Abstract

A multiwavelength switching laser is demonstrated by a precise and fast tuning of a composite Lyot-Sagnac comb filter based on multisegment polarization-maintaining fibers. Broadband multiwavelength output is generated by cascaded Raman Stokes waves between 1.12 and 1.58 μm in a fiber-ring cavity with a wave-division-multiplexed coupler. Theoretical and experimental analysis of stable multiwavelength output operation for various Raman gain fibers and the electro-optic switching and flexible space tuning of interleaved wavebands are performed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, “Architectural principles of optical regional and metropolitan access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2431–2448 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. H. Kang, J. Park, “Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166–171 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Chan, C. Shu, “Electrical switching of wavelength in actively modelocked fiber laser incorporating fiber Bragg gratings,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 42–43 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. A. Yu, J. Kwon, S. Chung, S. W. Seo, B. Lee, “Multiwavelength-switchable SOA-fibre ring laser using sampled Hi-Bi fiber grating,” IEE Electron. Lett. 39, 649–650 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Park, P. F. Wysocki, “24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1459–1461 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. K. Kim, M. J. Chu, J. H. Lee, “Wideband multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 190, 291–302 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. I. Chang, D. S. Lim, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, T. Park, “Cascaded Raman fibre laser for stable dual-wavelength operation,” Electron. Lett. 37, 740–741 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. S. Kim, M. Prabhu, C. Li, J. Song, K. Ueda, “1239/1484 nm cascaded phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser with cw output power of 1.36 W at 1484 nm pumped by cw Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser at 1064 nm and spectral continuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 176, 219–222 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Koch, P. C. Reeves-Hall, S. V. Cheraikov, J. R. Taylor, “CW, multi wavelength, room temperature, Raman fiber ring laser with external 19 channel, 10 GHz pulse generation in a single electro-absorption modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WDD7.
  10. K.-Y. Liou, U. Koren, C. Chen, E. C. Burrows, K. Dreyer, J. W. Sulhoff, “A 24-channel wavelength-selectable Er-fiber ring laser with intracavity waveguide-grating-router and semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1787–1789 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. J. S. de Matos, D. A. Chestnut, P. C. Reeves-Hall, F. Koch, J. R. Taylor, “Multi-wavelength, continuous wave fibre Raman ring laser operating at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 37, 825–826 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. J. C. Libatique, R. K. Jain, “A broadly tunable wavelength-selectable WDM source using a fiber Sagnac loop filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1283–1285 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Han, Q. Li, X. Liu, B. Zhou, “Architecture of high-order all-fiber birefringent filters by the use of the Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 90–92 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Tanaka, T. Okuno, H. Omori, T. Kato, Y. Yokoyama, S. Takaoka, K. Kunitake, K. Uchiyama, S. Hanazuka, M. Nishimura, “Water-peak-suppressed non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for full spectrum coarse WDM transmission in metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WA2, pp. 171–173.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. R. M. Sova, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, “Tunable dual-wavelength all-PM fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 287–289 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength Raman source using a tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 218, 291–295 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. M. Sova, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, “Tunable all-fiber birefringence comb filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThGG61, pp. 698–699.
    [CrossRef]
  22. X. Fang, H. Ji, L. Pelz, K. Demarest, C. Allen, “A DC to multigigabits/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. H. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. J. Fang, E. Martin, J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. M. Dianov, “Advances in Raman fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1457–1462 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. N. S. Kim, X. Zou, K. Lewis, “CW depolarized multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser with over 58 channels and 50 GHz channel spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThGG21, pp. 640–642.
  26. L. Zhang, S. Wang, C. Fang, “Transient analysis in discrete fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 197, 459–465 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

B. A. Yu, J. Kwon, S. Chung, S. W. Seo, B. Lee, “Multiwavelength-switchable SOA-fibre ring laser using sampled Hi-Bi fiber grating,” IEE Electron. Lett. 39, 649–650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength Raman source using a tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 218, 291–295 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

