Abstract

Buried channel waveguides were fabricated in Er3+-Yb3+ codoped phosphate glasses with use of the thermal two-step ion-exchange method. The K+-Na+ ion-exchange process was first carried out in pure KNO3 molten bath, and then field-assisted annealing (FAA) was used to make the buried waveguides. The fluorescence properties of bulk glasses and channel waveguides were characterized, and the waveguide properties were studied. The formation mechanism of buried waveguides was analyzed, and the improved gain characteristics of the waveguide amplifiers with use of different FAA temperatures were measured. The maximum net gain of the waveguide amplifiers at 1.534-μm wavelength was measured to be ∼3.4 ± 0.1 dB/cm with 120-mW pump power at 975-nm wavelength.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. S. Andre, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J. M. P. Delavaux, E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Schermer, W. Berglund, C. Ford, R. Ramberg, A. Gopinath, “Optical amplification at 1534 nm in erbium-doped zirconia waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 154–159 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Huang, R. R. A. Syms, E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, T. V. Clapp, S. M. Ojha, “Fiber-device-fiber gain from a sol-gel erbium-doped waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 959–961 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Guldberg-Kjaer, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, C. Laurent-Lund, M. R. Poulsen, M. W. Sckerl, “Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate,” Electron. Lett. 35, 302–303 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Shooshtari, P. Meshkinfam, T. Touam, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, “Ion exchanged Er/Yb phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1188–1192 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302–9318 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. F. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chung, “Er3+-Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier using Ag+-Li+ ion exchange,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 80–82 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6-cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 22–27.
  10. G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Kosikova, J. Schrofel, “Planar waveguides prepared by K+-Na+ field-assisted ion exchange in different types of silicate glass,” J. Mater. Res. 14, 3122–3129 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1084–1086 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. P. Bansal, R. H. Doremus, Handbook of Glass Properties (Academic, London, 1986), Chap. 13.
  15. L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, S. Sottini, “Efficient coupling between annealed K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides and 10/125 single-mode fibers at λ = 1.321 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 179–189 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, G. F. Stockdale, “Electrode polarization in alkali-containing glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 55, 337–341 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. G. C. Righiniy, M. Brenci, M. A. Forastiere, S. Pelli, G. Ricci, G. Nunzi Conti, N. Peyghambarian, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, “Rare-earth-doped glasses and ion-exchanged integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” Philos. Mag. B 82, 721–734 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. O. G. Ramer, “Single-mode fiber-to-channel waveguide coupling,” J. Opt. Commun. 2, 122–127 (1981).
  21. V. V. Kapoustine, D. G. Sannikov, A. V. Kazakevitch, “Influence of annealing on the diffusion characteristics and optical losses of multimode Ag+-glass waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 205, 87–94 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnetes, J. E. Broquin, “Multiwavelengths DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516–518 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

R. Schermer, W. Berglund, C. Ford, R. Ramberg, A. Gopinath, “Optical amplification at 1534 nm in erbium-doped zirconia waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 154–159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnetes, J. E. Broquin, “Multiwavelengths DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516–518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

V. V. Kapoustine, D. G. Sannikov, A. V. Kazakevitch, “Influence of annealing on the diffusion characteristics and optical losses of multimode Ag+-glass waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 205, 87–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righiniy, M. Brenci, M. A. Forastiere, S. Pelli, G. Ricci, G. Nunzi Conti, N. Peyghambarian, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, “Rare-earth-doped glasses and ion-exchanged integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” Philos. Mag. B 82, 721–734 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Huang, R. R. A. Syms, E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, T. V. Clapp, S. M. Ojha, “Fiber-device-fiber gain from a sol-gel erbium-doped waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 959–961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chung, “Er3+-Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier using Ag+-Li+ ion exchange,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 80–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. Kosikova, J. Schrofel, “Planar waveguides prepared by K+-Na+ field-assisted ion exchange in different types of silicate glass,” J. Mater. Res. 14, 3122–3129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Guldberg-Kjaer, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, C. Laurent-Lund, M. R. Poulsen, M. W. Sckerl, “Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate,” Electron. Lett. 35, 302–303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Shooshtari, P. Meshkinfam, T. Touam, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, “Ion exchanged Er/Yb phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1188–1192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, S. Sottini, “Efficient coupling between annealed K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides and 10/125 single-mode fibers at λ = 1.321 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 179–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302–9318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. S. Andre, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J. M. P. Delavaux, E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

O. G. Ramer, “Single-mode fiber-to-channel waveguide coupling,” J. Opt. Commun. 2, 122–127 (1981).

1972 (1)

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, G. F. Stockdale, “Electrode polarization in alkali-containing glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 55, 337–341 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, M. M.

