Abstract

The optical properties of thin Sc films deposited in ultrahigh-vacuum conditions have been investigated in the 6.7–174.4-nm spectral range. We measured transmittance and multiangle reflectance in situ in the 53.6–174.4 nm spectral range and used these measurements to obtain the complex refractive index of a Sc film at every individual wavelength investigated. Transmittance measurements were made of Sc samples that were deposited over grids coated with a support C film. The transmittance and the extinction coefficient of Sc films at wavelengths shorter than 30 nm were measured ex situ. The ex situ samples were protected with an additional top C film before their removal from vacuum. To our knowledge, these are the first optical measurements of Sc films reported in the spectral ranges cited.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Weaver, C. G. Olson, “Optical examination of the electronic structure of single-crystal hcp scandium,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 731–735 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, M. Piacentini, “Optical properties of scandium thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760–3764 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, P. Trebbia, “Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements,” Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257–266 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Cukier, B. Gauthe, C. Wehenkel, “Interband, collective and atomic (p, d) excitations from 2 to 160 eV in Sc, Y, lanthanides and actinides of their components by FEELS,” J. Phys. 41, 603–613 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Onsgaard, S. Tougaard, P. Morgan, F. Ryborg, “Scandium and lutetium surfaces studied by reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 18, 29–41 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. A. Uspenskii, S. V. Antonov, V. Yu, A. V. Vinogradov, “Optical properties of 3d-transition metals in the spectral interval of interest for discharge pumped XUV lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca, L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3156, 288–294 (1997).
  7. Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, V. Y. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum-ultraviolet interval of 35–50 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 771–773 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, F. Schäfers, “Sc-Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 448, 147–151 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, “Far-ultraviolet absolute reflectometer for optical constant determination of ultrahigh vacuum prepared thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 497–502 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, “FUV reflectometer for in situ characterization of thin films deposited under UHV,” in Instrumentation for UV/EUV Astronomy and Solar Missions, S. Fineschi, C. M. Korendyke, O. H. Siegmund, B. E. Woodgate, eds., Proc. SPIE4139, 92–101 (2000).
  11. P. J. Goodhew, Specimen Preparation in Materials Science, Vol. I, Part I of Practical Methods in Electron Microscopy, A. M. Glauert, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), pp. 164–167.
  12. A. M. Malvezzi, G. Secondi, “Calibration facility in the XUV region for reflective optics,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 40–48 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. M. Malvezzi, G. Tondello, “A grazing incidence spectrograph—monochromator for XUV spectroscopy in the 5–900 Å region of modular concept,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1642–1646 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. H. Tomboulian, “The experimental methods of soft x-ray spectroscopy and the valence band spectra of the light elements,” in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flugge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), Vol. 30.
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performances and characterization of an EUV and soft x-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. A. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999), p. 91.
  18. More information can be found at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .
  19. J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, J. Calvo-Angós, “Optical properties of ytterbium in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4566–4572 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. A. Uspenskii, J. F. Seely, N. L. Popov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, V. V. Kondratenko, “Efficient method for the determination of extreme-ultraviolet optical constants in reactive materials: application to scandium and titanium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 298–305 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, F. Schäfers, “Sc-Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 448, 147–151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, “Far-ultraviolet absolute reflectometer for optical constant determination of ultrahigh vacuum prepared thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 497–502 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, M. Piacentini, “Optical properties of scandium thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760–3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

M. Cukier, B. Gauthe, C. Wehenkel, “Interband, collective and atomic (p, d) excitations from 2 to 160 eV in Sc, Y, lanthanides and actinides of their components by FEELS,” J. Phys. 41, 603–613 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Onsgaard, S. Tougaard, P. Morgan, F. Ryborg, “Scandium and lutetium surfaces studied by reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 18, 29–41 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Tondello, “A grazing incidence spectrograph—monochromator for XUV spectroscopy in the 5–900 Å region of modular concept,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1642–1646 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. H. Weaver, C. G. Olson, “Optical examination of the electronic structure of single-crystal hcp scandium,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 731–735 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, P. Trebbia, “Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements,” Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257–266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Antonangeli, F.

