Abstract

We describe the design and analysis of an adaptive free-space optical interconnect between two circuit boards in a standard electronic backplane. An array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers is used as the transmitter, and this communicates with a detector array on the receiver circuit board. Routing is achieved with a holographic crossbar that has a ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulator to display binary phase computer-generated holograms. A detailed analysis of a 48-channel interconnect designed to operate at 1 (Gbytes/s)/channel indicates that such a switch will operate successfully given typical components and card misalignments.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high-capacity ATM switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, S. Hino, “Board-to-board free-space optical interconnections passing through boards for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2985–2995 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. D. C. O’Brien, D. J. McKnight, “A compact holographically routed optical crossbar using a ferroelectric liquid-crystal over silicon spatial light modulator,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 139 of the Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 187–190.
  12. W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.
  13. R. P. Webb, A. J. Waddle, K. J. Symington, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. F. Snowdon, “Optoelectronic neural-network scheduler for packet switches,” Appl. Opt. 39, 788–795 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. J. Waddie, Y. R. Randle, K. J. Symington, J. F. Snowdon, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic neural network scheduler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 557–564 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. C. O’Brien, R. J. Mears, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, “Dynamic holographic interconnects that use ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2795–2803 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. S. T. Warr, R. J. Mears, “Polarisation insensitive diffractive FLC systems,” Ferroelectrics 181(1–4), 53–59 (1996).
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  21. K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, B. Robertson, “Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205–215 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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2003 (1)

A. J. Waddie, Y. R. Randle, K. J. Symington, J. F. Snowdon, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic neural network scheduler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 557–564 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (2)

1998 (2)

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. Coker, A. B. Davey, T. C. B. Yu, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator designed for high yield and low cost fabrication: the fast bitplane SLM,” Ferroelectrics 213(1–4), 219–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, S. Hino, “Board-to-board free-space optical interconnections passing through boards for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2985–2995 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high-capacity ATM switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. T. Warr, R. J. Mears, “Polarisation insensitive diffractive FLC systems,” Ferroelectrics 181(1–4), 53–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O’Brien, R. J. Mears, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, “Dynamic holographic interconnects that use ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2795–2803 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. C. O’Brien, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, “A holographically routed optical crossbar: theory and simulation,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 233–243 (1991).

1987 (1)

Ahearn, J. S.

Allebach, J. P.

Ayliffe, M. H.

Bernier, E.

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bisaillon, E.

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boisset, G. C.

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bonas, I. G.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Booth, M. J.

Brosseau, D. F.

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chateauneuf, M.

Chu, H. H.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Chuah, A. E. L.

Cloonan, T. J.

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coker, T.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. Coker, A. B. Davey, T. C. B. Yu, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator designed for high yield and low cost fabrication: the fast bitplane SLM,” Ferroelectrics 213(1–4), 219–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, B. Robertson, “Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. Coker, A. B. Davey, T. C. B. Yu, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator designed for high yield and low cost fabrication: the fast bitplane SLM,” Ferroelectrics 213(1–4), 219–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O’Brien, R. J. Mears, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, “Dynamic holographic interconnects that use ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2795–2803 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. O’Brien, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, “A holographically routed optical crossbar: theory and simulation,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 233–243 (1991).

D. C. O’Brien, R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, “Optical crossbar switching using dynamic holograms written to ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” presented at the IEE Colloquium on Optical Switching, London, 3 June 1993.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Croucher, J.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Davey, A. B.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. Coker, A. B. Davey, T. C. B. Yu, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator designed for high yield and low cost fabrication: the fast bitplane SLM,” Ferroelectrics 213(1–4), 219–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, J.

Franklin, R.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Goodwill, D.

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goodwill, D. J.

Handerek, V. A.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Henshall, G.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Hino, S.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, S. Hino, “Board-to-board free-space optical interconnections passing through boards for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2985–2995 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high-capacity ATM switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, K.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, S. Hino, “Board-to-board free-space optical interconnections passing through boards for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2985–2995 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high-capacity ATM switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, M. J.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Iyer, R.

Kabal, D.

Kirk, A. G.

Kohama, Y.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high-capacity ATM switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laprise, E.

Lentine, A. L.

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

Manolis, I. G.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, B. Robertson, “Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Matsuo, S.

McCormick, F. B.

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McKnight, D. J.

D. C. O’Brien, D. J. McKnight, “A compact holographically routed optical crossbar using a ferroelectric liquid-crystal over silicon spatial light modulator,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 139 of the Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 187–190.

Mears, R. J.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, B. Robertson, “Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Warr, R. J. Mears, “Polarisation insensitive diffractive FLC systems,” Ferroelectrics 181(1–4), 53–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O’Brien, R. J. Mears, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, “Dynamic holographic interconnects that use ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2795–2803 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. O’Brien, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, “A holographically routed optical crossbar: theory and simulation,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 233–243 (1991).

D. C. O’Brien, R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, “Optical crossbar switching using dynamic holograms written to ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” presented at the IEE Colloquium on Optical Switching, London, 3 June 1993.

Michael, F. S. J.

Mony, M.

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neil, M. A. A.

O’Brien, D. C.

D. C. O’Brien, R. J. Mears, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, “Dynamic holographic interconnects that use ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2795–2803 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. O’Brien, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, “A holographically routed optical crossbar: theory and simulation,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 233–243 (1991).

D. C. O’Brien, D. J. McKnight, “A compact holographically routed optical crossbar using a ferroelectric liquid-crystal over silicon spatial light modulator,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 139 of the Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 187–190.