W. Huang, R. R. A. Syms, E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, T. V. Clapp, S. M. Ojha, “Fiber-device-fiber gain from a sol-gel erbium-doped waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 959–961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andre, F. S.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. S. Andre, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J. M. P. Delavaux, E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. P.

A. Shooshtari, P. Meshkinfam, T. Touam, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, “Ion exchanged Er/Yb phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1188–1192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bansal, N. P.

N. P. Bansal, R. H. Doremus, Handbook of Glass Properties (Academic, London, 1986), Chap. 13.

Barbier, D.

Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. S. Andre, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J. M. P. Delavaux, E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6-cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 22–27.

Bastard, L.

S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnetes, J. E. Broquin, “Multiwavelengths DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516–518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, W.

R. Schermer, W. Berglund, C. Ford, R. Ramberg, A. Gopinath, “Optical amplification at 1534 nm in erbium-doped zirconia waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 154–159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

G. C. Righini, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, C. Duverger, M. Ferrari, M. Fossi, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, “Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped silicate glass waveguides,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 755–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnetes, J. E. Broquin, “Multiwavelengths DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516–518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brenci, M.

G. C. Righiniy, M. Brenci, M. A. Forastiere, S. Pelli, G. Ricci, G. Nunzi Conti, N. Peyghambarian, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, “Rare-earth-doped glasses and ion-exchanged integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” Philos. Mag. B 82, 721–734 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righini, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, C. Duverger, M. Ferrari, M. Fossi, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, “Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped silicate glass waveguides,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 755–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brioschi, L.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Broquin, J. E.

S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnetes, J. E. Broquin, “Multiwavelengths DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516–518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, A. J.

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302–9318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, P.

Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6-cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 22–27.

Carlson, D. E.

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, G. F. Stockdale, “Electrode polarization in alkali-containing glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 55, 337–341 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cassagnetes, C.

S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnetes, J. E. Broquin, “Multiwavelengths DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516–518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cassagnettes, C.

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6-cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 22–27.

Chung, P. S.

S. F. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chung, “Er3+-Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier using Ag+-Li+ ion exchange,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 80–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clapp, T. V.

W. Huang, R. R. A. Syms, E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, T. V. Clapp, S. M. Ojha, “Fiber-device-fiber gain from a sol-gel erbium-doped waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 959–961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clauss, G.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. S. Andre, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J. M. P. Delavaux, E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cockroft, N. J.

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302–9318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Conti, G. N.

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Delavaux, J. M.

Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Delavaux, J. M. P.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. S. Andre, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J. M. P. Delavaux, E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Doremus, R. H.

N. P. Bansal, R. H. Doremus, Handbook of Glass Properties (Academic, London, 1986), Chap. 13.

du Mouza, L.

Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duverger, C.

G. C. Righini, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, C. Duverger, M. Ferrari, M. Fossi, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, “Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped silicate glass waveguides,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 755–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

G. C. Righiniy, M. Brenci, M. A. Forastiere, S. Pelli, G. Ricci, G. Nunzi Conti, N. Peyghambarian, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, “Rare-earth-doped glasses and ion-exchanged integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” Philos. Mag. B 82, 721–734 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righini, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, C. Duverger, M. Ferrari, M. Fossi, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, “Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped silicate glass waveguides,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 755–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Forastiere, M. A.

G. C. Righiniy, M. Brenci, M. A. Forastiere, S. Pelli, G. Ricci, G. Nunzi Conti, N. Peyghambarian, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, “Rare-earth-doped glasses and ion-exchanged integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” Philos. Mag. B 82, 721–734 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ford, C.

R. Schermer, W. Berglund, C. Ford, R. Ramberg, A. Gopinath, “Optical amplification at 1534 nm in erbium-doped zirconia waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 154–159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fossi, M.

