Abstract

The design and preliminary tests of an automated differential absorption lidar (DIAL) that profiles water vapor in the lower troposphere are presented. The instrument, named CODI (for compact DIAL), has been developed to be eye safe, low cost, weatherproof, and portable. The lidar design and its unattended operation are described. Nighttime intercomparisons with in situ sensors and a radiosonde are shown. Desired improvements to the lidar, including a more powerful laser, are also discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

Janet L. Machol, Tom Ayers, Karl T. Schwenz, Keith W. Koenig, R. Michael Hardesty, Christoph J. Senff, Michael A. Krainak, James B. Abshire, Hector E. Bravo, and Scott P. Sandberg, "Preliminary measurements with an automated compact differential absorption lidar for the profiling of water vapor: errata," Appl. Opt. 45, 3544-3544 (2006)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-45-15-3544

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. F. Dabberdt, T. W. Schlatter, “Research opportunities from emerging atmospheric observing and modeling capabilities,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 77, 305–323 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR-NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Moninger, R. Mamrosh, P. Pauley, “Automated meteorological reports from commercial aircraft,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 84, 203–216 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Schotland, “Some observations of the vertical profile of water vapor by a laser optical radar,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1966), pp. 273–283.
  5. H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the high-resolution interferometer sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. H. Ware, C. Alber, C. Rocken, F. Solheim, “Sensing integrated water vapor along GPS ray paths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 417–420 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hirahara, “Local GPS tropospheric tomography,” Earth Planets Space 52, 935–939 (2000).
  8. J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, D. D. Turner, “Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979–4990 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Wulfmeyer, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: development and specifications of a high-performance laser transmitter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3804–3860 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Bruneau, P. Quaglia, C. Flamant, M. Meissonnier, J. Pelon, “The airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. I. System description,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3450–3475 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9903–9916 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, W. Renger, G. Simmet, “Airborne remote sensing of tropospheric water vapor with a near-infrared differential absorption lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4534–4551 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. Reusser, M. Humphrey, “Measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a compact AlGaAs laser based DIAL instrument,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 196.
  14. L. M. Little, G. C. Papen, “Fiber-based lidar for atmospheric water-vapor measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3417–3427 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particles and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), pp. 71–151.
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 71–77 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Boesenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: methodology,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3845–3860 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1983).
  21. S. L. Hess, Introduction to Theoretical Meteorology (Holt, Rinehart Winston, New York, 1959).
  22. E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, B. E. Grossmann, “Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1517–1524 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Harms, W. Lahmann, C. Weitkamp, “Geometrical compression of lidar return signals,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1131–1135 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Halldorsson, J. Langerholc, “Geometrical form factors for the lidar function,” Appl. Opt. 17, 240–244 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. E. E. Remsberg, L. L. Gordley, “Analysis of differential absorption lidar from the space shuttle,” Appl. Opt. 17, 624–630 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. R. Rogers, A Short Course in Cloud Physics (Pergamon, New York, 1983).
  27. J. N. Walpole, “Semiconductor amplifiers and lasers with tapered gain regions,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 623–645 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. F. Welch, “A brief history of high-power semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1470–1477 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. A. Morris, J. C. Connolly, R. U. Martinelli, J. H. Abeles, A. L. Cook, “Single mode distributed feedback 761 nm GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 455–457 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  30. SDL-8630 Tunable Laser Diode Operator’s Manual (SDL, Inc., San Jose, Calif., 1996).
  31. American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1-2000 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2000).
  32. D. H. Lenshow, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Senff, “Measuring second- through fourth-order moments in noisy data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1330–1347 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

B. Moninger, R. Mamrosh, P. Pauley, “Automated meteorological reports from commercial aircraft,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 84, 203–216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (4)

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9903–9916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirahara, “Local GPS tropospheric tomography,” Earth Planets Space 52, 935–939 (2000).

D. F. Welch, “A brief history of high-power semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1470–1477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Lenshow, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Senff, “Measuring second- through fourth-order moments in noisy data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1330–1347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR-NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1997 (1)

R. H. Ware, C. Alber, C. Rocken, F. Solheim, “Sensing integrated water vapor along GPS ray paths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 417–420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Dabberdt, T. W. Schlatter, “Research opportunities from emerging atmospheric observing and modeling capabilities,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 77, 305–323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Walpole, “Semiconductor amplifiers and lasers with tapered gain regions,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 623–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. A. Morris, J. C. Connolly, R. U. Martinelli, J. H. Abeles, A. L. Cook, “Single mode distributed feedback 761 nm GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 455–457 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

1978 (3)

1974 (1)

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, J. H.

N. A. Morris, J. C. Connolly, R. U. Martinelli, J. H. Abeles, A. L. Cook, “Single mode distributed feedback 761 nm GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 455–457 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, J. B.

J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. Reusser, M. Humphrey, “Measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a compact AlGaAs laser based DIAL instrument,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 196.

Alber, C.

