Abstract

The influence of lidar data systematic errors on the retrieved particulate extinction coefficient profile in clear atmospheres is investigated. Particularly, two sources of the extinction coefficient profile distortions are analyzed: (1) a zero-line offset remaining after subtraction of an inaccurately determined signal background component and (2) a far-end incomplete overlap due to poor adjustment of the lidar system optics. Inversion results for simulated lidar signals, obtained with the near- and far-end solutions, are presented that show advantages of the near-end solution for clear atmospheres.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 256–259.
  2. V. A. Kovalev, H. Moosmüller, “Distortion of particulate extinction profiles measured with lidar in a two-component atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6499–6507 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, “Significance of the extinction/backscatter ratio and the boundary value term in the solution for the two-component lidar equation,” Appl. Opt. 23, 11–13 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Error caused by using a constant extinction/backscattering ratio in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3929–3932 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. R. Bissonnette, “Sensitivity analysis of lidar inversion algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2122–2125 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. J. Kunz, G. Leeuw, “Inversion of lidar signals with the slope method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3249–3256 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. J. Kunz, “Transmission as an input boundary value for an analytical solution of a single-scatter lidar equation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3255–3260 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, “Measurement of the lidar signal fluctuations with a shot-per-shot instrument,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7128–7131 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Rocadenbosch, A. Comeron, D. Pineda, “Assessment of lidar inversion errors for homogeneous atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2199–2206 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. N. Whiteman, “Application of statistical methods to the determination of slope in lidar data,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3360–3369 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. R. Agishev, A. Comeron, “Spatial filtering efficiency of monostatic biaxial lidar: analysis and applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7516–7521 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, N. Takeuchi, “Large-scale laser radar for measuring aerosol distribution over a wide area,” Appl. Opt. 24, 617–626 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Zhao, “Signal-induced fluorescence in photomultipliers in differential absorption lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4639–4648 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. Sunesson, A. Apituley, D. P. J. Swart, “Differential absorption lidar system for routine monitoring of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7045–7058 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. S. Lee, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, C. Prasad, “Gated photomultiplier response characterization for DIAL measurements,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3303–3315 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Florani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. V. den Bergh, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Bristow, “Suppression of afterpulsing in photomultipliers by gating the photocathode,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4975–4987 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the linearity of response of gated photomultipliers in wide dynamic range laser radar systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116–120 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. E. Zuev, G. M. Krekov, Optical Models of the Atmosphere, V. E. Zuev, ed. (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1986), Chap. 5, p. 145 (in Russian).
  20. J. Spinhirne, “Monitoring of tropospheric aerosol optical properties by lidar,” in Atmospheric Aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects, NASA CP-2004 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  21. M. Pahlow, Environmental Technology Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 325 Broadway Boulder, Colo. 80305 (personal communication, 2002).
  22. Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, M. Okuda, “Geometrical form factor in the laser radar equation: an experimental determination,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3908–3910 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. Sassen, G. C. Dodd, “Lidar crossover function and misalignment effects,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3162–3165 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. V. M. Ignatenko, “Experimental determination of the lidar geometrical function,” in Proceedings of the Main Geophysical Observatory, G. P. Gushchin, ed. (Main Geophysical Observatory, Leningrad, 1991), No. 487, pp. 91–95 (in Russian).
  25. K. Tomine, C. Hirayama, K. Michimoto, N. Takeuchi, “Experimental determination of the crossover function in the laser radar equation for days with a light mist,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2194–2195 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. W. Dho, Y. J. Park, H. J. Kong, “Experimental determination of the geometric form factor in the lidar equation for inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6009–6010 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. Velotta, B. Bartoli, R. Capobianco, L. Fiorani, N. Spinelli, “Analysis of the receiver response in lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6999–7007 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511–514 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

1999 (2)

1998 (3)

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

1975 (1)

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the linearity of response of gated photomultipliers in wide dynamic range laser radar systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116–120 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Agishev, R. R.

Ansmann, A.

Apituley, A.

Bartoli, B.

Bissonnette, L. R.

Bristow, M.

Browell, E. V.

Calpini, B.

Capobianco, R.

Comeron, A.

den Bergh, H. V.

Dho, S. W.

Dodd, G. C.

Dombrowski, M.

Durieux, E.

Fiorani, L.

Florani, L.