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, M. Piacentini, “Optical properties of scandium thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760–3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Antonov, S. V.

Y. A. Uspenskii, S. V. Antonov, V. Yu, A. V. Vinogradov, “Optical properties of 3d-transition metals in the spectral interval of interest for discharge pumped XUV lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca, L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3156, 288–294 (1997).

Attwood, D. A.

D. A. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999), p. 91.

Aznárez, J. A.

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, J. Calvo-Angós, “Optical properties of ytterbium in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4566–4572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, “Far-ultraviolet absolute reflectometer for optical constant determination of ultrahigh vacuum prepared thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 497–502 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, “FUV reflectometer for in situ characterization of thin films deposited under UHV,” in Instrumentation for UV/EUV Astronomy and Solar Missions, S. Fineschi, C. M. Korendyke, O. H. Siegmund, B. E. Woodgate, eds., Proc. SPIE4139, 92–101 (2000).

Boscolo, A.

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performances and characterization of an EUV and soft x-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brousseau-Lahaye, B.

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, P. Trebbia, “Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements,” Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257–266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Calvo-Angós, J.

Chassaing, C.

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, M. Piacentini, “Optical properties of scandium thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760–3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Colliex, C.

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, P. Trebbia, “Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements,” Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257–266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cukier, M.

M. Cukier, B. Gauthe, C. Wehenkel, “Interband, collective and atomic (p, d) excitations from 2 to 160 eV in Sc, Y, lanthanides and actinides of their components by FEELS,” J. Phys. 41, 603–613 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fedorenko, A. I.

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, F. Schäfers, “Sc-Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 448, 147–151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, V. Y. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum-ultraviolet interval of 35–50 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 771–773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. Y.

François, J. C.

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, M. Piacentini, “Optical properties of scandium thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760–3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Frandon, J.

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, P. Trebbia, “Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements,” Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257–266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gasgnier, M.

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, P. Trebbia, “Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements,” Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257–266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gauthe, B.

M. Cukier, B. Gauthe, C. Wehenkel, “Interband, collective and atomic (p, d) excitations from 2 to 160 eV in Sc, Y, lanthanides and actinides of their components by FEELS,” J. Phys. 41, 603–613 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Goodhew, P. J.

P. J. Goodhew, Specimen Preparation in Materials Science, Vol. I, Part I of Practical Methods in Electron Microscopy, A. M. Glauert, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), pp. 164–167.

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kondratenko, V. V.

Larruquert, J. I.

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, J. Calvo-Angós, “Optical properties of ytterbium in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4566–4572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, “Far-ultraviolet absolute reflectometer for optical constant determination of ultrahigh vacuum prepared thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 497–502 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, “FUV reflectometer for in situ characterization of thin films deposited under UHV,” in Instrumentation for UV/EUV Astronomy and Solar Missions, S. Fineschi, C. M. Korendyke, O. H. Siegmund, B. E. Woodgate, eds., Proc. SPIE4139, 92–101 (2000).

Levashov, V. E.

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, F. Schäfers, “Sc-Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 448, 147–151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, V. Y. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum-ultraviolet interval of 35–50 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 771–773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malvezzi, A. M.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Tondello, “A grazing incidence spectrograph—monochromator for XUV spectroscopy in the 5–900 Å region of modular concept,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1642–1646 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Secondi, “Calibration facility in the XUV region for reflective optics,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 40–48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, J. A.

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, J. Calvo-Angós, “Optical properties of ytterbium in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4566–4572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, “Far-ultraviolet absolute reflectometer for optical constant determination of ultrahigh vacuum prepared thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 497–502 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, “FUV reflectometer for in situ characterization of thin films deposited under UHV,” in Instrumentation for UV/EUV Astronomy and Solar Missions, S. Fineschi, C. M. Korendyke, O. H. Siegmund, B. E. Woodgate, eds., Proc. SPIE4139, 92–101 (2000).

