Abstract

We have developed a white-light interference microscope for ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography of biological media. The experimental setup is based on a Linnik-type interferometer illuminated by a tungsten halogen lamp. En face tomographic images are calculated by a combination of interferometric images recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. Spatial resolution of 1.8 μm × 0.9 μm (transverse × axial) is achieved owing to the extremely short coherence length of the source, the compensation of dispersion mismatch in the interferometer arms, and the use of relatively high-numerical-aperture microscope objectives. A shot-noise-limited detection sensitivity of 90 dB is obtained in an acquisition time per image of 4 s. Subcellular-level images of plant, animal, and human tissues are presented.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003

2002

2001

2000

H. Ishikawa, R. Gürses-Özden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31, 223–228 (2000).
[PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, D. A. Jackson, S. Dunne, “Three dimensional OCT images from retina and skin,” Opt. Express 7, 292–298 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bashkansky, J. Reintjes, “Statistics and reduction of speckle in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 545–547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, “A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 57–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, M. Schweiger, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Simultaneous reconstruction of absorption and scattering images by multichannel measurement of purely temporal data,” Opt. Lett. 24, 534–536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Boppart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, A. Chak, C. K. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, R. Ung-arunyawee, J. A. Izatt, “Real-time in vivo imaging of gastrointestinal ultrastructures using optical coherence tomography with a novel efficient interferometer design,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1358–1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. M. Schmitt, “Restoration of optical coherence images of living tissue using the CLEAN algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 66–75 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. I. Feldchtein, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, A. M. Sergeev, N. D. Gladkova, A. V. Shakhov, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. B. Teerenteva, E. V. Zagainova, Y. P. Chumakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, “Endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 3, 257–262 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 147–149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto , “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Beaurepaire, A. C. Boccara, M. Lebec, L. Blanchot, H. Saint-Jalmes, “Full-field optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23, 244–246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of two layers in the human retina by low-coherence reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1039–1041 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427–1439 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, “Model of optical coherence tomography of heterogeneous tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1231–1242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human urologic tissue using optical coherence tomography,” J. Urol. 75, 1915–1920 (1997).

M. D. Kulkarni, C. W. Thomas, J. A. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1365–1367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Xiang, Y. T. Zhang, “Sensitivity enhancement using nonlinear optical wavelet thresholding for two-dimensional medical ultrasound transducer,” Biomed. Eng. Appl. Basis Commun. 9, 91–100 (1997).

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, R. Egelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikono, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, O. S. Streltzova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express 1, 432–440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

K. M. Yung, J. M. Schmitt, “Phase-domain processing of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 125–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408–1410 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Wilkins, C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of epiretinal membranes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 2142–2151 (1996).
[PubMed]

K. G. Larkin, “Efficient nonlinear algorithm for envelope detection in white light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 832–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157–173 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, J. G. Fujimoto, “Self-phase-modulated Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1839–1841 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser source,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1486–1488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 426–428 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Franceschetti, V. Pascazio, G. Schirinzi, “Iterative homomorphic technique for speckle reduction in synthetic-aperture imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 686–694 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 590–593 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, D. T. Delpy, “Enhanced time-resolved imaging with a diffusion model of photon transport,” Opt. Lett. 9, 311–313 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. A. Moulin, “A wavelet regularization method for diffuse radar-target imaging and speckle-noise reduction,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 3, 123–134 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

1989

1987

R. Berstein, “Adaptative nonlinear filters for simultaneous removal of different kinds of noise in images,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 34, 1275–1291 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

D. T. Kuan, A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, P. Chavel, “Adaptative noise smoothing for images with signal-dependent noise,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 7, 165–177 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

P. N. T. Wells, M. Halliwell, “Speckle in ultrasonic imaging,” Ultrasonics 19, 225–229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, E.

Apolonski, A.

Arridge, S. R.

Bashkansky, M.

Baumgartner, A.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

Benattar, L.

Berstein, R.

R. Berstein, “Adaptative nonlinear filters for simultaneous removal of different kinds of noise in images,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 34, 1275–1291 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bilinsky, I. P.

Birngruber, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, R. Egelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoerauf, R. Birngruber, “Optical coherence tomography in the anterior segment of the eye,” in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 487–503.

Bizheva, K.

Blanchot, L.

Boas, D. A.

Boccara, A. C.

Boppart, S. A.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Boppart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto , “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human urologic tissue using optical coherence tomography,” J. Urol. 75, 1915–1920 (1997).

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408–1410 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser source,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1486–1488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bordenave, E.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto , “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human urologic tissue using optical coherence tomography,” J. Urol. 75, 1915–1920 (1997).

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408–1410 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, “Optical source,” in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 67–97.

Bourquin, S.