Hirayama, C.

Hunt, W. H.

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the linearity of response of gated photomultipliers in wide dynamic range laser radar systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116–120 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ignatenko, V. M.

V. M. Ignatenko, “Experimental determination of the lidar geometrical function,” in Proceedings of the Main Geophysical Observatory, G. P. Gushchin, ed. (Main Geophysical Observatory, Leningrad, 1991), No. 487, pp. 91–95 (in Russian).

Ismail, S.

Jaquet, L.

Kong, H. J.

Korb, C. L.

Kovalev, V. A.

Krekov, G. M.

V. E. Zuev, G. M. Krekov, Optical Models of the Atmosphere, V. E. Zuev, ed. (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1986), Chap. 5, p. 145 (in Russian).

Kunz, G. J.

Lee, H. S.

Leeuw, G.

Matsui, I.

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 256–259.

Michimoto, K.

Moosmüller, H.

Nakane, H.

Okuda, M.

Pahlow, M.

M. Pahlow, Environmental Technology Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 325 Broadway Boulder, Colo. 80305 (personal communication, 2002).

Park, Y. J.

Pineda, D.

Poultney, S. K.

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the linearity of response of gated photomultipliers in wide dynamic range laser radar systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116–120 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, C.

Rocadenbosch, F.

Sasano, Y.

Sassen, K.

Schwemmer, G. K.

Shimizu, H.

Spinelli, N.

Spinhirne, J.

J. Spinhirne, “Monitoring of tropospheric aerosol optical properties by lidar,” in Atmospheric Aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects, NASA CP-2004 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Sugimoto, N.

Sunesson, J. A.

Swart, D. P. J.

Takeuchi, N.

Tomine, K.

Velotta, R.

Wandinger, U.

Whiteman, D. N.

Zhao, Y.

Zuev, V. E.

V. E. Zuev, G. M. Krekov, Optical Models of the Atmosphere, V. E. Zuev, ed. (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1986), Chap. 5, p. 145 (in Russian).

Appl. Opt. (22)

Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, M. Okuda, “Geometrical form factor in the laser radar equation: an experimental determination,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3908–3910 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sassen, G. C. Dodd, “Lidar crossover function and misalignment effects,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3162–3165 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, N. Takeuchi, “Large-scale laser radar for measuring aerosol distribution over a wide area,” Appl. Opt. 24, 617–626 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Error caused by using a constant extinction/backscattering ratio in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3929–3932 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Bissonnette, “Sensitivity analysis of lidar inversion algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2122–2125 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Lee, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, C. Prasad, “Gated photomultiplier response characterization for DIAL measurements,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3303–3315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Kunz, G. Leeuw, “Inversion of lidar signals with the slope method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3249–3256 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Kovalev, H. Moosmüller, “Distortion of particulate extinction profiles measured with lidar in a two-component atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6499–6507 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Sunesson, A. Apituley, D. P. J. Swart, “Differential absorption lidar system for routine monitoring of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7045–7058 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Dho, Y. J. Park, H. J. Kong, “Experimental determination of the geometric form factor in the lidar equation for inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6009–6010 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Florani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. V. den Bergh, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Rocadenbosch, A. Comeron, D. Pineda, “Assessment of lidar inversion errors for homogeneous atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2199–2206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, “Measurement of the lidar signal fluctuations with a shot-per-shot instrument,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7128–7131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, “Application of statistical methods to the determination of slope in lidar data,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3360–3369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, “Signal-induced fluorescence in photomultipliers in differential absorption lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4639–4648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kunz, “Transmission as an input boundary value for an analytical solution of a single-scatter lidar equation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3255–3260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Velotta, B. Bartoli, R. Capobianco, L. Fiorani, N. Spinelli, “Analysis of the receiver response in lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6999–7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511–514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bristow, “Suppression of afterpulsing in photomultipliers by gating the photocathode,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4975–4987 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Agishev, A. Comeron, “Spatial filtering efficiency of monostatic biaxial lidar: analysis and applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7516–7521 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, “Significance of the extinction/backscatter ratio and the boundary value term in the solution for the two-component lidar equation,” Appl. Opt. 23, 11–13 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. Tomine, C. Hirayama, K. Michimoto, N. Takeuchi, “Experimental determination of the crossover function in the laser radar equation for days with a light mist,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2194–2195 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the linearity of response of gated photomultipliers in wide dynamic range laser radar systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116–120 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

V. E. Zuev, G. M. Krekov, Optical Models of the Atmosphere, V. E. Zuev, ed. (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1986), Chap. 5, p. 145 (in Russian).

