idriss, M. B. Kodindouma, “High-sensor-count Bragg grating instrumentation system for large-scale structural monitoring applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 303–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

Heaney, A.

Higley, A.

Idriss, R. L.

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, A. D. Kersey, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, R. L. Idriss, M. B. Kodindouma, “High-sensor-count Bragg grating instrumentation system for large-scale structural monitoring applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 303–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Janos, M.

Jeong, K.

J. M. Kim, K. Oh, T. S. Park, C. S. Kim, K. Jeong, “Suppression of cladding-mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings by independent control of refractive index and photosensitive profiles in a single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1504–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, A. D. Kersey, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, R. L. Idriss, M. B. Kodindouma, “High-sensor-count Bragg grating instrumentation system for large-scale structural monitoring applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 303–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, “Multiplexing techniques for fiber-optic sensors,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, eds. (Artech House, Boston, 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 377–386.

Kim, C. S.

J. M. Kim, K. Oh, T. S. Park, C. S. Kim, K. Jeong, “Suppression of cladding-mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings by independent control of refractive index and photosensitive profiles in a single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1504–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. M.

J. M. Kim, K. Oh, T. S. Park, C. S. Kim, K. Jeong, “Suppression of cladding-mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings by independent control of refractive index and photosensitive profiles in a single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1504–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. S. Seo, U. C. Paek, M. S. Kim, B. H. Choi, “Suppression of cladding mode coupling in Bragg grating using Ge2O-B2O3 codoped photosensitive cladding optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 423–424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. S.

K. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. S. Seo, U. C. Paek, M. S. Kim, B. H. Choi, “Suppression of cladding mode coupling in Bragg grating using Ge2O-B2O3 codoped photosensitive cladding optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 423–424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kodindouma, M. B.

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, A. D. Kersey, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, R. L. Idriss, M. B. Kodindouma, “High-sensor-count Bragg grating instrumentation system for large-scale structural monitoring applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 303–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kosery, J.

J. Rheims, J. Kosery, T. Wriedtzk, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koyamada, Y.

Krug, P. A.

Magne, S.

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 119–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, C.

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 119–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Melz, G.

Morey, W. W.

Oh, K.

J. M. Kim, K. Oh, T. S. Park, C. S. Kim, K. Jeong, “Suppression of cladding-mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings by independent control of refractive index and photosensitive profiles in a single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1504–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. S. Seo, U. C. Paek, M. S. Kim, B. H. Choi, “Suppression of cladding mode coupling in Bragg grating using Ge2O-B2O3 codoped photosensitive cladding optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 423–424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

K. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. S. Seo, U. C. Paek, M. S. Kim, B. H. Choi, “Suppression of cladding mode coupling in Bragg grating using Ge2O-B2O3 codoped photosensitive cladding optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 423–424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, T. S.

J. M. Kim, K. Oh, T. S. Park, C. S. Kim, K. Jeong, “Suppression of cladding-mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings by independent control of refractive index and photosensitive profiles in a single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1504–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Psaila, D. C.

Putnam, M. A.

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, A. D. Kersey, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, R. L. Idriss, M. B. Kodindouma, “High-sensor-count Bragg grating instrumentation system for large-scale structural monitoring applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 303–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rheims, J.

J. Rheims, J. Kosery, T. Wriedtzk, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roussel, N.

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 119–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sceats, M. G.

Seo, H. S.

K. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. S. Seo, U. C. Paek, M. S. Kim, B. H. Choi, “Suppression of cladding mode coupling in Bragg grating using Ge2O-B2O3 codoped photosensitive cladding optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 423–424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stolte, R.

Ulrich, R.

Wriedtzk, T.

J. Rheims, J. Kosery, T. Wriedtzk, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. S. Seo, U. C. Paek, M. S. Kim, B. H. Choi, “Suppression of cladding mode coupling in Bragg grating using Ge2O-B2O3 codoped photosensitive cladding optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 35, 423–424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. M. Kim, K. Oh, T. S. Park, C. S. Kim, K. Jeong, “Suppression of cladding-mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings by independent control of refractive index and photosensitive profiles in a single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1504–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Rheims, J. Kosery, T. Wriedtzk, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601–605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 119–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

A. D. Kersey, “Multiplexing techniques for fiber-optic sensors,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, eds. (Artech House, Boston, 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 377–386.

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, A. D. Kersey, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, R. L. Idriss, M. B. Kodindouma, “High-sensor-count Bragg grating instrumentation system for large-scale structural monitoring applications,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 303–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement of microscope and detector for side-scattering measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Collection of side-scattered radiation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectrum of the Bragg grating used in the scattering experiments. The arrow at 1548.2 nm indicates the wavelength used for the side-scatter scan shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Profiles of scattered radiation at 1548.2 nm, a peak wavelength in the loss spectrum (indicated in Fig. 3), from a tunable laser source, for both directions of illumination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Side-scattered intensity profile measured at 90° to the fiber for illumination incident from either end of the grating. Line fits to profile slopes are used to measure the location and length.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular distribution of broadband radiation scattered by the grating, over the range of 40° to 130°. Axial profiles at the measured extremes of 42° (backscatter) and 138° ≡ -48° (forward scatter) are also shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectrum of scattered radiation at 90° to the fiber axis, obtained with a tunable laser source.

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