E. M. Dianov, “Advances in Raman fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1457–1462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, “Architectural principles of optical regional and metropolitan access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2431–2448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. H. Kang, J. Park, “Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166–171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Sova, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, “Tunable dual-wavelength all-PM fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 287–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

H.-S. Seo, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, “Gain optimization of germanosilicate fiber Raman amplifier and its applications in the compensation of Raman-induced crosstalk among wavelength division multiplexing channels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1110–1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. S. de Matos, D. A. Chestnut, P. C. Reeves-Hall, F. Koch, J. R. Taylor, “Multi-wavelength, continuous wave fibre Raman ring laser operating at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 37, 825–826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. J. C. Libatique, R. K. Jain, “A broadly tunable wavelength-selectable WDM source using a fiber Sagnac loop filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1283–1285 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, M. J. Chu, J. H. Lee, “Wideband multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 190, 291–302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Chang, D. S. Lim, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, T. Park, “Cascaded Raman fibre laser for stable dual-wavelength operation,” Electron. Lett. 37, 740–741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, S. Wang, C. Fang, “Transient analysis in discrete fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 197, 459–465 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. J. Fang, E. Martin, J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Kim, M. Prabhu, C. Li, J. Song, K. Ueda, “1239/1484 nm cascaded phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser with cw output power of 1.36 W at 1484 nm pumped by cw Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser at 1064 nm and spectral continuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 176, 219–222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Chan, C. Shu, “Electrical switching of wavelength in actively modelocked fiber laser incorporating fiber Bragg gratings,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 42–43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Han, Q. Li, X. Liu, B. Zhou, “Architecture of high-order all-fiber birefringent filters by the use of the Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 90–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K.-Y. Liou, U. Koren, C. Chen, E. C. Burrows, K. Dreyer, J. W. Sulhoff, “A 24-channel wavelength-selectable Er-fiber ring laser with intracavity waveguide-grating-router and semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1787–1789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. Pelz, K. Demarest, C. Allen, “A DC to multigigabits/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. Park, P. F. Wysocki, “24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1459–1461 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, “Modulation instability and soliton-Raman generation in P2O5 doped silica fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1536–1539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Liu, E. Garmire, “Understanding the formation of the SRS stokes spectrum in fused silica fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1022–1030 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Allen, C.

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. Pelz, K. Demarest, C. Allen, “A DC to multigigabits/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, E. C.

K.-Y. Liou, U. Koren, C. Chen, E. C. Burrows, K. Dreyer, J. W. Sulhoff, “A 24-channel wavelength-selectable Er-fiber ring laser with intracavity waveguide-grating-router and semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1787–1789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K.

K. Chan, C. Shu, “Electrical switching of wavelength in actively modelocked fiber laser incorporating fiber Bragg gratings,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 42–43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D. I.

D. I. Chang, D. S. Lim, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, T. Park, “Cascaded Raman fibre laser for stable dual-wavelength operation,” Electron. Lett. 37, 740–741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

K.-Y. Liou, U. Koren, C. Chen, E. C. Burrows, K. Dreyer, J. W. Sulhoff, “A 24-channel wavelength-selectable Er-fiber ring laser with intracavity waveguide-grating-router and semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1787–1789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheraikov, S. V.

F. Koch, P. C. Reeves-Hall, S. V. Cheraikov, J. R. Taylor, “CW, multi wavelength, room temperature, Raman fiber ring laser with external 19 channel, 10 GHz pulse generation in a single electro-absorption modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WDD7.

Chestnut, D. A.

C. J. S. de Matos, D. A. Chestnut, P. C. Reeves-Hall, F. Koch, J. R. Taylor, “Multi-wavelength, continuous wave fibre Raman ring laser operating at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 37, 825–826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chu, M. J.

S. K. Kim, M. J. Chu, J. H. Lee, “Wideband multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 190, 291–302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S.

B. A. Yu, J. Kwon, S. Chung, S. W. Seo, B. Lee, “Multiwavelength-switchable SOA-fibre ring laser using sampled Hi-Bi fiber grating,” IEE Electron. Lett. 39, 649–650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Matos, C. J. S.

