Abstract

A novel grating-writing interferometer is demonstrated. This interferometer is compact, stable, and tunable well over 1000 nm and does not suffer from the inherent path-length differences that are present in other methods. It allows for high-quality gratings to be inscribed by preventing light from unwanted orders from affecting the fringe pattern. This technique is used to introduce a novel method of apodization based on removing the Fresnel end reflections in a grating. The experimental evidence proves the concept and shows that the technique is potentially useful for Bragg-grating inscription.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fibre Bragg Gratings-Fundamentals Applications in Telecommunications and Sensors (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1999).
  2. J. Canning, “Radiation losses in waveguide Bragg gratings written with a holographic phase mask,” in Technical Digest of the OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (Institute of Electronic, Information, and Communication Engineers, Chiba, Japan, 2000).
  3. Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, P. L. Chu, “Effects of the zeroth-order diffraction of a phase mask on Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2361–2365 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. J. Ashton, J. Canning, “Two-point source grating writing methods,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (COM Centre Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002), Vol. 3.
  5. K.-I. Hibino, Z. Hegedus, “Aberration compensation in a grating interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4156–4163 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Canning, P.-F. Hu, “Stability of thermally hypersensitised phosphosilicate waveguides and the characteristic growth curve,” Opt. Express 9, 476–482 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. B. Poumellec, “Glass photosensitivity,” Lecture 5 of the White Nights Summer School on Photosensitivity in Optical Waveguides and Glasses, Fibre Optics Research Centre at the General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, 2002.
  8. B. J. Ashton, J. Canning, “Two-point source grating writing methods,” in Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technologies (Australian Optical Society, Sydney, Australia, 2002), pp. 23–25.
  9. B. J. Ashton, J. Canning, “DC-only apodisation of fibre Bragg gratings,” in Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technologies (Australian Optical Society, Sydney, Australia, 2002), pp. 110–112.
  10. H. Li, Y. Sheng, Y. Li, J. E. Rothenberg, “Phased-only sampled fiber Bragg gratings for high-channel-count chromatic dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2074–2083 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

Ashton, B. J.

B. J. Ashton, J. Canning, “Two-point source grating writing methods,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (COM Centre Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002), Vol. 3.

B. J. Ashton, J. Canning, “Two-point source grating writing methods,” in Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technologies (Australian Optical Society, Sydney, Australia, 2002), pp. 23–25.

B. J. Ashton, J. Canning, “DC-only apodisation of fibre Bragg gratings,” in Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technologies (Australian Optical Society, Sydney, Australia, 2002), pp. 110–112.

Canning, J.

J. Canning, P.-F. Hu, “Stability of thermally hypersensitised phosphosilicate waveguides and the characteristic growth curve,” Opt. Express 9, 476–482 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Ashton, J. Canning, “DC-only apodisation of fibre Bragg gratings,” in Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technologies (Australian Optical Society, Sydney, Australia, 2002), pp. 110–112.

B. J. Ashton, J. Canning, “Two-point source grating writing methods,” in Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technologies (Australian Optical Society, Sydney, Australia, 2002), pp. 23–25.

B. J. Ashton, J. Canning, “Two-point source grating writing methods,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (COM Centre Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002), Vol. 3.

J. Canning, “Radiation losses in waveguide Bragg gratings written with a holographic phase mask,” in Technical Digest of the OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (Institute of Electronic, Information, and Communication Engineers, Chiba, Japan, 2000).

Chu, P. L.

Hegedus, Z.

Hibino, K.-I.

Hu, P.-F.

Kalli, K.

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fibre Bragg Gratings-Fundamentals Applications in Telecommunications and Sensors (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1999).

Li, H.

Li, Y.

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fibre Bragg Gratings-Fundamentals Applications in Telecommunications and Sensors (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1999).

Peng, G. D.

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec, “Glass photosensitivity,” Lecture 5 of the White Nights Summer School on Photosensitivity in Optical Waveguides and Glasses, Fibre Optics Research Centre at the General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, 2002.

Rothenberg, J. E.

Sheng, Y.

Wu, B.

Xiong, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (6)

B. Poumellec, “Glass photosensitivity,” Lecture 5 of the White Nights Summer School on Photosensitivity in Optical Waveguides and Glasses, Fibre Optics Research Centre at the General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, 2002.

B. J. Ashton, J. Canning, “Two-point source grating writing methods,” in Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technologies (Australian Optical Society, Sydney, Australia, 2002), pp. 23–25.

B. J. Ashton, J. Canning, “DC-only apodisation of fibre Bragg gratings,” in Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technologies (Australian Optical Society, Sydney, Australia, 2002), pp. 110–112.

B. J. Ashton, J. Canning, “Two-point source grating writing methods,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (COM Centre Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002), Vol. 3.

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fibre Bragg Gratings-Fundamentals Applications in Telecommunications and Sensors (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1999).

J. Canning, “Radiation losses in waveguide Bragg gratings written with a holographic phase mask,” in Technical Digest of the OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (Institute of Electronic, Information, and Communication Engineers, Chiba, Japan, 2000).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Interferometric FBG fabrication method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectrum of a spot grating made by the new method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectrum of a uniform, directly written grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of fringe contrast.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the effect of beam divergence on fringe period.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrum of the tuning range of this technique.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectrum of an apodized grating made by bulk exposure at the ends of.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical reflection spectrum of a uniform grating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Grating spectrum written by translation of the beam across a pair of collimating mirrors.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Tuning range of the mirror-collimated method.

Equations (1)

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ΛPM=mλUVsin θm-sin θi=neffλB,

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