D. C. O’Brien, R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, “Optical crossbar switching using dynamic holograms written to ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” presented at the IEE Colloquium on Optical Switching, London, 3 June 1993.

Parker, T.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Pavlasek, D.

Plant, D. V.

Randle, Y. R.

A. J. Waddie, Y. R. Randle, K. J. Symington, J. F. Snowdon, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic neural network scheduler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 557–564 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Razavi, K.

Redmond, M. M.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, B. Robertson, “Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Robertson, B.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, B. Robertson, “Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics for a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device-based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Rolston, D. R.

Seldowitz, M. A.

Snowdon, J. F.

A. J. Waddie, Y. R. Randle, K. J. Symington, J. F. Snowdon, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic neural network scheduler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 557–564 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Webb, A. J. Waddle, K. J. Symington, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. F. Snowdon, “Optoelectronic neural-network scheduler for packet switches,” Appl. Opt. 39, 788–795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stace, C.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Sweeney, D. W.

Symington, K. J.

A. J. Waddie, Y. R. Randle, K. J. Symington, J. F. Snowdon, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic neural network scheduler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 557–564 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Webb, A. J. Waddle, K. J. Symington, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. F. Snowdon, “Optoelectronic neural-network scheduler for packet switches,” Appl. Opt. 39, 788–795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

A. J. Waddie, Y. R. Randle, K. J. Symington, J. F. Snowdon, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic neural network scheduler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 557–564 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Webb, A. J. Waddle, K. J. Symington, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. F. Snowdon, “Optoelectronic neural-network scheduler for packet switches,” Appl. Opt. 39, 788–795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. L.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, B. Robertson, “Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Tateno, K.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high-capacity ATM switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Venditti, M. B.

Waddie, A. J.

A. J. Waddie, Y. R. Randle, K. J. Symington, J. F. Snowdon, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic neural network scheduler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 557–564 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Waddle, A. J.

Warr, S. T.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, B. Robertson, “Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Warr, R. J. Mears, “Polarisation insensitive diffractive FLC systems,” Ferroelectrics 181(1–4), 53–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Webb, R. P.

White, H. J.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Wilkinson, T. D.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, B. Robertson, “Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. Coker, A. B. Davey, T. C. B. Yu, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator designed for high yield and low cost fabrication: the fast bitplane SLM,” Ferroelectrics 213(1–4), 219–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O’Brien, R. J. Mears, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, “Dynamic holographic interconnects that use ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2795–2803 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Wilson, T.

Woolley, R. A.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

Yamamoto, T.

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, S. Hino, “Board-to-board free-space optical interconnections passing through boards for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2985–2995 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, K. Tateno, “Optical beam direction compensating system for board-to-board free space optical interconnection in high-capacity ATM switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 874–882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. C. B.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. Coker, A. B. Davey, T. C. B. Yu, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator designed for high yield and low cost fabrication: the fast bitplane SLM,” Ferroelectrics 213(1–4), 219–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Ferroelectrics (2)

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. Coker, A. B. Davey, T. C. B. Yu, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator designed for high yield and low cost fabrication: the fast bitplane SLM,” Ferroelectrics 213(1–4), 219–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Warr, R. J. Mears, “Polarisation insensitive diffractive FLC systems,” Ferroelectrics 181(1–4), 53–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. J. Waddie, Y. R. Randle, K. J. Symington, J. F. Snowdon, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic neural network scheduler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 557–564 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Bisaillon, D. F. Brosseau, T. Yamamoto, M. Mony, E. Bernier, D. Goodwill, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Free-space optical link with spatial redundancy for misalignment tolerance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 242–244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Comput. Process. (1)

D. C. O’Brien, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, “A holographically routed optical crossbar: theory and simulation,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 233–243 (1991).

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

D. C. O’Brien, R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, “Optical crossbar switching using dynamic holograms written to ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” presented at the IEE Colloquium on Optical Switching, London, 3 June 1993.

D. C. O’Brien, D. J. McKnight, “A compact holographically routed optical crossbar using a ferroelectric liquid-crystal over silicon spatial light modulator,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 139 of the Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 187–190.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, M. J. Holmes, T. Parker, I. G. Bonas, B. Robertson, S. T. Warr, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Beam steering optical switches using LCOS: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” in 2000 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. I29–30.

IEEE, “IEEE standard for a Versatile Backplane Bus: VMEbus” (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1987).

Microcosm, MC20S10 transimpedance amplifier data sheet, http://www.connexant.com (2001).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System schematic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SLM plane geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detector plane geometry.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of geometric design constraints.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical and optomechanical system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the detector plane showing the maximum correctable error b. The misaligned spot is deviated to the left of its desired position by an amount b, so the grating frequency of the hologram must be increased to route light a distance b to the right of the desired position. The distance between the outer row of detectors and the boundary of the zone of diffraction b therefore represents the maximum error that can be corrected.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scatter diagram showing the effect of board-to-board misalignment at the detector plane.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Scatter diagram showing the effect of board-to-board and other system misalignment at the detector plane.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot of simulated cross talk.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 System Device and Design Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Final Interconnect Design Parameters

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ir=Io exp-2xω2,
ω=λfπω.
hΔrαω,
νΔsαω.
πphΔαβλfr,
πpνΔαβλfs.
λfΔ2f tan θx+mp cos θz+np sin θz,
λf2Δ2f tan θy+np cos θz+mp sin θz.
λfΔ2f tan θx+mp cos θz+Cm p sin θz,
λf2Δ2f tan θy+Cm p cos θz+mp sin θz.
λΔ-2f tan θxfpm,
λ2Δ-2f tan θyfpn.

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