C. J. S. de Matos, D. A. Chestnut, P. C. Reeves-Hall, F. Koch, J. R. Taylor, “Multi-wavelength, continuous wave fibre Raman ring laser operating at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 37, 825–826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Demarest, K.

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. Pelz, K. Demarest, C. Allen, “A DC to multigigabits/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

Dreyer, K.

K.-Y. Liou, U. Koren, C. Chen, E. C. Burrows, K. Dreyer, J. W. Sulhoff, “A 24-channel wavelength-selectable Er-fiber ring laser with intracavity waveguide-grating-router and semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1787–1789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fang, C.

L. Zhang, S. Wang, C. Fang, “Transient analysis in discrete fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 197, 459–465 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. Pelz, K. Demarest, C. Allen, “A DC to multigigabits/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z. J.

R. H. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. J. Fang, E. Martin, J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

K. Liu, E. Garmire, “Understanding the formation of the SRS stokes spectrum in fused silica fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1022–1030 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, “Modulation instability and soliton-Raman generation in P2O5 doped silica fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1536–1539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. T.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Y. Han, Q. Li, X. Liu, B. Zhou, “Architecture of high-order all-fiber birefringent filters by the use of the Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 90–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. G.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanazuka, S.

M. Tanaka, T. Okuno, H. Omori, T. Kato, Y. Yokoyama, S. Takaoka, K. Kunitake, K. Uchiyama, S. Hanazuka, M. Nishimura, “Water-peak-suppressed non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for full spectrum coarse WDM transmission in metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WA2, pp. 171–173.
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

N. J. C. Libatique, R. K. Jain, “A broadly tunable wavelength-selectable WDM source using a fiber Sagnac loop filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1283–1285 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, M. Y.

D. I. Chang, D. S. Lim, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, T. Park, “Cascaded Raman fibre laser for stable dual-wavelength operation,” Electron. Lett. 37, 740–741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ji, H.

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. Pelz, K. Demarest, C. Allen, “A DC to multigigabits/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kang, C. H.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. H. Kang, J. Park, “Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166–171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength Raman source using a tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 218, 291–295 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Sova, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, “Tunable dual-wavelength all-PM fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 287–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Sova, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, “Tunable all-fiber birefringence comb filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThGG61, pp. 698–699.
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

M. Tanaka, T. Okuno, H. Omori, T. Kato, Y. Yokoyama, S. Takaoka, K. Kunitake, K. Uchiyama, S. Hanazuka, M. Nishimura, “Water-peak-suppressed non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for full spectrum coarse WDM transmission in metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WA2, pp. 171–173.
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength Raman source using a tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 218, 291–295 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength Raman source using a tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 218, 291–295 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Sova, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, “Tunable all-fiber birefringence comb filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThGG61, pp. 698–699.
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.-S.

R. M. Sova, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, “Tunable dual-wavelength all-PM fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 287–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

D. I. Chang, D. S. Lim, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, T. Park, “Cascaded Raman fibre laser for stable dual-wavelength operation,” Electron. Lett. 37, 740–741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. S.

N. S. Kim, M. Prabhu, C. Li, J. Song, K. Ueda, “1239/1484 nm cascaded phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser with cw output power of 1.36 W at 1484 nm pumped by cw Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser at 1064 nm and spectral continuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 176, 219–222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Kim, X. Zou, K. Lewis, “CW depolarized multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser with over 58 channels and 50 GHz channel spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThGG21, pp. 640–642.

Kim, S. K.

S. K. Kim, M. J. Chu, J. H. Lee, “Wideband multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 190, 291–302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. H. Kang, J. Park, “Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166–171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koch, F.

C. J. S. de Matos, D. A. Chestnut, P. C. Reeves-Hall, F. Koch, J. R. Taylor, “Multi-wavelength, continuous wave fibre Raman ring laser operating at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 37, 825–826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Koch, P. C. Reeves-Hall, S. V. Cheraikov, J. R. Taylor, “CW, multi wavelength, room temperature, Raman fiber ring laser with external 19 channel, 10 GHz pulse generation in a single electro-absorption modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WDD7.

