As much as tenfold atomic emission enhancements have been observed in experiments combining nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) laser pulses in an orthogonal dual-pulse configuration for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ns–fs orthogonal dual-pulse LIBS). In the examination of one of several potential sources of these atomic emission enhancements (sample heating by a ns air spark), minor reductions in atomic emission and as much as 15-fold improvements in mass removal have been observed for fs single-pulse LIBS of heated brass and aluminum samples. These results suggest that, although material removal with a high-powered, ultrashort fs pulse is temperature dependent, sample heating by the ns air spark is not the source of the atomic emission enhancements observed in ns–fs orthogonal dual-pulse LIBS.
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