Morgan, P.

J. Onsgaard, S. Tougaard, P. Morgan, F. Ryborg, “Scandium and lutetium surfaces studied by reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 18, 29–41 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, F. Schäfers, “Sc-Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 448, 147–151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Olson, C. G.

J. H. Weaver, C. G. Olson, “Optical examination of the electronic structure of single-crystal hcp scandium,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 731–735 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Onsgaard, J.

J. Onsgaard, S. Tougaard, P. Morgan, F. Ryborg, “Scandium and lutetium surfaces studied by reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 18, 29–41 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pershin, Y. P.

Piacentini, M.

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, M. Piacentini, “Optical properties of scandium thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760–3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performances and characterization of an EUV and soft x-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popov, N. L.

Ryborg, F.

J. Onsgaard, S. Tougaard, P. Morgan, F. Ryborg, “Scandium and lutetium surfaces studied by reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 18, 29–41 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schäfers, F.

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, F. Schäfers, “Sc-Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 448, 147–151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Secondi, G.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Secondi, “Calibration facility in the XUV region for reflective optics,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 40–48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

Sigrist, M.

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, M. Piacentini, “Optical properties of scandium thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760–3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tomboulian, D. H.

D. H. Tomboulian, “The experimental methods of soft x-ray spectroscopy and the valence band spectra of the light elements,” in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flugge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), Vol. 30.
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Tondello, “A grazing incidence spectrograph—monochromator for XUV spectroscopy in the 5–900 Å region of modular concept,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1642–1646 (1978).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performances and characterization of an EUV and soft x-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tougaard, S.

J. Onsgaard, S. Tougaard, P. Morgan, F. Ryborg, “Scandium and lutetium surfaces studied by reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 18, 29–41 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Trebbia, P.

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, P. Trebbia, “Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements,” Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257–266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Uspenskii, Y. A.

Y. A. Uspenskii, J. F. Seely, N. L. Popov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, V. V. Kondratenko, “Efficient method for the determination of extreme-ultraviolet optical constants in reactive materials: application to scandium and titanium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 298–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Uspenskii, S. V. Antonov, V. Yu, A. V. Vinogradov, “Optical properties of 3d-transition metals in the spectral interval of interest for discharge pumped XUV lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca, L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3156, 288–294 (1997).

Uspenskii, Y. U.

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, F. Schäfers, “Sc-Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 448, 147–151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, V. Y. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum-ultraviolet interval of 35–50 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 771–773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. V.

Y. A. Uspenskii, J. F. Seely, N. L. Popov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, V. V. Kondratenko, “Efficient method for the determination of extreme-ultraviolet optical constants in reactive materials: application to scandium and titanium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 298–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, F. Schäfers, “Sc-Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 448, 147–151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, V. Y. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum-ultraviolet interval of 35–50 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 771–773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Uspenskii, S. V. Antonov, V. Yu, A. V. Vinogradov, “Optical properties of 3d-transition metals in the spectral interval of interest for discharge pumped XUV lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca, L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3156, 288–294 (1997).

Weaver, J. H.

J. H. Weaver, C. G. Olson, “Optical examination of the electronic structure of single-crystal hcp scandium,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 731–735 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wehenkel, C.

M. Cukier, B. Gauthe, C. Wehenkel, “Interband, collective and atomic (p, d) excitations from 2 to 160 eV in Sc, Y, lanthanides and actinides of their components by FEELS,” J. Phys. 41, 603–613 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yu, V.

Y. A. Uspenskii, S. V. Antonov, V. Yu, A. V. Vinogradov, “Optical properties of 3d-transition metals in the spectral interval of interest for discharge pumped XUV lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca, L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3156, 288–294 (1997).