G. C. Righini, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, C. Duverger, M. Ferrari, M. Fossi, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, “Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped silicate glass waveguides,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 755–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fusari, F.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Geraghty, D. F.

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giorgetti, E.

L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, S. Sottini, “Efficient coupling between annealed K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides and 10/125 single-mode fibers at λ = 1.321 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 179–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, A.

R. Schermer, W. Berglund, C. Ford, R. Ramberg, A. Gopinath, “Optical amplification at 1534 nm in erbium-doped zirconia waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 154–159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gosnell, T. R.

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302–9318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grando, D.

L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, S. Sottini, “Efficient coupling between annealed K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides and 10/125 single-mode fibers at λ = 1.321 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 179–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guldberg-Kjaer, S.

S. Guldberg-Kjaer, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, C. Laurent-Lund, M. R. Poulsen, M. W. Sckerl, “Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate,” Electron. Lett. 35, 302–303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hang, K. W.

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, G. F. Stockdale, “Electrode polarization in alkali-containing glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 55, 337–341 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302–9318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Huang, W.

W. Huang, R. R. A. Syms, E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, T. V. Clapp, S. M. Ojha, “Fiber-device-fiber gain from a sol-gel erbium-doped waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 959–961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hubner, J.

S. Guldberg-Kjaer, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, C. Laurent-Lund, M. R. Poulsen, M. W. Sckerl, “Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate,” Electron. Lett. 35, 302–303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, R. L.

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6-cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 22–27.

Jaouen, Y.

Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Kapoustine, V. V.

V. V. Kapoustine, D. G. Sannikov, A. V. Kazakevitch, “Influence of annealing on the diffusion characteristics and optical losses of multimode Ag+-glass waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 205, 87–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kazakevitch, A. V.

V. V. Kapoustine, D. G. Sannikov, A. V. Kazakevitch, “Influence of annealing on the diffusion characteristics and optical losses of multimode Ag+-glass waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 205, 87–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kevorkian, A.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. S. Andre, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J. M. P. Delavaux, E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6-cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 22–27.

Kosikova, J.

J. Kosikova, J. Schrofel, “Planar waveguides prepared by K+-Na+ field-assisted ion exchange in different types of silicate glass,” J. Mater. Res. 14, 3122–3129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

S. Guldberg-Kjaer, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, C. Laurent-Lund, M. R. Poulsen, M. W. Sckerl, “Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate,” Electron. Lett. 35, 302–303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Laurent-Lund, C.

S. Guldberg-Kjaer, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, C. Laurent-Lund, M. R. Poulsen, M. W. Sckerl, “Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate,” Electron. Lett. 35, 302–303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Madasamy, P.

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Marano, M.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meshkinfam, P.

A. Shooshtari, P. Meshkinfam, T. Touam, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, “Ion exchanged Er/Yb phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1188–1192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montagna, M.

G. C. Righiniy, M. Brenci, M. A. Forastiere, S. Pelli, G. Ricci, G. Nunzi Conti, N. Peyghambarian, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, “Rare-earth-doped glasses and ion-exchanged integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” Philos. Mag. B 82, 721–734 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righini, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, C. Duverger, M. Ferrari, M. Fossi, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, “Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped silicate glass waveguides,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 755–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morrell, M. M.

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, E.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. S. Andre, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J. M. P. Delavaux, E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

A. Shooshtari, P. Meshkinfam, T. Touam, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, “Ion exchanged Er/Yb phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1188–1192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi Conti, G.

G. C. Righiniy, M. Brenci, M. A. Forastiere, S. Pelli, G. Ricci, G. Nunzi Conti, N. Peyghambarian, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, “Rare-earth-doped glasses and ion-exchanged integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” Philos. Mag. B 82, 721–734 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ojha, S. M.

W. Huang, R. R. A. Syms, E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, T. V. Clapp, S. M. Ojha, “Fiber-device-fiber gain from a sol-gel erbium-doped waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 959–961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Palchetti, L.