Koren, U.

K.-Y. Liou, U. Koren, C. Chen, E. C. Burrows, K. Dreyer, J. W. Sulhoff, “A 24-channel wavelength-selectable Er-fiber ring laser with intracavity waveguide-grating-router and semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1787–1789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kunitake, K.

M. Tanaka, T. Okuno, H. Omori, T. Kato, Y. Yokoyama, S. Takaoka, K. Kunitake, K. Uchiyama, S. Hanazuka, M. Nishimura, “Water-peak-suppressed non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for full spectrum coarse WDM transmission in metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WA2, pp. 171–173.
[CrossRef]

Kwon, J.

B. A. Yu, J. Kwon, S. Chung, S. W. Seo, B. Lee, “Multiwavelength-switchable SOA-fibre ring laser using sampled Hi-Bi fiber grating,” IEE Electron. Lett. 39, 649–650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laybourn, P. J. R.

Lee, B.

B. A. Yu, J. Kwon, S. Chung, S. W. Seo, B. Lee, “Multiwavelength-switchable SOA-fibre ring laser using sampled Hi-Bi fiber grating,” IEE Electron. Lett. 39, 649–650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

S. K. Kim, M. J. Chu, J. H. Lee, “Wideband multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 190, 291–302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. H. Kang, J. Park, “Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166–171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, K.

N. S. Kim, X. Zou, K. Lewis, “CW depolarized multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser with over 58 channels and 50 GHz channel spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThGG21, pp. 640–642.

Li, C.

N. S. Kim, M. Prabhu, C. Li, J. Song, K. Ueda, “1239/1484 nm cascaded phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser with cw output power of 1.36 W at 1484 nm pumped by cw Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser at 1064 nm and spectral continuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 176, 219–222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Y. Han, Q. Li, X. Liu, B. Zhou, “Architecture of high-order all-fiber birefringent filters by the use of the Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 90–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Libatique, N. J. C.

N. J. C. Libatique, R. K. Jain, “A broadly tunable wavelength-selectable WDM source using a fiber Sagnac loop filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1283–1285 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. S.

D. I. Chang, D. S. Lim, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, T. Park, “Cascaded Raman fibre laser for stable dual-wavelength operation,” Electron. Lett. 37, 740–741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Liou, U. Koren, C. Chen, E. C. Burrows, K. Dreyer, J. W. Sulhoff, “A 24-channel wavelength-selectable Er-fiber ring laser with intracavity waveguide-grating-router and semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1787–1789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, E. Garmire, “Understanding the formation of the SRS stokes spectrum in fused silica fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1022–1030 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Y. Han, Q. Li, X. Liu, B. Zhou, “Architecture of high-order all-fiber birefringent filters by the use of the Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 90–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, E.

R. H. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. J. Fang, E. Martin, J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, J. P.

R. H. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. J. Fang, E. Martin, J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, M.

M. Tanaka, T. Okuno, H. Omori, T. Kato, Y. Yokoyama, S. Takaoka, K. Kunitake, K. Uchiyama, S. Hanazuka, M. Nishimura, “Water-peak-suppressed non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for full spectrum coarse WDM transmission in metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WA2, pp. 171–173.
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

H.-S. Seo, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, “Gain optimization of germanosilicate fiber Raman amplifier and its applications in the compensation of Raman-induced crosstalk among wavelength division multiplexing channels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1110–1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

M. Tanaka, T. Okuno, H. Omori, T. Kato, Y. Yokoyama, S. Takaoka, K. Kunitake, K. Uchiyama, S. Hanazuka, M. Nishimura, “Water-peak-suppressed non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for full spectrum coarse WDM transmission in metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WA2, pp. 171–173.
[CrossRef]

Omori, H.