Zema, N.

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, M. Piacentini, “Optical properties of scandium thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760–3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zubarev, E. N.

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, F. Schäfers, “Sc-Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 448, 147–151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, V. Y. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum-ultraviolet interval of 35–50 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 771–773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

J. Onsgaard, S. Tougaard, P. Morgan, F. Ryborg, “Scandium and lutetium surfaces studied by reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 18, 29–41 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. (1)

M. Cukier, B. Gauthe, C. Wehenkel, “Interband, collective and atomic (p, d) excitations from 2 to 160 eV in Sc, Y, lanthanides and actinides of their components by FEELS,” J. Phys. 41, 603–613 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A (1)

Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, F. Schäfers, “Sc-Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 448, 147–151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. H. Weaver, C. G. Olson, “Optical examination of the electronic structure of single-crystal hcp scandium,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 731–735 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, M. Piacentini, “Optical properties of scandium thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760–3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, P. Trebbia, “Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements,” Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257–266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, “Far-ultraviolet absolute reflectometer for optical constant determination of ultrahigh vacuum prepared thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 497–502 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Tondello, “A grazing incidence spectrograph—monochromator for XUV spectroscopy in the 5–900 Å region of modular concept,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1642–1646 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

D. H. Tomboulian, “The experimental methods of soft x-ray spectroscopy and the valence band spectra of the light elements,” in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flugge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), Vol. 30.
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performances and characterization of an EUV and soft x-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999), p. 91.

More information can be found at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, “FUV reflectometer for in situ characterization of thin films deposited under UHV,” in Instrumentation for UV/EUV Astronomy and Solar Missions, S. Fineschi, C. M. Korendyke, O. H. Siegmund, B. E. Woodgate, eds., Proc. SPIE4139, 92–101 (2000).

P. J. Goodhew, Specimen Preparation in Materials Science, Vol. I, Part I of Practical Methods in Electron Microscopy, A. M. Glauert, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), pp. 164–167.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Secondi, “Calibration facility in the XUV region for reflective optics,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 40–48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Uspenskii, S. V. Antonov, V. Yu, A. V. Vinogradov, “Optical properties of 3d-transition metals in the spectral interval of interest for discharge pumped XUV lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca, L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE3156, 288–294 (1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance as a function of wavelength for Sc films of several thicknesses. The transmittance is normalized to that of the grid-supported C film substrate (in the 53.5–174.4-nm wavelength range) and to that of a reference C-C-grid sample (in the 6.7–30-nm wavelength range).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance of Sc films versus wavelength at nine angles of incidence measured from the normal in the horizontal plane of incidence of the reflectometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Logarithm of transmittance versus Sc film thickness for several wavelengths and fitting with Eq. (1). Transmittance was measured for Sc films deposited upon C films supported on a grid. Measurements at 9.2 and 13.5 nm were performed on samples that had passivating top C layers also.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Logarithms of the optical constants of Sc as a function of wavelength at (a) 53.6–174.4 and (b) 6.7–30 nm. Calculations with the Henke model and the data on optical constants from Brousseau-Lahaye et al.3 are shown for comparison.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Loss function of Sc as a function of wavelength.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Extinction Coefficients k of Sc Films at Wavelengths Shorter than 30 nm

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Table 2 Optical Constants of Sc Films at Wavelengths Longer than 50 nm

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Table 3 Effects of Aging on the Reflectance of Sc Films That Were Stored 3 Days in UHV and Exposed to Two Doses of Air at Low Pressurea

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

TfsTs=exp-4πkxλ,
rs,p=r01s,p+r12s,pexp2iβ1+r01s,pr12s,pexp2iβ,
β=k0xN12-N02 sin2 θ1/2,
p=Ip-IsIp+Is,
R=1+p2 Rp+1-p2 Rs,
s2=i=1,, mRθiexp-Rθi, n, k, p2,

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