Abstract

Good performance of optical coatings depends on the appropriate combination of optical and mechanical properties. Therefore, successful applications require good understanding of the relationship between optical microstructural and mechanical characteristics and film stability. In addition, there is a lack of standard mechanical tests that allow one to compare film properties measured in different laboratories. We give an overview of the methodology of mechanical measurements suitable for optical coatings; this includes depth-sensing indentation, scratch resistance, friction, abrasion and wear testing, and stress and adhesion evaluation. We used the techniques mentioned above in the same laboratory to systematically compare the mechanical behavior of frequently used high- and low-index materials, namely, TiO2, Ta2O5, and SiO2, prepared by different complementary techniques. They include ion-beam-assisted deposition by electron-beam evaporation, magnetron sputtering, dual-ion-beam sputtering, plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition, and filtered cathodic arc deposition. The mechanical properties are correlated with the film microstructure that is inherently related to energetic conditions during film growth.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. W. Hoffman, Physics of Thin Films (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 3, p. 211.
  2. J. Valli, “A review of adhesion test methods for thin hard coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 3007–3014 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Jacobson, ed., Selected Papers on Characterization of Optical Coatings, Vol. 63 of the SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1992).
  4. H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999).
  5. O. S. Heavens, “Adhesion of metal films produced by vacuum evaporation,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 355–359 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, C. Burton, R. Gove, P. Murphy, I. Threlfall, F. Samson, “Abrasion resistant and optical thin film coatings for ophthalmic lenses,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 222–229.
  7. R. Beckmann, K. D. Nauenberg, T. Naumann, U. Patz, G. Iehed, H. Hagedaru, “A new high-rate deposition process for scratch- and wipe-resistance coatings for optical and decorative plastic parts,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 288–294.
  8. L. Martinu, “Plasma deposition and testing of hard coatings on plastics,” in Plasma Treatments and Deposition of Polymers, R. d’Agostino, F. Fracassi, P. Favia, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 247–272.
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. Dahl, L. Martinu, “Nano- and micromechanical characterization of optical coatings fabricated by PECVD,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 234–238.
  10. L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Optical coatings on plastics,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser, H. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 460–489.
  11. M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.
  12. H. K. Pulker, “Film deposition methods,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser, H. K. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 131–153.
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Blacker, D. Siegfried, N. Van Lieu, D. Deakins, R. Ferguson, I. Kameyama, K. Coates, T. Erguder, C. Montcalm, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Coatings on Glass (Institut Schicht- und Oberflächentechnik IST, Braunschweig, Germany, 2002), pp. 33–35.
  14. R. Blacker, D. Deakins, I. Kameyama, A. Dummer, B. Buchholtz, D. Siegfried, C. Montcalm, “Design and characterization of ion beam deposited gain flattening filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 232–237.
  15. L. Martinu, D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, “Review of the filtered arc process and materials deposition,” Thin Solid Films 394, 1–15 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. J. Martin, “Optical thin film deposition by filtered cathodic arc techniques,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 270–273.
  18. O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, D. Morton, “Study of ion bombardment effects on optical films and polymer surfaces using a cold cathode ion source,” in Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 1999), pp. 267–272.
  19. B. J. Pond, C. T. Du, S. Talley, K. C. Carniglia, J. J. McNally, B. G. Charlton, “High-power 1.315 μm laser test of multilayer mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, J. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2114, 335–344 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Montcalm, S. M. Lee, D. Burtner, A. Dummer, D. Siegfried, I. Wagner, M. Watanabe, “High-rate dual ion beam sputtering deposition technology for optical telecommunication filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 245–249.
  21. J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave/radio frequency plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Martinu, M. Latrèche, V. Hajek, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Argoitia, P. Beauchamp, “Search for high index PECVD optical coating materials: the case of titanium dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 177–180.
  23. A. Bendavid, P. J. Martin, H. Takikawa, “Deposition and modification of titanium dioxide thin films by filtered arc deposition,” Thin Solid Films 360, 241–250 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Ohring, Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, New York, 1992).
  25. International Organization for Standardization, “Metallic materials—instrumented indentation test for hardness and materials parameters—Part 1: Test method,” International Standard ISO 14577-1 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002).
  26. W. C. Oliver, G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Amassian, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Study of TiO2 film growth mechanism in low-pressure plasma by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).
  28. B. Bhushan, ed., Handbook of Micro/Nano Tribology (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).
  29. K. Holmberg, A. Matthews, eds., Coatings Tribology (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1994).
  30. H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J.-P. Masse, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 Nb2O5 films.”
  31. J. M. E. Harper, in Plasma-Surface Interactions and Processing of Materials, O. Auciello, A. Gras-Marti, J. A. Valles-Abarca, D. L. Flamm, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988).
  32. L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by PECVD,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. J. Kelly, R. D. Arnell, “Development of a novel structure zone model relating to the closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2858–2869 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. J. Cuomo, S. M. Rossnagel, M. R. Kaufman, eds., Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology (Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, Ill., 1989).