M. Tanaka, T. Okuno, H. Omori, T. Kato, Y. Yokoyama, S. Takaoka, K. Kunitake, K. Uchiyama, S. Hanazuka, M. Nishimura, “Water-peak-suppressed non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for full spectrum coarse WDM transmission in metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WA2, pp. 171–173.
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

H.-S. Seo, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, “Gain optimization of germanosilicate fiber Raman amplifier and its applications in the compensation of Raman-induced crosstalk among wavelength division multiplexing channels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1110–1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. H. Kang, J. Park, “Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166–171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

N. Park, P. F. Wysocki, “24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1459–1461 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, T.

D. I. Chang, D. S. Lim, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, T. Park, “Cascaded Raman fibre laser for stable dual-wavelength operation,” Electron. Lett. 37, 740–741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pelz, L.

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. Pelz, K. Demarest, C. Allen, “A DC to multigigabits/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prabhu, M.

N. S. Kim, M. Prabhu, C. Li, J. Song, K. Ueda, “1239/1484 nm cascaded phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser with cw output power of 1.36 W at 1484 nm pumped by cw Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser at 1064 nm and spectral continuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 176, 219–222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qu, R. H.

R. H. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. J. Fang, E. Martin, J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reeves-Hall, P. C.

C. J. S. de Matos, D. A. Chestnut, P. C. Reeves-Hall, F. Koch, J. R. Taylor, “Multi-wavelength, continuous wave fibre Raman ring laser operating at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 37, 825–826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Koch, P. C. Reeves-Hall, S. V. Cheraikov, J. R. Taylor, “CW, multi wavelength, room temperature, Raman fiber ring laser with external 19 channel, 10 GHz pulse generation in a single electro-absorption modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WDD7.

Saleh, A. A. M.

Seo, H.-S.

H.-S. Seo, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, “Gain optimization of germanosilicate fiber Raman amplifier and its applications in the compensation of Raman-induced crosstalk among wavelength division multiplexing channels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1110–1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S. W.

B. A. Yu, J. Kwon, S. Chung, S. W. Seo, B. Lee, “Multiwavelength-switchable SOA-fibre ring laser using sampled Hi-Bi fiber grating,” IEE Electron. Lett. 39, 649–650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C.

K. Chan, C. Shu, “Electrical switching of wavelength in actively modelocked fiber laser incorporating fiber Bragg gratings,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 42–43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. M.

Song, J.

N. S. Kim, M. Prabhu, C. Li, J. Song, K. Ueda, “1239/1484 nm cascaded phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser with cw output power of 1.36 W at 1484 nm pumped by cw Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser at 1064 nm and spectral continuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 176, 219–222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sova, R. M.

C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength Raman source using a tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 218, 291–295 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Sova, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, “Tunable dual-wavelength all-PM fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 287–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Sova, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, “Tunable all-fiber birefringence comb filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThGG61, pp. 698–699.
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

K.-Y. Liou, U. Koren, C. Chen, E. C. Burrows, K. Dreyer, J. W. Sulhoff, “A 24-channel wavelength-selectable Er-fiber ring laser with intracavity waveguide-grating-router and semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1787–1789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takaoka, S.

M. Tanaka, T. Okuno, H. Omori, T. Kato, Y. Yokoyama, S. Takaoka, K. Kunitake, K. Uchiyama, S. Hanazuka, M. Nishimura, “Water-peak-suppressed non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for full spectrum coarse WDM transmission in metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WA2, pp. 171–173.
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

M. Tanaka, T. Okuno, H. Omori, T. Kato, Y. Yokoyama, S. Takaoka, K. Kunitake, K. Uchiyama, S. Hanazuka, M. Nishimura, “Water-peak-suppressed non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for full spectrum coarse WDM transmission in metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WA2, pp. 171–173.
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

C. J. S. de Matos, D. A. Chestnut, P. C. Reeves-Hall, F. Koch, J. R. Taylor, “Multi-wavelength, continuous wave fibre Raman ring laser operating at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 37, 825–826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Koch, P. C. Reeves-Hall, S. V. Cheraikov, J. R. Taylor, “CW, multi wavelength, room temperature, Raman fiber ring laser with external 19 channel, 10 GHz pulse generation in a single electro-absorption modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WDD7.