L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, S. Sottini, “Efficient coupling between annealed K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides and 10/125 single-mode fibers at λ = 1.321 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 179–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

G. C. Righiniy, M. Brenci, M. A. Forastiere, S. Pelli, G. Ricci, G. Nunzi Conti, N. Peyghambarian, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, “Rare-earth-doped glasses and ion-exchanged integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” Philos. Mag. B 82, 721–734 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righini, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, C. Duverger, M. Ferrari, M. Fossi, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, “Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped silicate glass waveguides,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 755–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righiniy, M. Brenci, M. A. Forastiere, S. Pelli, G. Ricci, G. Nunzi Conti, N. Peyghambarian, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, “Rare-earth-doped glasses and ion-exchanged integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” Philos. Mag. B 82, 721–734 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Poulsen, M. R.

S. Guldberg-Kjaer, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, C. Laurent-Lund, M. R. Poulsen, M. W. Sckerl, “Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate,” Electron. Lett. 35, 302–303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poyhonen, P.

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

S. F. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chung, “Er3+-Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier using Ag+-Li+ ion exchange,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 80–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramberg, R.

R. Schermer, W. Berglund, C. Ford, R. Ramberg, A. Gopinath, “Optical amplification at 1534 nm in erbium-doped zirconia waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 154–159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramer, O. G.

O. G. Ramer, “Single-mode fiber-to-channel waveguide coupling,” J. Opt. Commun. 2, 122–127 (1981).

Ramponi, R.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rampuni, R.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Rattay, M.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. S. Andre, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J. M. P. Delavaux, E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ricci, G.

G. C. Righiniy, M. Brenci, M. A. Forastiere, S. Pelli, G. Ricci, G. Nunzi Conti, N. Peyghambarian, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, “Rare-earth-doped glasses and ion-exchanged integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” Philos. Mag. B 82, 721–734 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G. C.

G. C. Righini, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, C. Duverger, M. Ferrari, M. Fossi, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, “Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped silicate glass waveguides,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 755–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Righiniy, G. C.

G. C. Righiniy, M. Brenci, M. A. Forastiere, S. Pelli, G. Ricci, G. Nunzi Conti, N. Peyghambarian, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, “Rare-earth-doped glasses and ion-exchanged integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” Philos. Mag. B 82, 721–734 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sannikov, D. G.

V. V. Kapoustine, D. G. Sannikov, A. V. Kazakevitch, “Influence of annealing on the diffusion characteristics and optical losses of multimode Ag+-glass waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 205, 87–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schermer, R.

R. Schermer, W. Berglund, C. Ford, R. Ramberg, A. Gopinath, “Optical amplification at 1534 nm in erbium-doped zirconia waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 154–159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, H.

H. Scholze, Glass—Nature, Structure, and Properties (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), pp. 294–298.

Schrofel, J.

J. Kosikova, J. Schrofel, “Planar waveguides prepared by K+-Na+ field-assisted ion exchange in different types of silicate glass,” J. Mater. Res. 14, 3122–3129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sckerl, M. W.

S. Guldberg-Kjaer, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, C. Laurent-Lund, M. R. Poulsen, M. W. Sckerl, “Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate,” Electron. Lett. 35, 302–303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seneschal, K.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Shooshtari, A.

A. Shooshtari, P. Meshkinfam, T. Touam, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, “Ion exchanged Er/Yb phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1188–1192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sorbello, G.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Sottini, S.

L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, S. Sottini, “Efficient coupling between annealed K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides and 10/125 single-mode fibers at λ = 1.321 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 179–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

G. C. Righini, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, C. Duverger, M. Ferrari, M. Fossi, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, “Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped silicate glass waveguides,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 755–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stockdale, G. F.

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, G. F. Stockdale, “Electrode polarization in alkali-containing glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 55, 337–341 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Syms, R. R. A.

W. Huang, R. R. A. Syms, E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, T. V. Clapp, S. M. Ojha, “Fiber-device-fiber gain from a sol-gel erbium-doped waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 959–961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Touam, T.

A. Shooshtari, P. Meshkinfam, T. Touam, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, “Ion exchanged Er/Yb phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1188–1192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trouillon, M.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. S. Andre, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J. M. P. Delavaux, E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6-cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 22–27.

Ungaro, G.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

Wong, S. F.