Brezinski, M. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Boppart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto , “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human urologic tissue using optical coherence tomography,” J. Urol. 75, 1915–1920 (1997).

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser source,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1486–1488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chak, A.

Chance, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chavel, P.

D. T. Kuan, A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, P. Chavel, “Adaptative noise smoothing for images with signal-dependent noise,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 7, 165–177 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chim, S. C.

Chumakov, Y. P.

Cohen, F.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control, K. M. Monahan, ed., Proc. SPIE775, 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Coker, J. G.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Wilkins, C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of epiretinal membranes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 2142–2151 (1996).
[PubMed]

Davidson, M.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control, K. M. Monahan, ed., Proc. SPIE775, 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

De Martino, A.

Delpy, D. T.

Denisenko, A. N.

Dobre, G. M.

Dou, H. L.

H. Ishikawa, R. Gürses-Özden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31, 223–228 (2000).
[PubMed]

Drévillon, B.

Drexler, W.

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, E. Scherzer, W. Drexler, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, “A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 57–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois, A.

Duker, J. S.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Wilkins, C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of epiretinal membranes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 2142–2151 (1996).
[PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Dunne, S.

Eckhaus, M. A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egelhardt, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, R. Egelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feldchtein, F. I.

Fercher, A. F.

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, E. Scherzer, W. Drexler, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, “A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 57–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157–173 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschetti, G.

Fry, M. E.

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Boppart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto , “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human urologic tissue using optical coherence tomography,” J. Urol. 75, 1915–1920 (1997).

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408–1410 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Wilkins, C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of epiretinal membranes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 2142–2151 (1996).
[PubMed]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, J. G. Fujimoto, “Self-phase-modulated Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1839–1841 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser source,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1486–1488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 590–593 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikono, G. V.

Gelikonov, G. V.

Gelikonov, V. M.

Gladkova, N. D.

Golubovic, B.

Goodman, A.

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Boppart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gürses-Özden, R.

H. Ishikawa, R. Gürses-Özden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31, 223–228 (2000).
[PubMed]

Halliwell, M.

P. N. T. Wells, M. Halliwell, “Speckle in ultrasonic imaging,” Ultrasonics 19, 225–229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Wilkins, C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of epiretinal membranes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 2142–2151 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

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J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
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J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1, 970–972 (1995).
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Sticker, M.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, “A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 57–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strand, T. C.

D. T. Kuan, A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, P. Chavel, “Adaptative noise smoothing for images with signal-dependent noise,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 7, 165–177 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streltzova, O. S.

Surlève Bazeille, J. E.

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408–1410 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Wilkins, C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of epiretinal membranes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 2142–2151 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 590–593 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128–133 (1999).
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G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human urologic tissue using optical coherence tomography,” J. Urol. 75, 1915–1920 (1997).

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408–1410 (1996).
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B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, J. G. Fujimoto, “Self-phase-modulated Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1839–1841 (1996).
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J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
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B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, “Optical source,” in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 67–97.

Teerenteva, A. B.

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M. D. Kulkarni, C. W. Thomas, J. A. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1365–1367 (1997).
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H. W. Wang, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “High-speed full-field optical coherence microscopy,” in Conference Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications III, V. V. Tuchin, J. A. Izatt, eds., Proc. SPIE3598, 204–212 (1999).
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P. N. T. Wells, M. Halliwell, “Speckle in ultrasonic imaging,” Ultrasonics 19, 225–229 (1981).
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J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, R. Egelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
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M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
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J. R. Wilkins, C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of epiretinal membranes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 2142–2151 (1996).
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T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

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J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
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J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, K. M. Yung, “Speckle reduction techniques,” in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, eds., (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 175–201.

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J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
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J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, K. M. Yung, “Speckle reduction techniques,” in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, eds., (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 175–201.

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S. H. Xiang, Y. T. Zhang, “Sensitivity enhancement using nonlinear optical wavelet thresholding for two-dimensional medical ultrasound transducer,” Biomed. Eng. Appl. Basis Commun. 9, 91–100 (1997).

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Appl. Opt.

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J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Quantification of nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586–596 (1995).
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Biomed. Eng. Appl. Basis Commun.

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M. D. Kulkarni, C. W. Thomas, J. A. Izatt, “Image enhancement in optical coherence tomography using deconvolution,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1365–1367 (1997).
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Heart

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128–133 (1999).
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J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, R. Egelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
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J. Biomed. Opt.

K. M. Yung, J. M. Schmitt, “Phase-domain processing of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 125–136 (1996).
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J. Urol.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human urologic tissue using optical coherence tomography,” J. Urol. 75, 1915–1920 (1997).

Nat. Med.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1, 970–972 (1995).
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S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto , “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
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Obstet. Gynecol.