2001 (1)

P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, “Review of the filtered arc process and materials deposition,” Thin Solid Films 394, 1–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Bendavid, P. J. Martin, H. Takikawa, “Deposition and modification of titanium dioxide thin films by filtered arc deposition,” Thin Solid Films 360, 241–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu, D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. J. Kelly, R. D. Arnell, “Development of a novel structure zone model relating to the closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2858–2869 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by PECVD,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. C. Oliver, G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave/radio frequency plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. Valli, “A review of adhesion test methods for thin hard coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 3007–3014 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

O. S. Heavens, “Adhesion of metal films produced by vacuum evaporation,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 355–359 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Amassian, A.

A. Amassian, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Study of TiO2 film growth mechanism in low-pressure plasma by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

Argoitia, A.

L. Martinu, M. Latrèche, V. Hajek, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Argoitia, P. Beauchamp, “Search for high index PECVD optical coating materials: the case of titanium dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 177–180.

Arnell, R. D.

P. J. Kelly, R. D. Arnell, “Development of a novel structure zone model relating to the closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2858–2869 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beauchamp, P.

L. Martinu, M. Latrèche, V. Hajek, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Argoitia, P. Beauchamp, “Search for high index PECVD optical coating materials: the case of titanium dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 177–180.

Beckmann, R.

R. Beckmann, K. D. Nauenberg, T. Naumann, U. Patz, G. Iehed, H. Hagedaru, “A new high-rate deposition process for scratch- and wipe-resistance coatings for optical and decorative plastic parts,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 288–294.

Bendavid, A.

P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, “Review of the filtered arc process and materials deposition,” Thin Solid Films 394, 1–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bendavid, P. J. Martin, H. Takikawa, “Deposition and modification of titanium dioxide thin films by filtered arc deposition,” Thin Solid Films 360, 241–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blacker, R.

R. Blacker, D. Deakins, I. Kameyama, A. Dummer, B. Buchholtz, D. Siegfried, C. Montcalm, “Design and characterization of ion beam deposited gain flattening filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 232–237.

D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, C. Burton, R. Gove, P. Murphy, I. Threlfall, F. Samson, “Abrasion resistant and optical thin film coatings for ophthalmic lenses,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 222–229.

R. Blacker, D. Siegfried, N. Van Lieu, D. Deakins, R. Ferguson, I. Kameyama, K. Coates, T. Erguder, C. Montcalm, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Coatings on Glass (Institut Schicht- und Oberflächentechnik IST, Braunschweig, Germany, 2002), pp. 33–35.

Bohling, D.

D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, C. Burton, R. Gove, P. Murphy, I. Threlfall, F. Samson, “Abrasion resistant and optical thin film coatings for ophthalmic lenses,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 222–229.

Buchholtz, B.

R. Blacker, D. Deakins, I. Kameyama, A. Dummer, B. Buchholtz, D. Siegfried, C. Montcalm, “Design and characterization of ion beam deposited gain flattening filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 232–237.