Uchiyama, K.

M. Tanaka, T. Okuno, H. Omori, T. Kato, Y. Yokoyama, S. Takaoka, K. Kunitake, K. Uchiyama, S. Hanazuka, M. Nishimura, “Water-peak-suppressed non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for full spectrum coarse WDM transmission in metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WA2, pp. 171–173.
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

N. S. Kim, M. Prabhu, C. Li, J. Song, K. Ueda, “1239/1484 nm cascaded phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser with cw output power of 1.36 W at 1484 nm pumped by cw Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser at 1064 nm and spectral continuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 176, 219–222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Urquhart, W. P.

Wang, S.

L. Zhang, S. Wang, C. Fang, “Transient analysis in discrete fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 197, 459–465 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, P. F.

N. Park, P. F. Wysocki, “24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1459–1461 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, Y.

M. Tanaka, T. Okuno, H. Omori, T. Kato, Y. Yokoyama, S. Takaoka, K. Kunitake, K. Uchiyama, S. Hanazuka, M. Nishimura, “Water-peak-suppressed non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for full spectrum coarse WDM transmission in metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WA2, pp. 171–173.
[CrossRef]

Yu, B. A.

B. A. Yu, J. Kwon, S. Chung, S. W. Seo, B. Lee, “Multiwavelength-switchable SOA-fibre ring laser using sampled Hi-Bi fiber grating,” IEE Electron. Lett. 39, 649–650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. H. Kang, J. Park, “Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166–171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, S. Wang, C. Fang, “Transient analysis in discrete fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 197, 459–465 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

R. H. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. J. Fang, E. Martin, J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B.

Y. Han, Q. Li, X. Liu, B. Zhou, “Architecture of high-order all-fiber birefringent filters by the use of the Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 90–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X.

N. S. Kim, X. Zou, K. Lewis, “CW depolarized multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser with over 58 channels and 50 GHz channel spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThGG21, pp. 640–642.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. I. Chang, D. S. Lim, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, T. Park, “Cascaded Raman fibre laser for stable dual-wavelength operation,” Electron. Lett. 37, 740–741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. S. de Matos, D. A. Chestnut, P. C. Reeves-Hall, F. Koch, J. R. Taylor, “Multi-wavelength, continuous wave fibre Raman ring laser operating at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 37, 825–826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEE Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Chan, C. Shu, “Electrical switching of wavelength in actively modelocked fiber laser incorporating fiber Bragg gratings,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 42–43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Yu, J. Kwon, S. Chung, S. W. Seo, B. Lee, “Multiwavelength-switchable SOA-fibre ring laser using sampled Hi-Bi fiber grating,” IEE Electron. Lett. 39, 649–650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. Liu, E. Garmire, “Understanding the formation of the SRS stokes spectrum in fused silica fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1022–1030 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Seo, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, “Gain optimization of germanosilicate fiber Raman amplifier and its applications in the compensation of Raman-induced crosstalk among wavelength division multiplexing channels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1110–1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. H. Kang, J. Park, “Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166–171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (6)

K.-Y. Liou, U. Koren, C. Chen, E. C. Burrows, K. Dreyer, J. W. Sulhoff, “A 24-channel wavelength-selectable Er-fiber ring laser with intracavity waveguide-grating-router and semiconductor Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1787–1789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Park, P. F. Wysocki, “24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1459–1461 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Sova, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, “Tunable dual-wavelength all-PM fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 287–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. J. C. Libatique, R. K. Jain, “A broadly tunable wavelength-selectable WDM source using a fiber Sagnac loop filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1283–1285 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, Q. Li, X. Liu, B. Zhou, “Architecture of high-order all-fiber birefringent filters by the use of the Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 90–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. J. Fang, E. Martin, J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, “Architectural principles of optical regional and metropolitan access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2431–2448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, “Advances in Raman fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1457–1462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. Pelz, K. Demarest, C. Allen, “A DC to multigigabits/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, “Modulation instability and soliton-Raman generation in P2O5 doped silica fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1536–1539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (5)

C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength Raman source using a tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 218, 291–295 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, M. J. Chu, J. H. Lee, “Wideband multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 190, 291–302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Kim, M. Prabhu, C. Li, J. Song, K. Ueda, “1239/1484 nm cascaded phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser with cw output power of 1.36 W at 1484 nm pumped by cw Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser at 1064 nm and spectral continuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 176, 219–222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, S. Wang, C. Fang, “Transient analysis in discrete fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 197, 459–465 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

N. S. Kim, X. Zou, K. Lewis, “CW depolarized multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser with over 58 channels and 50 GHz channel spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThGG21, pp. 640–642.