R. H. Ware, C. Alber, C. Rocken, F. Solheim, “Sensing integrated water vapor along GPS ray paths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 417–420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Banta, R. M.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR-NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bevis, M.

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, S. E.

Blair, F. H.

Bock, Y.

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boesenberg, J.

Brackett, V. G.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9903–9916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9903–9916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, B. E. Grossmann, “Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1517–1524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bruneau, D.

Buijs, H.

Businger, S.

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiswell, S. R.

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, M. B.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9903–9916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particles and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), pp. 71–151.
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J. C.

N. A. Morris, J. C. Connolly, R. U. Martinelli, J. H. Abeles, A. L. Cook, “Single mode distributed feedback 761 nm GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 455–457 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cook, A. L.

N. A. Morris, J. C. Connolly, R. U. Martinelli, J. H. Abeles, A. L. Cook, “Single mode distributed feedback 761 nm GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 455–457 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dabberdt, W. F.

W. F. Dabberdt, T. W. Schlatter, “Research opportunities from emerging atmospheric observing and modeling capabilities,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 77, 305–323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duan, J. M.

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, G.

Fang, P.

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9903–9916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, C.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

Gordley, L. L.

Grossmann, B. E.

Halldorsson, T.

Hardesty, R. M.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR-NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harms, J.

Hering, T. A.

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hess, S. L.

S. L. Hess, Introduction to Theoretical Meteorology (Holt, Rinehart Winston, New York, 1959).

Hirahara, K.

K. Hirahara, “Local GPS tropospheric tomography,” Earth Planets Space 52, 935–939 (2000).

Howell, H. B.

Humphrey, M.

J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. Reusser, M. Humphrey, “Measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a compact AlGaAs laser based DIAL instrument,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 196.

Ismail, S.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9903–9916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, B. E. Grossmann, “Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1517–1524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kiemle, C.

King, R. W.

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kooi, S. A.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9903–9916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lahmann, W.

Langerholc, J.

LaPorte, D. D.

Lenshow, D. H.

D. H. Lenshow, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Senff, “Measuring second- through fourth-order moments in noisy data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1330–1347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Little, L. M.

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1983).

Mamrosh, R.

B. Moninger, R. Mamrosh, P. Pauley, “Automated meteorological reports from commercial aircraft,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 84, 203–216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, R. U.

N. A. Morris, J. C. Connolly, R. U. Martinelli, J. H. Abeles, A. L. Cook, “Single mode distributed feedback 761 nm GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 455–457 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meissonnier, M.

Moninger, B.

B. Moninger, R. Mamrosh, P. Pauley, “Automated meteorological reports from commercial aircraft,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 84, 203–216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morris, N. A.

N. A. Morris, J. C. Connolly, R. U. Martinelli, J. H. Abeles, A. L. Cook, “Single mode distributed feedback 761 nm GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 455–457 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Papen, G. C.

Pauley, P.

B. Moninger, R. Mamrosh, P. Pauley, “Automated meteorological reports from commercial aircraft,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 84, 203–216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quaglia, P.

Rall, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. Reusser, M. Humphrey, “Measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a compact AlGaAs laser based DIAL instrument,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 196.

Remsberg, E. E.

Renger, W.

Reusser, D.

J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. Reusser, M. Humphrey, “Measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a compact AlGaAs laser based DIAL instrument,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 196.

Revercomb, H. E.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rocken, C.

R. H. Ware, C. Alber, C. Rocken, F. Solheim, “Sensing integrated water vapor along GPS ray paths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 417–420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, R. R.

R. R. Rogers, A Short Course in Cloud Physics (Pergamon, New York, 1983).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9903–9916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particles and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), pp. 71–151.
[CrossRef]

Schlatter, T. W.

W. F. Dabberdt, T. W. Schlatter, “Research opportunities from emerging atmospheric observing and modeling capabilities,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 77, 305–323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, “Some observations of the vertical profile of water vapor by a laser optical radar,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1966), pp. 273–283.

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Senff, C.

D. H. Lenshow, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Senff, “Measuring second- through fourth-order moments in noisy data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1330–1347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simmet, G.

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

Soldheim, F.

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, F.

R. H. Ware, C. Alber, C. Rocken, F. Solheim, “Sensing integrated water vapor along GPS ray paths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 417–420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sromovsky, L. A.

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D. D.

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wakimoto, R. M.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR-NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walpole, J. N.

J. N. Walpole, “Semiconductor amplifiers and lasers with tapered gain regions,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 623–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ware, R. H.

R. H. Ware, C. Alber, C. Rocken, F. Solheim, “Sensing integrated water vapor along GPS ray paths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 417–420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weckwerth, T. M.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR-NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Welch, D. F.

D. F. Welch, “A brief history of high-power semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1470–1477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. W.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR-NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wulfmeyer, V.