Burtner, D.

C. Montcalm, S. M. Lee, D. Burtner, A. Dummer, D. Siegfried, I. Wagner, M. Watanabe, “High-rate dual ion beam sputtering deposition technology for optical telecommunication filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 245–249.

Burton, C.

D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, C. Burton, R. Gove, P. Murphy, I. Threlfall, F. Samson, “Abrasion resistant and optical thin film coatings for ophthalmic lenses,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 222–229.

Carniglia, K. C.

B. J. Pond, C. T. Du, S. Talley, K. C. Carniglia, J. J. McNally, B. G. Charlton, “High-power 1.315 μm laser test of multilayer mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, J. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2114, 335–344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, B. G.

B. J. Pond, C. T. Du, S. Talley, K. C. Carniglia, J. J. McNally, B. G. Charlton, “High-power 1.315 μm laser test of multilayer mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, J. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2114, 335–344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coates, K.

R. Blacker, D. Siegfried, N. Van Lieu, D. Deakins, R. Ferguson, I. Kameyama, K. Coates, T. Erguder, C. Montcalm, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Coatings on Glass (Institut Schicht- und Oberflächentechnik IST, Braunschweig, Germany, 2002), pp. 33–35.

Coda, M.

D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, C. Burton, R. Gove, P. Murphy, I. Threlfall, F. Samson, “Abrasion resistant and optical thin film coatings for ophthalmic lenses,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 222–229.

Dahl, S.

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. Dahl, L. Martinu, “Nano- and micromechanical characterization of optical coatings fabricated by PECVD,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 234–238.

Deakins, D.

R. Blacker, D. Siegfried, N. Van Lieu, D. Deakins, R. Ferguson, I. Kameyama, K. Coates, T. Erguder, C. Montcalm, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Coatings on Glass (Institut Schicht- und Oberflächentechnik IST, Braunschweig, Germany, 2002), pp. 33–35.

R. Blacker, D. Deakins, I. Kameyama, A. Dummer, B. Buchholtz, D. Siegfried, C. Montcalm, “Design and characterization of ion beam deposited gain flattening filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 232–237.

Desjardins, P.

A. Amassian, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Study of TiO2 film growth mechanism in low-pressure plasma by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

Du, C. T.

B. J. Pond, C. T. Du, S. Talley, K. C. Carniglia, J. J. McNally, B. G. Charlton, “High-power 1.315 μm laser test of multilayer mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, J. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2114, 335–344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dummer, A.

R. Blacker, D. Deakins, I. Kameyama, A. Dummer, B. Buchholtz, D. Siegfried, C. Montcalm, “Design and characterization of ion beam deposited gain flattening filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 232–237.

C. Montcalm, S. M. Lee, D. Burtner, A. Dummer, D. Siegfried, I. Wagner, M. Watanabe, “High-rate dual ion beam sputtering deposition technology for optical telecommunication filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 245–249.

Erguder, T.

R. Blacker, D. Siegfried, N. Van Lieu, D. Deakins, R. Ferguson, I. Kameyama, K. Coates, T. Erguder, C. Montcalm, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Coatings on Glass (Institut Schicht- und Oberflächentechnik IST, Braunschweig, Germany, 2002), pp. 33–35.

Ferguson, R.

R. Blacker, D. Siegfried, N. Van Lieu, D. Deakins, R. Ferguson, I. Kameyama, K. Coates, T. Erguder, C. Montcalm, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Coatings on Glass (Institut Schicht- und Oberflächentechnik IST, Braunschweig, Germany, 2002), pp. 33–35.

Gove, R.

D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, C. Burton, R. Gove, P. Murphy, I. Threlfall, F. Samson, “Abrasion resistant and optical thin film coatings for ophthalmic lenses,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 222–229.

Hagedaru, H.

