Abstract

A generalized confocal imaging system, which is composed of two confocal lenses and one field lens, is proposed for free-space optical interconnections. Unlike in a conventional 4-f system, both the object distance and the image distance can be almost arbitrarily chosen. This advantage is especially important for practical setups in which the object distance and the image distance cannot be designed to be the same. As a concrete example, we have designed and experimentally tested a planar-integrated micro-optical imaging system. The result is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Similarly to the conventional 4-f imaging system and the light-pipe imaging system, the system proposed here can also be used as one important part of a hybrid imaging setup.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Jahns, B. Acklin, “Integrated planar optical imaging system with high interconnection density,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1594–1596 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Jahns, A. Huang, “Planar integration of free-space optical components,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1602–1605 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1623–1631 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Hodgson, H. Weber, Optical Resonators (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), Chaps. 1 and 2.
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), pp. 401–413.
  7. S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Integrated micro-optical imaging system with a high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4729–4735 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K.-H. Brenner, W. Eckert, C. Passon, “Demonstration of an optical pipeline adder and design concepts for its microintegration,” Opt. Laser Technol. 26, 229–237 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Streibl, R. Völkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, Microoptics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, Weinheim, Germany, 2003), Subsec. 6.3.6 and Sec. 2.1.
  11. M. Testorf, J. Jahns, “Paraxial theory of planar integrated systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1569–1575 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Testorf, J. Jahns, “Imaging properties of planar-integrated micro-optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1175–1183 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

1994 (2)

J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1623–1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Brenner, W. Eckert, C. Passon, “Demonstration of an optical pipeline adder and design concepts for its microintegration,” Opt. Laser Technol. 26, 229–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

N. Streibl, R. Völkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, B. Acklin, “Integrated planar optical imaging system with high interconnection density,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1594–1596 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Acklin, B.

Brenner, K.-H.

K.-H. Brenner, W. Eckert, C. Passon, “Demonstration of an optical pipeline adder and design concepts for its microintegration,” Opt. Laser Technol. 26, 229–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eckert, W.

K.-H. Brenner, W. Eckert, C. Passon, “Demonstration of an optical pipeline adder and design concepts for its microintegration,” Opt. Laser Technol. 26, 229–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), pp. 401–413.

Habel, P.

N. Streibl, R. Völkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hodgson, N.

N. Hodgson, H. Weber, Optical Resonators (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), Chaps. 1 and 2.
[CrossRef]

Huang, A.

Jahns, J.

Lindlein, N.

N. Streibl, R. Völkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Passon, C.

K.-H. Brenner, W. Eckert, C. Passon, “Demonstration of an optical pipeline adder and design concepts for its microintegration,” Opt. Laser Technol. 26, 229–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schwider, J.

N. Streibl, R. Völkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sinzinger, S.

Streibl, N.

N. Streibl, R. Völkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Testorf, M.

Völkel, R.

N. Streibl, R. Völkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

N. Hodgson, H. Weber, Optical Resonators (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), Chaps. 1 and 2.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Streibl, R. Völkel, J. Schwider, P. Habel, N. Lindlein, “Parallel optoelectronic interconnections with high packing density through a light-guiding plate using grating couplers and field lenses,” Opt. Commun. 99, 167–171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

K.-H. Brenner, W. Eckert, C. Passon, “Demonstration of an optical pipeline adder and design concepts for its microintegration,” Opt. Laser Technol. 26, 229–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1623–1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

N. Hodgson, H. Weber, Optical Resonators (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), Chaps. 1 and 2.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), pp. 401–413.

S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, Microoptics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, Weinheim, Germany, 2003), Subsec. 6.3.6 and Sec. 2.1.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the conventional 4-f system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the generalized confocal imaging system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic view of a planar-integrated micro-optical imaging system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photo of the central part of an f lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental arrangement for testing the planar-integrated micro-optical imaging system. We denote by LD, OS, Obj, and BS the laser diode, the optical substrate, the micro-objective, and the beam splitter, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photos of the input object and the corresponding output image.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ABCD,
M=1d20110-f-111f0110-F-111f01×10-f-111d101=-12f-d1-d2-f2F0-1.
d1+d2+f2/F=2f.
F=f2/2f-d1-d2.

Metrics