Abstract

We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the use of a photorefractive polymeric composite to clean a phase-distorted laser beam and reconstruct a badly distorted image. Advantageous qualities including relatively high figures of merit, ease of processability, and low cost make this class of materials attractive when compared with their inorganic crystalline counterparts. In addition, we used four-wave-mixing and holographic techniques to obtain an internal diffraction efficiency of ∼31% at 54.5 V/μm and a two-beam-coupling gain coefficient of Γ = 17 cm-1 at 54.5 V/μm under our experimental conditions.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Yitzhaky, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Restoration of atmospherically blurred images according to weather-predicted atmospheric modulation transfer function,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3064–3072 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Baade, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, “A simple method for image restoration and image pre-processing using two-wave mixing in Bi12TiO20,” J. Opt. A 3, 250–254 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, San Francisco, Calif., 1968).
  5. W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2945 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, “Polysiloxane-based photorefractive polymers for digital holographic data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047–1049 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Mocam Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, T. Yamamoto, “Holographic Bragg grating generation in photorefractive polymer-dissolved liquid-crystal composites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853–3858 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

2001

T. Baade, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, “A simple method for image restoration and image pre-processing using two-wave mixing in Bi12TiO20,” J. Opt. A 3, 250–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Mocam Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, T. Yamamoto, “Holographic Bragg grating generation in photorefractive polymer-dissolved liquid-crystal composites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853–3858 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Yitzhaky, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Restoration of atmospherically blurred images according to weather-predicted atmospheric modulation transfer function,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3064–3072 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, “Polysiloxane-based photorefractive polymers for digital holographic data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047–1049 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1979

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1969

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2945 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J.

E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, N. R.

E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baade, T.

T. Baade, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, “A simple method for image restoration and image pre-processing using two-wave mixing in Bi12TiO20,” J. Opt. A 3, 250–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, “Polysiloxane-based photorefractive polymers for digital holographic data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047–1049 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dror, I.

Y. Yitzhaky, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Restoration of atmospherically blurred images according to weather-predicted atmospheric modulation transfer function,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3064–3072 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrio, K. B.

E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, San Francisco, Calif., 1968).

Hendrickx, E.

E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herlocker, J. A.

E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, T.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Mocam Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, T. Yamamoto, “Holographic Bragg grating generation in photorefractive polymer-dissolved liquid-crystal composites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853–3858 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Mocam Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, T. Yamamoto, “Holographic Bragg grating generation in photorefractive polymer-dissolved liquid-crystal composites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853–3858 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kiessling, A.

T. Baade, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, “A simple method for image restoration and image pre-processing using two-wave mixing in Bi12TiO20,” J. Opt. A 3, 250–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Mocam Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, T. Yamamoto, “Holographic Bragg grating generation in photorefractive polymer-dissolved liquid-crystal composites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853–3858 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2945 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kopeika, N. S.

Y. Yitzhaky, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Restoration of atmospherically blurred images according to weather-predicted atmospheric modulation transfer function,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3064–3072 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kowarschik, R.

T. Baade, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, “A simple method for image restoration and image pre-processing using two-wave mixing in Bi12TiO20,” J. Opt. A 3, 250–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lee, V.

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, “Polysiloxane-based photorefractive polymers for digital holographic data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047–1049 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lundquist, P. M.

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, “Polysiloxane-based photorefractive polymers for digital holographic data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047–1049 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mash, E. A.

E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mocam Frias, N.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Mocam Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, T. Yamamoto, “Holographic Bragg grating generation in photorefractive polymer-dissolved liquid-crystal composites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853–3858 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Norisada, H.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Mocam Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, T. Yamamoto, “Holographic Bragg grating generation in photorefractive polymer-dissolved liquid-crystal composites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853–3858 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Mocam Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, T. Yamamoto, “Holographic Bragg grating generation in photorefractive polymer-dissolved liquid-crystal composites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853–3858 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A. P.

E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poga, C.

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, “Polysiloxane-based photorefractive polymers for digital holographic data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047–1049 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. M.

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, “Polysiloxane-based photorefractive polymers for digital holographic data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047–1049 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Silence, S. M.

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M. S.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, “Polysiloxane-based photorefractive polymers for digital holographic data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047–1049 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vinetskii, V. L.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Mocam Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, T. Yamamoto, “Holographic Bragg grating generation in photorefractive polymer-dissolved liquid-crystal composites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853–3858 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yitzhaky, Y.

Y. Yitzhaky, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Restoration of atmospherically blurred images according to weather-predicted atmospheric modulation transfer function,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3064–3072 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, “Polysiloxane-based photorefractive polymers for digital holographic data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047–1049 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2945 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Mocam Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, T. Yamamoto, “Holographic Bragg grating generation in photorefractive polymer-dissolved liquid-crystal composites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853–3858 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

E. Hendrickx, Y. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrene chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

T. Baade, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, “A simple method for image restoration and image pre-processing using two-wave mixing in Bi12TiO20,” J. Opt. A 3, 250–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Y. Yitzhaky, I. Dror, N. S. Kopeika, “Restoration of atmospherically blurred images according to weather-predicted atmospheric modulation transfer function,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3064–3072 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, San Francisco, Calif., 1968).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram depicting the experimental setup used for PR characterizations. λ/2, half-wave plate; M, mirror; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; BS, beam splitter; L, lens; AB, phase-aberrating medium; ND, neutral-density filter; AF, Air Force resolution target; MS, mechanical shutter; PD, photodiode; CCD, charge-coupled device camera. For DFWM characterizations, M1 was removed and M8 was inserted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images depicting an unaberrated, aberrated, and corrected (a) tightly focused laser beam, (b) an interference fringe pattern that we obtained by interfering a plane wave with the aberrated beam, and (c) an Air Force resolution chart.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

External diffraction efficiency η e as a function of the applied external electric field E.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

|UobjΨab+Uref|2=Iobj+Iref+UobjΨabUref*+Uobj*Ψab*Uref,
Uobj|UobjΨab+Uref|2=IobjUobj+IrefUobj+Uobj2UrefΨab+IobjUrefΨab*,
UobjΨab|UobjΨab+Uref|2=IobjUobjΨab+IrefUobjΨab+Uobj2Uref*Ψab2+UrefIobj,

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