R. Beckmann, K. D. Nauenberg, T. Naumann, U. Patz, G. Iehed, H. Hagedaru, “A new high-rate deposition process for scratch- and wipe-resistance coatings for optical and decorative plastic parts,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 288–294.

Hajek, V.

L. Martinu, M. Latrèche, V. Hajek, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Argoitia, P. Beauchamp, “Search for high index PECVD optical coating materials: the case of titanium dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 177–180.

Harper, J. M. E.

J. M. E. Harper, in Plasma-Surface Interactions and Processing of Materials, O. Auciello, A. Gras-Marti, J. A. Valles-Abarca, D. L. Flamm, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988).

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, “Adhesion of metal films produced by vacuum evaporation,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 355–359 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, R. W.

R. W. Hoffman, Physics of Thin Films (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 3, p. 211.

Iehed, G.

R. Beckmann, K. D. Nauenberg, T. Naumann, U. Patz, G. Iehed, H. Hagedaru, “A new high-rate deposition process for scratch- and wipe-resistance coatings for optical and decorative plastic parts,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 288–294.

Kameyama, I.

R. Blacker, D. Siegfried, N. Van Lieu, D. Deakins, R. Ferguson, I. Kameyama, K. Coates, T. Erguder, C. Montcalm, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Coatings on Glass (Institut Schicht- und Oberflächentechnik IST, Braunschweig, Germany, 2002), pp. 33–35.

R. Blacker, D. Deakins, I. Kameyama, A. Dummer, B. Buchholtz, D. Siegfried, C. Montcalm, “Design and characterization of ion beam deposited gain flattening filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 232–237.

Kelly, P. J.

P. J. Kelly, R. D. Arnell, “Development of a novel structure zone model relating to the closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2858–2869 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by PECVD,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave/radio frequency plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Optical coatings on plastics,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser, H. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 460–489.

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. Dahl, L. Martinu, “Nano- and micromechanical characterization of optical coatings fabricated by PECVD,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 234–238.

H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J.-P. Masse, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 Nb2O5 films.”

M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

L. Martinu, M. Latrèche, V. Hajek, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Argoitia, P. Beauchamp, “Search for high index PECVD optical coating materials: the case of titanium dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 177–180.

O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, D. Morton, “Study of ion bombardment effects on optical films and polymer surfaces using a cold cathode ion source,” in Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 1999), pp. 267–272.

Küttel, O. M.

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by PECVD,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave/radio frequency plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Larouche, S.

M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

Latrèche, M.

L. Martinu, M. Latrèche, V. Hajek, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Argoitia, P. Beauchamp, “Search for high index PECVD optical coating materials: the case of titanium dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 177–180.

Lee, S. M.

C. Montcalm, S. M. Lee, D. Burtner, A. Dummer, D. Siegfried, I. Wagner, M. Watanabe, “High-rate dual ion beam sputtering deposition technology for optical telecommunication filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 245–249.

Martin, P. J.

P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, “Review of the filtered arc process and materials deposition,” Thin Solid Films 394, 1–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bendavid, P. J. Martin, H. Takikawa, “Deposition and modification of titanium dioxide thin films by filtered arc deposition,” Thin Solid Films 360, 241–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, “Optical thin film deposition by filtered cathodic arc techniques,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 270–273.

Martinu, L.

L. Martinu, D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by PECVD,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave/radio frequency plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Amassian, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Study of TiO2 film growth mechanism in low-pressure plasma by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Optical coatings on plastics,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser, H. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 460–489.

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. Dahl, L. Martinu, “Nano- and micromechanical characterization of optical coatings fabricated by PECVD,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 234–238.

H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J.-P. Masse, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 Nb2O5 films.”

M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

L. Martinu, M. Latrèche, V. Hajek, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Argoitia, P. Beauchamp, “Search for high index PECVD optical coating materials: the case of titanium dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 177–180.