F. Koch, P. C. Reeves-Hall, S. V. Cheraikov, J. R. Taylor, “CW, multi wavelength, room temperature, Raman fiber ring laser with external 19 channel, 10 GHz pulse generation in a single electro-absorption modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WDD7.

R. M. Sova, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, “Tunable all-fiber birefringence comb filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThGG61, pp. 698–699.
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, T. Okuno, H. Omori, T. Kato, Y. Yokoyama, S. Takaoka, K. Kunitake, K. Uchiyama, S. Hanazuka, M. Nishimura, “Water-peak-suppressed non-zero dispersion shifted fiber for full spectrum coarse WDM transmission in metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper WA2, pp. 171–173.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment setup for broadband multiwavelength switching source based on Raman fiber ring-laser configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated intensity growth curves for each Stokes order from the 1064-nm pump along the increased fiber length. Cross-coupling parameters are assumed to be same as 1 along the wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation of the intensities of the pump and each Stokes order along the fiber length for maximum cross-coupling parameter (a) = 1, (b) = 2, (c) = 6. The required threshold lengths for each Stokes are indicated in (a) for example.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Calculated values of the required length of each Stokes generation from first- to seventh-order segments from the simulation of Fig. 3. Inset shows the cross-coupling parameters along the wavelength, which are used in the simulation of Figs. 3 and 4. (b) Experimentally measured values of the required pump power to generate each Stokes from first to seventh order for 4-km DSF, 7-km Allwave, and 4-km HNLF Raman gain fibers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cascaded Raman spectra from (a) 4-km DSF for 3.2 and 6 W pump power, (b) 7-km Allwave for 4.3 and 5.6 W pump power, and (c) 4-km HNLF for 1 and 5 W pump power. The ranges of the bands are shown in (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Experimental setup of multisegment PMF Sagnac loop filter of the dashed line in Fig. 1. (b) Basic concept of tunable effective length of the variable PMF module of the dashed line in (a). In this state, the optical axis of the second segment of the PMF is shown to be orthogonally aligned with those of first and nth segment PMFs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental tuning of wavelength channel spacing with the three-segment PMF Sagnac loop filter of the effective length of (a) L3 + L2 + L1, (b) L3 + L2 - L1, (c) L3 - L2 + L1, and (d) L3 - L2 - L1, where L1 = 1.8 m, L2 = 3.8 m, and L3 = 6.6 m.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Experimental linear shift of output spectrum over one channel spacing as changing the applied voltages. The wavelengths of A and B have a difference of a half-channel period. (b) Dynamic responses for wavelengths A and B by applying the 0–11-V square-wave signal of 18 kHz.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Discrete tuning operation of wavelength spacing of multiwavelength laser spectrum for the effective PMF length of (a) L1 + L2 and (b) L1 - L2, where L1 = 4 m and L2 = 2 m.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Interleaved switching operation of multiwavelength laser spectrum with the driving phase difference, Δϕ(V), between 0 and π. Here, the modulation voltages to EOPC are 0 and 11 V.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dI0dz=-α0I0-k=1nFkg0kIk+C0Fkg0kg0mI0,
dIidz=-αiIi+j=0i-1FigjiIi+CjFigjigjmIj-k=i+1nFkgikIk+CiFkgikgimIi,
Δλ=λ2ΔneoLeff,
Leff=δL k=1n-1b2k-1,
Tϕ=sin2πλ ΔneoLeff+ΔϕV2.

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