D. H. Lenshow, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Senff, “Measuring second- through fourth-order moments in noisy data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1330–1347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR-NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: development and specifications of a high-performance laser transmitter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3804–3860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (11)

J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, D. D. Turner, “Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979–4990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: development and specifications of a high-performance laser transmitter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3804–3860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, P. Quaglia, C. Flamant, M. Meissonnier, J. Pelon, “The airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. I. System description,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3450–3475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the high-resolution interferometer sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, W. Renger, G. Simmet, “Airborne remote sensing of tropospheric water vapor with a near-infrared differential absorption lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4534–4551 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Little, G. C. Papen, “Fiber-based lidar for atmospheric water-vapor measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3417–3427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Boesenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: methodology,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3845–3860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, B. E. Grossmann, “Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1517–1524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Harms, W. Lahmann, C. Weitkamp, “Geometrical compression of lidar return signals,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1131–1135 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Halldorsson, J. Langerholc, “Geometrical form factors for the lidar function,” Appl. Opt. 17, 240–244 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Remsberg, L. L. Gordley, “Analysis of differential absorption lidar from the space shuttle,” Appl. Opt. 17, 624–630 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. (3)

W. F. Dabberdt, T. W. Schlatter, “Research opportunities from emerging atmospheric observing and modeling capabilities,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 77, 305–323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR-NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Moninger, R. Mamrosh, P. Pauley, “Automated meteorological reports from commercial aircraft,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 84, 203–216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Earth Planets Space (1)

K. Hirahara, “Local GPS tropospheric tomography,” Earth Planets Space 52, 935–939 (2000).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

R. H. Ware, C. Alber, C. Rocken, F. Solheim, “Sensing integrated water vapor along GPS ray paths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 417–420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. F. Welch, “A brief history of high-power semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1470–1477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. A. Morris, J. C. Connolly, R. U. Martinelli, J. H. Abeles, A. L. Cook, “Single mode distributed feedback 761 nm GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 455–457 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteor. (2)

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Duan, M. Bevis, P. Fang, Y. Bock, S. R. Chiswell, S. Businger, C. Rocken, F. Soldheim, R. H. Ware, T. A. Hering, R. W. King, “Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System,” J. Appl. Meteor. 35, 830–838 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

D. H. Lenshow, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Senff, “Measuring second- through fourth-order moments in noisy data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1330–1347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, V. G. Brackett, P. B. Russell, “LASE measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9903–9916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. N. Walpole, “Semiconductor amplifiers and lasers with tapered gain regions,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 623–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

SDL-8630 Tunable Laser Diode Operator’s Manual (SDL, Inc., San Jose, Calif., 1996).

American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1-2000 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2000).

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1983).

S. L. Hess, Introduction to Theoretical Meteorology (Holt, Rinehart Winston, New York, 1959).

R. R. Rogers, A Short Course in Cloud Physics (Pergamon, New York, 1983).

R. M. Schotland, “Some observations of the vertical profile of water vapor by a laser optical radar,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1966), pp. 273–283.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particles and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), pp. 71–151.
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Rall, J. B. Abshire, D. Reusser, M. Humphrey, “Measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a compact AlGaAs laser based DIAL instrument,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 196.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of CODI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of CODI. UPS, uninterruptible power supply.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical layout of the lidar.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical water-vapor cell and etalon transmission traces used in the laser wavelength lock loop.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

On- and off-line nighttime horizontal atmospheric returns. These measurements were made at 20:24 (local time) on 3 February 2003 and calculated with 180-m, 30-min averaging and background subtraction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Horizontal water-vapor profile recorded at 20:24 (local time) on 3 February 2003 calculated with 180-m, 30-min averaging.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Nighttime comparison (14 h) of the horizontal DIAL measurements at the 1000-m range gate with ground-based in situ sensors. These measurements were made on 4 February 2003 UTC. The DIAL values were calculated with 180-m, 30-min averaging. The DIAL error bars are identical for all times, and so, for clarity, an error bar is shown only for the first data point. We can obtain the local time by subtracting 7 h from UTC. (b) Map of sensors and DIAL beam used in horizontal intercomparisons. (c) Cross section through Boulder showing the terrain and the locations of the three in situ sensors and the DIAL beam with the 1000-m range marked. The cross section is aligned with the Mesa and Foothills sensors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of a nighttime vertical DIAL profile with radiosonde-derived values. Measurements were taken at 19:04 (local time) on 12 March 2003. The DIAL data are a 30-min average. Two vertical gate sizes are used, 240 m at lower altitudes and 480 m at the higher altitudes.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Lidar Specifications

Tables Icon

Table 2 Accessible Water-Vapor Lines for DIAL

Tables Icon

Table 3 Specifications of in situ Meteorological Sensors Used in Horizontal Intercomparisons

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PR=P0cτ2βRAR-2 exp-2 0R αrdr,
ρvR=MH2ONA12σon-σoffΔR×lnPonRPoffR+ΔRPonR+ΔRPoffR,
ST=S0T0T1.5 exp-hcEkB1T-1T0,
Tz=Ts+γaz,
pz=psTz/Ts-g/RLγa,
OD=2Nσzmax1.
RH100 ees
e=ρvRvT,
ρv=esRH100RvT,
es=es0 expLRv1T0-1T,

Metrics