L. Martinu, “Plasma deposition and testing of hard coatings on plastics,” in Plasma Treatments and Deposition of Polymers, R. d’Agostino, F. Fracassi, P. Favia, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 247–272.
[CrossRef]

O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, D. Morton, “Study of ion bombardment effects on optical films and polymer surfaces using a cold cathode ion source,” in Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 1999), pp. 267–272.

Masse, J.-P.

H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J.-P. Masse, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 Nb2O5 films.”

McNally, J. J.

B. J. Pond, C. T. Du, S. Talley, K. C. Carniglia, J. J. McNally, B. G. Charlton, “High-power 1.315 μm laser test of multilayer mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, J. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2114, 335–344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

R. Blacker, D. Siegfried, N. Van Lieu, D. Deakins, R. Ferguson, I. Kameyama, K. Coates, T. Erguder, C. Montcalm, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Coatings on Glass (Institut Schicht- und Oberflächentechnik IST, Braunschweig, Germany, 2002), pp. 33–35.

R. Blacker, D. Deakins, I. Kameyama, A. Dummer, B. Buchholtz, D. Siegfried, C. Montcalm, “Design and characterization of ion beam deposited gain flattening filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 232–237.

C. Montcalm, S. M. Lee, D. Burtner, A. Dummer, D. Siegfried, I. Wagner, M. Watanabe, “High-rate dual ion beam sputtering deposition technology for optical telecommunication filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 245–249.

Morton, D.

O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, D. Morton, “Study of ion bombardment effects on optical films and polymer surfaces using a cold cathode ion source,” in Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 1999), pp. 267–272.

Murphy, P.

D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, C. Burton, R. Gove, P. Murphy, I. Threlfall, F. Samson, “Abrasion resistant and optical thin film coatings for ophthalmic lenses,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 222–229.

Nauenberg, K. D.

R. Beckmann, K. D. Nauenberg, T. Naumann, U. Patz, G. Iehed, H. Hagedaru, “A new high-rate deposition process for scratch- and wipe-resistance coatings for optical and decorative plastic parts,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 288–294.

Naumann, T.

R. Beckmann, K. D. Nauenberg, T. Naumann, U. Patz, G. Iehed, H. Hagedaru, “A new high-rate deposition process for scratch- and wipe-resistance coatings for optical and decorative plastic parts,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 288–294.

Ohring, M.

M. Ohring, Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, New York, 1992).

Oliver, W. C.

W. C. Oliver, G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Patz, U.

R. Beckmann, K. D. Nauenberg, T. Naumann, U. Patz, G. Iehed, H. Hagedaru, “A new high-rate deposition process for scratch- and wipe-resistance coatings for optical and decorative plastic parts,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 288–294.

Pharr, G. M.

W. C. Oliver, G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, D.

L. Martinu, D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pond, B. J.

B. J. Pond, C. T. Du, S. Talley, K. C. Carniglia, J. J. McNally, B. G. Charlton, “High-power 1.315 μm laser test of multilayer mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, J. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2114, 335–344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999).

H. K. Pulker, “Film deposition methods,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser, H. K. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 131–153.
[CrossRef]

Raveh, A.

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by PECVD,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, M.-A.

M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

Samson, F.

D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, C. Burton, R. Gove, P. Murphy, I. Threlfall, F. Samson, “Abrasion resistant and optical thin film coatings for ophthalmic lenses,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 222–229.

Siegfried, D.

C. Montcalm, S. M. Lee, D. Burtner, A. Dummer, D. Siegfried, I. Wagner, M. Watanabe, “High-rate dual ion beam sputtering deposition technology for optical telecommunication filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 245–249.

R. Blacker, D. Deakins, I. Kameyama, A. Dummer, B. Buchholtz, D. Siegfried, C. Montcalm, “Design and characterization of ion beam deposited gain flattening filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 232–237.

R. Blacker, D. Siegfried, N. Van Lieu, D. Deakins, R. Ferguson, I. Kameyama, K. Coates, T. Erguder, C. Montcalm, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Coatings on Glass (Institut Schicht- und Oberflächentechnik IST, Braunschweig, Germany, 2002), pp. 33–35.