S. F. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chung, “Er3+-Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier using Ag+-Li+ ion exchange,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 80–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yeatman, E. M.

W. Huang, R. R. A. Syms, E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, T. V. Clapp, S. M. Ojha, “Fiber-device-fiber gain from a sol-gel erbium-doped waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 959–961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Guldberg-Kjaer, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, C. Laurent-Lund, M. R. Poulsen, M. W. Sckerl, “Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate,” Electron. Lett. 35, 302–303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Schermer, W. Berglund, C. Ford, R. Ramberg, A. Gopinath, “Optical amplification at 1534 nm in erbium-doped zirconia waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 154–159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, D. Grando, S. Sottini, “Efficient coupling between annealed K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides and 10/125 single-mode fibers at λ = 1.321 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 179–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

W. Huang, R. R. A. Syms, E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, T. V. Clapp, S. M. Ojha, “Fiber-device-fiber gain from a sol-gel erbium-doped waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 959–961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. S. Andre, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J. M. P. Delavaux, E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chung, “Er3+-Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier using Ag+-Li+ ion exchange,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 80–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnetes, J. E. Broquin, “Multiwavelengths DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516–518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, G. F. Stockdale, “Electrode polarization in alkali-containing glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 55, 337–341 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

J. Kosikova, J. Schrofel, “Planar waveguides prepared by K+-Na+ field-assisted ion exchange in different types of silicate glass,” J. Mater. Res. 14, 3122–3129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

O. G. Ramer, “Single-mode fiber-to-channel waveguide coupling,” J. Opt. Commun. 2, 122–127 (1981).

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. V. Kapoustine, D. G. Sannikov, A. V. Kazakevitch, “Influence of annealing on the diffusion characteristics and optical losses of multimode Ag+-glass waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 205, 87–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

P. Madasamy, G. N. Conti, P. Poyhonen, Y. Hu, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1084–1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Shooshtari, P. Meshkinfam, T. Touam, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, “Ion exchanged Er/Yb phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1188–1192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. B (1)

G. C. Righiniy, M. Brenci, M. A. Forastiere, S. Pelli, G. Ricci, G. Nunzi Conti, N. Peyghambarian, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, “Rare-earth-doped glasses and ion-exchanged integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” Philos. Mag. B 82, 721–734 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302–9318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6-cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 22–27.

N. P. Bansal, R. H. Doremus, Handbook of Glass Properties (Academic, London, 1986), Chap. 13.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Rampuni, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, S. Jiang, Y. Hu, K. Seneschal, N. Peyghambarian, F. Fusari, L. Brioschi, G. Ungaro, “Buried-channel active waveguide array on Er:Yb: phosphate glass by field-assisted ion-exchange technique,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe Conference Digest (Lasers and Electro Optics Society and Electron Devices Society, Nice, France, 2000), pp. 10–15.

H. Scholze, Glass—Nature, Structure, and Properties (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), pp. 294–298.

G. C. Righini, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, C. Duverger, M. Ferrari, M. Fossi, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, “Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped silicate glass waveguides,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 755–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the buried channel waveguide fabrication process with use of the FAA method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for measuring the optical gain of the waveguide amplifiers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured resistance and current of the glass sample at different T A . Constant E = 100 V/mm was used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence spectrum measured in bulk glasses and ASE spectra recorded in ion-exchanged waveguides and FAA waveguides.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the near-field mode profiles of ion-exchanged surface waveguide and buried waveguide with use of FAA (T A = 380 °C, E = 100 V/mm and t A = 45 min). (a) horizontal width, (b) vertical depth.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Net gain versus pump power for a 1.20-cm-long K+-Na+ ion-exchanged waveguide amplifiers with different T A (E = 100 V/mm and t A = 45 min).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Coupling Losses at Different TA, tA = 45 min. Mode Size Defined As the 1/e Intensity Value

Equations (6)

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σ=z2eNμo exp-Q/RTA=σo exp-Q/RTA,
I=-  dxdyEwEf2-  dxdyEf2-  dxdyEw2,
I4a2xya2+x2a2+y2,
Gnet=10 log10PSigAmplified-PASE/PSigInput,
Gnet=Gint-αp-αa/L,
Gint=10 log10PSigPumpOn-PASE/PSigPumpOff,

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