J. Spinhirne, “Monitoring of tropospheric aerosol optical properties by lidar,” in Atmospheric Aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects, NASA CP-2004 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1976).

M. Pahlow, Environmental Technology Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 325 Broadway Boulder, Colo. 80305 (personal communication, 2002).

V. M. Ignatenko, “Experimental determination of the lidar geometrical function,” in Proceedings of the Main Geophysical Observatory, G. P. Gushchin, ed. (Main Geophysical Observatory, Leningrad, 1991), No. 487, pp. 91–95 (in Russian).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 256–259.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Signals of a ground-based vertically pointed lidar versus height calculated for a purely molecular atmosphere. The undistorted lidar signal is shown as curve 1, the actual level of the background component in the signal is shown by curve 2. The induced low-frequency noise component is shown as curve 3. Curve 4 shows the shape of the distorted signal, and curve 5 shows the shifted zero line found over the range 12,000–15,000 m of the distorted signal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated lidar signals at wavelengths 308, 355, 532, and 1064 nm (curves 1–4, respectively) for a vertically pointed lidar, calculated for the same pure molecular atmosphere as in Fig. 1. Curve 5 shows the actual level of the background component B for these signals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated lidar signals at 532 nm for a scanning lidar calculated for a background model of atmospheric aerosol.19 Curves 1–3 show the signals calculated for the slope angles 10°, 30°, and 90°, respectively. Curve 4 shows the actual level of the background component B for these signals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated inversion results obtained for a clear homogeneous atmosphere with the particulate extinction coefficient κ p = 0.01 km-1 (dotted line). The zero-line offset ΔB in the inverted signal is -2 bins. The thin and bold curves show the extinction coefficients retrieved with the far-end solution for the signals with and without noise, respectively. The curves with filled triangles show the profiles retrieved from the same signals with the near-end solution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as in Fig. 4, but for the offset ΔB of +2 bins.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of a lidar system in which the incomplete overlap occurs in both the near- and the far-end ranges, i.e., at the ranges r < r 0 and r > r 1. Here 1 is the laser, 2 is the receiver’s telescope.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Overlap function q(r) (bold curve) corresponding the schematic in Fig. 6. Dotted line shows the assumed ideal overlap [q(r) = 1] used for the inversions shown in Figs. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Logarithm of the range-corrected signal P(r)r 2 in a homogeneous atmosphere with the extinction coefficient 0.2 km-1 obtained with the distorted and assumed not distorted overlap functions q(r) shown in Fig. 7 (bold and thin lines, respectively).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Extinction coefficient profiles obtained with the near-end solution (the curve with filled triangles) and the far-end solution (solid curve) in a homogeneous atmosphere with visibility of ∼20 km. The distorted far-end overlap shown in Fig. 7 is used, but assuming q(r) = 1 for all ranges rr 0.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Same as in Fig. 9 but for a clear atmosphere with κ p = 0.006 km-1.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Example of inversion results when the model particulate extinction coefficient (dotted curve) decreases with height. For the simulation the same distorted overlap function shown in Fig. 7 is used; in addition, the offset ΔB = -2 bins and random noise is added to the signal. The profile obtained with the near-end solution is shown as the curve with filled triangles. The profile inverted with the far-end solution is shown as the curve without triangles. In both cases the correct boundary values are used for the inversion.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Profiles inverted under the same conditions as in Fig. 11 but when the incomplete overlap zone near the lidar is determined incorrectly (r 0 is assumed to be 300 m instead of the correct value r 0 = 500 m). The signal inversion is made assuming q(r) = 1 for all ranges r ≥ 300 m. The profiles obtained with the near- and far-end solutions are shown as curves with and without filled triangles, respectively.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pr=Pr+B=C0qrβπ,pr+βπ,mrr2×exp-2 0rκpx+κmxdx+B,
Zrr=Pr-Br2.
κpr=ZrrYrZrrbYrbκprb+38πΠp κmrb-2 rbr ZrxYxdx-38πΠp κmr,
Yr=exp-238πΠp-1r0r κmxdx,

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