Szymanowski, H.

H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J.-P. Masse, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 Nb2O5 films.”

Takikawa, H.

A. Bendavid, P. J. Martin, H. Takikawa, “Deposition and modification of titanium dioxide thin films by filtered arc deposition,” Thin Solid Films 360, 241–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Talley, S.

B. J. Pond, C. T. Du, S. Talley, K. C. Carniglia, J. J. McNally, B. G. Charlton, “High-power 1.315 μm laser test of multilayer mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, J. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2114, 335–344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Threlfall, I.

D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, C. Burton, R. Gove, P. Murphy, I. Threlfall, F. Samson, “Abrasion resistant and optical thin film coatings for ophthalmic lenses,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 222–229.

Valli, J.

J. Valli, “A review of adhesion test methods for thin hard coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 3007–3014 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Van Lieu, N.

R. Blacker, D. Siegfried, N. Van Lieu, D. Deakins, R. Ferguson, I. Kameyama, K. Coates, T. Erguder, C. Montcalm, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Coatings on Glass (Institut Schicht- und Oberflächentechnik IST, Braunschweig, Germany, 2002), pp. 33–35.

Wagner, I.

C. Montcalm, S. M. Lee, D. Burtner, A. Dummer, D. Siegfried, I. Wagner, M. Watanabe, “High-rate dual ion beam sputtering deposition technology for optical telecommunication filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 245–249.

Watanabe, M.

C. Montcalm, S. M. Lee, D. Burtner, A. Dummer, D. Siegfried, I. Wagner, M. Watanabe, “High-rate dual ion beam sputtering deposition technology for optical telecommunication filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 245–249.

Wertheimer, M. R.

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by PECVD,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave/radio frequency plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zabeida, O.

H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J.-P. Masse, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 Nb2O5 films.”

M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, D. Morton, “Study of ion bombardment effects on optical films and polymer surfaces using a cold cathode ion source,” in Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 1999), pp. 267–272.

J. Mater. Res. (1)

W. C. Oliver, G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Radium (1)

O. S. Heavens, “Adhesion of metal films produced by vacuum evaporation,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 355–359 (1950).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (4)

L. Martinu, D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Valli, “A review of adhesion test methods for thin hard coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 3007–3014 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by PECVD,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Kelly, R. D. Arnell, “Development of a novel structure zone model relating to the closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2858–2869 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (3)

A. Bendavid, P. J. Martin, H. Takikawa, “Deposition and modification of titanium dioxide thin films by filtered arc deposition,” Thin Solid Films 360, 241–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave/radio frequency plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, “Review of the filtered arc process and materials deposition,” Thin Solid Films 394, 1–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (25)

P. J. Martin, “Optical thin film deposition by filtered cathodic arc techniques,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 270–273.

O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, D. Morton, “Study of ion bombardment effects on optical films and polymer surfaces using a cold cathode ion source,” in Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 1999), pp. 267–272.

B. J. Pond, C. T. Du, S. Talley, K. C. Carniglia, J. J. McNally, B. G. Charlton, “High-power 1.315 μm laser test of multilayer mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, J. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE2114, 335–344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, S. M. Lee, D. Burtner, A. Dummer, D. Siegfried, I. Wagner, M. Watanabe, “High-rate dual ion beam sputtering deposition technology for optical telecommunication filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 245–249.

L. Martinu, M. Latrèche, V. Hajek, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Argoitia, P. Beauchamp, “Search for high index PECVD optical coating materials: the case of titanium dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 177–180.

M. R. Jacobson, ed., Selected Papers on Characterization of Optical Coatings, Vol. 63 of the SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1992).

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999).

D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, C. Burton, R. Gove, P. Murphy, I. Threlfall, F. Samson, “Abrasion resistant and optical thin film coatings for ophthalmic lenses,” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 222–229.