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Boppart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
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Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers

H. Ishikawa, R. Gürses-Özden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31, 223–228 (2000).
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Ophthalmology

J. R. Wilkins, C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Characterization of epiretinal membranes using optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 103, 2142–2151 (1996).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
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Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, “A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 57–64 (2000).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408–1410 (1996).
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A. M. Rollins, A. Chak, C. K. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, R. Ung-arunyawee, J. A. Izatt, “Real-time in vivo imaging of gastrointestinal ultrastructures using optical coherence tomography with a novel efficient interferometer design,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1358–1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bashkansky, J. Reintjes, “Statistics and reduction of speckle in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 545–547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vabre, A. Dubois, A. C. Boccara, “Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 530–533 (2002).
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J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 590–593 (1994).
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A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 147–149 (1998).
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Phys. Med. Biol.

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J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427–1439 (1997).
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Science

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1995).
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Ultrasonics

P. N. T. Wells, M. Halliwell, “Speckle in ultrasonic imaging,” Ultrasonics 19, 225–229 (1981).
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Other

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B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, eds., Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002).

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T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

J. B. Pawley, ed., Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995).

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, “Optical source,” in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 67–97.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, K. M. Yung, “Speckle reduction techniques,” in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, eds., (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 175–201.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the ultrahigh-resolution full-field OCT setup. The light source is a tungsten halogen lamp in a Köhler illuminator setup. BS, beam splitter (broadband); MO, vertically positioned microscope objectives (water-immersion, 10×, 0.3 NA); M, mirror (silver) for upright reference arm; GP, glass plates for dispersion compensation (3 mm thick, antireflection coated); L, aplanetic doublet achromat lens (300-mm focal length, infrared optimized); Ref, reference mirror (2% reflectivity); PZT, piezoelectric stage actuator (oscillation at 50 Hz, peak-to-peak amplitude ∼0.27 μm); CCD, charged-coupled device camera (256 × 256 pixels, 8 bits, triggered at 200 Hz); TTL, transistor-transistor logic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical simulations to illustrate our interference-signal-amplitude extraction method. (a) The interferometric image of a tilted mirror. Owing to the short coherence length of the source, only a few fringes are visible. A Gaussian-shaped fringe envelope was assumed. (b) The image of the interference signal amplitude [calculated with expression (3)]. The incoherent light background is eliminated. Residual fringes are visible in the extracted fringe envelope. This image corresponds to an en face tomographic image of the tilted mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of real and extracted fringe envelopes. In these numerical simulations the fringe envelope was assumed to be Gaussian shaped.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation of axial resolution degradation as a function of depth due to dispersion mismatch in the two interferometer arms. We consider a sample consisting of water or glass and a reference mirror imaged in air. The illumination wavelength is λ = 800 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured transverse (X) profile of the PSF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured axial (Z) profile of the PSF. In agreement with the simulation (see Fig. 3), a slight modulation is visible. However, this fringe structure is not particularly well resolved here.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolution of the background noise in the OCT images as a function of the number of accumulated images. Saturation occurs at long exposure times owing to mechanical and thermal instabilities. The shot-noise limit is represented by the straight line.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Axial response represented in logarithmic scale (decibels). The signal is calibrated in reflectivity units. A total of 200 images were accumulated.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

En face(XY) and cross-sectional (XZ) OCT images of an onion epithelium. The horizontal black line in the XZ section indicates the position of the XY section.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

OCT sectional images of the African frog tadpole Xenopus laevis, ex vivo, extracted from a stack of 900 en face tomographic images representing a volume of 240 μm × 240 μm × 450 μm (X, Y, Z). The black lines in the XZ section indicate the positions of the XY and YZ sections.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

En face(XY) OCT image of a fixed human esophagus epithelium, recorded at an average depth (Z) of 100 μm below the sample surface. The cell nuclei appear highly scattering.

Equations (8)

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I n x ,   n y ,   t = Ī n x ,   n y + I coh n x ,   n y cos ϕ n x ,   n y + ψ   sin 2 π ft + θ ,
E p n x ,   n y = N   p - 1 T / 4 pT / 4   I n x ,   n y ,   t d t , p = 1 ,   2 ,   3 ,   4 .
I coh 2 N / 2 f 2 E 1 - E 2 - E 3 + E 4 2 + E 1 - E 2 + E 3 - E 4 2 .
Δ z = 2   ln   2 n π λ 2 Δ λ ,
Δ z eff = Δ z 2 + 2 z Δ λ   d n d λ 2 1 / 2 .
R min = R ref + 2 R inc 2 2 N ξ sat R ref .
R min = 2 R ref N ξ sat .
R max R min = N ξ sat 4 .

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