R. Beckmann, K. D. Nauenberg, T. Naumann, U. Patz, G. Iehed, H. Hagedaru, “A new high-rate deposition process for scratch- and wipe-resistance coatings for optical and decorative plastic parts,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 288–294.

L. Martinu, “Plasma deposition and testing of hard coatings on plastics,” in Plasma Treatments and Deposition of Polymers, R. d’Agostino, F. Fracassi, P. Favia, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 247–272.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. Dahl, L. Martinu, “Nano- and micromechanical characterization of optical coatings fabricated by PECVD,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2000), pp. 234–238.

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Optical coatings on plastics,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser, H. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 460–489.

M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

H. K. Pulker, “Film deposition methods,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser, H. K. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 131–153.
[CrossRef]

R. Blacker, D. Siegfried, N. Van Lieu, D. Deakins, R. Ferguson, I. Kameyama, K. Coates, T. Erguder, C. Montcalm, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Coatings on Glass (Institut Schicht- und Oberflächentechnik IST, Braunschweig, Germany, 2002), pp. 33–35.

R. Blacker, D. Deakins, I. Kameyama, A. Dummer, B. Buchholtz, D. Siegfried, C. Montcalm, “Design and characterization of ion beam deposited gain flattening filters,” in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 2002), pp. 232–237.

M. Ohring, Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, New York, 1992).

International Organization for Standardization, “Metallic materials—instrumented indentation test for hardness and materials parameters—Part 1: Test method,” International Standard ISO 14577-1 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002).

J. J. Cuomo, S. M. Rossnagel, M. R. Kaufman, eds., Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology (Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, Ill., 1989).

A. Amassian, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Study of TiO2 film growth mechanism in low-pressure plasma by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

B. Bhushan, ed., Handbook of Micro/Nano Tribology (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

K. Holmberg, A. Matthews, eds., Coatings Tribology (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1994).

H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, J.-P. Masse, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical properties and microstructure of plasma deposited Ta2O5 Nb2O5 films.”

J. M. E. Harper, in Plasma-Surface Interactions and Processing of Materials, O. Auciello, A. Gras-Marti, J. A. Valles-Abarca, D. L. Flamm, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988).

R. W. Hoffman, Physics of Thin Films (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 3, p. 211.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive-index dispersion curves for SiO2, Ta2O5, and TiO2 prepared by various techniques.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index n 550 of SiO2, Ta2O5, and TiO2 prepared by various techniques.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of (a) stress, (b) hardness, and (c) reduced Young’s modulus for SiO2, Ta2O5, and TiO2 films prepared by various techniques.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Load-displacement curves for SiO2, Ta2O5, and TiO2 films prepared by various techniques.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of (a) the wear pattern and of the wear track profiles of the surfaces of (b) SiO2, (c) Ta2O5, and (d) TiO2 films prepared by various techniques.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Wear coefficient and (b) surface roughness for SiO2, Ta2O5, and TiO2 films obtained by various techniques.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Examples of scratch track images of regions close to the critical load observed by optical microscopy (top) and scanning-electron microscopy (bottom) for SiO2 [MS, (a), (b)], Ta2O5 [IBAD 2 (c) and (d)], and TiO2 [IBAD 1 (e) and (f)] upon c-Si substrates.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Film characteristics determined from the scratch measurements for SiO2, Ta2O5, and TiO2: (a) friction coefficient, (b) critical load.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Infrared spectra of SiO2, Ta2O5, and TiO2 films prepared by various techniques. For the peak assignment, see Table 2.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Mean ion energy and ion flux ratio for obtaining optimized characteristics of SiO2, Ta2O5, and TiO2 optical films prepared by various deposition methods.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Conditions for Deposition of SiO2, Ta2O5 and TiO2 Films Obtained by Various Techniques

Tables Icon

Table 2 Assignment of the Peaks in IR Spectra

Tables Icon

Table 3 Ion-Bombardment Characteristics

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ=16REsds21-vsd,
1Er=1-vE+1-vdEd,
Er=π2SAp.

Metrics