Abstract

The Ultraviolet and Visible-Light Coronagraphic Imager is the baseline coronagraph for the European Space Agency’s payload Solar Orbiter, a solar mission whose launch in 2011 is expected. To prove the feasibility of its innovative design, a sounding rocket version of the same instrument has been approved by NASA. One of the main technological challenges of the instrument is the achievement of multilayer optical coatings with suitable properties. We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of such coatings.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. European Space Agency, Solar Orbiter, A High Resolution Mission to the Sun and Inner HeliosphereAssessment Study Rep. ESA-SCI (2000)6 (European Space Agency, Paris, 2000).
  2. S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, D. Gardiol, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, M. Romoli, A. Cacciani, M. Malvezzi, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible-light Coronagraph (UVC),” presented at Solar Encounter, The First Solar Orbiter Workshop, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 4–18 May 2001.
  3. S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, D. Gardiol, G. Naletto, S. Giordano, M. Malvezzi, V. Da Deppo, L. Zangrilli, G. Noci, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible Light Coronagraph Imager (UVCI) for HERSCHEL,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 162–171 (2003).
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  4. E. Spiller, in Physics, Fabrication, and Applications of Multilayered Structures, P. Dehz, C. Weisbuch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 271–309.
  5. J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Grigonis, É. J. Knystautas, “C/Si multilayer mirrors for the 25–30-nm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2839–2842 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. L. Windt, “IMD-software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. A. Harrison, “High-resolution observations of extreme ultraviolet sun,” Solar Phys. 170, 124–141 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. W. Brosius, J. M. Davila, R. J. Thomas, B. C. Monsignori-Fossi, “Measuring active and quiet-Sun coronal plasma properties with extreme-ultraviolet spectra from SERTS,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 106, 143–164 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. G. Pelizzo, A. Patelli, P. Nicolosi, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, E. Bontempi, D. Gardiol, “Development of multilayer coating for solar space experiments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 381–392 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. B. Hopkins, W. G. Graham, “Langmuir probe technique for plasma parameter measurement in a medium density discharge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2210–2217 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Rigato, A. Patelli, “Novel methods of synthesis of a-Si(H)/Mo multilayers for extreme UV applications,” in X-Ray and Inner-Shell Processes, A. Bianconi, A. Marcelli, N. L. Saini, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.652, 103–111 (2002).
  14. L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performances and characterization of an EUV and soft x-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. Woodgate, E. Bruce, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Bonanno, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “A test facility to calibrate EUV detectors,” ESA Special Publ. 356 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1992), pp. 233–236.
  16. W. R. Hunter, Reflectometers, Vol. 31 of Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, J. A. Samson, D. L. Ederer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1998), pp. 183–226.

1998

D. L. Windt, “IMD-software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. A. Harrison, “High-resolution observations of extreme ultraviolet sun,” Solar Phys. 170, 124–141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Grigonis, É. J. Knystautas, “C/Si multilayer mirrors for the 25–30-nm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2839–2842 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

J. W. Brosius, J. M. Davila, R. J. Thomas, B. C. Monsignori-Fossi, “Measuring active and quiet-Sun coronal plasma properties with extreme-ultraviolet spectra from SERTS,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 106, 143–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. B. Hopkins, W. G. Graham, “Langmuir probe technique for plasma parameter measurement in a medium density discharge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2210–2217 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Antonucci, E.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, D. Gardiol, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, M. Romoli, A. Cacciani, M. Malvezzi, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible-light Coronagraph (UVC),” presented at Solar Encounter, The First Solar Orbiter Workshop, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 4–18 May 2001.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, D. Gardiol, G. Naletto, S. Giordano, M. Malvezzi, V. Da Deppo, L. Zangrilli, G. Noci, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible Light Coronagraph Imager (UVCI) for HERSCHEL,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 162–171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Artzner, G. E.

J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bonanno, G.

G. Bonanno, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “A test facility to calibrate EUV detectors,” ESA Special Publ. 356 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1992), pp. 233–236.

Bontempi, E.

P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Pelizzo, A. Patelli, P. Nicolosi, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, E. Bontempi, D. Gardiol, “Development of multilayer coating for solar space experiments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 381–392 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boscolo, A.

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performances and characterization of an EUV and soft x-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. Woodgate, E. Bruce, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brosius, J. W.

J. W. Brosius, J. M. Davila, R. J. Thomas, B. C. Monsignori-Fossi, “Measuring active and quiet-Sun coronal plasma properties with extreme-ultraviolet spectra from SERTS,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 106, 143–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brunaud, J.

J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cacciani, A.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, D. Gardiol, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, M. Romoli, A. Cacciani, M. Malvezzi, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible-light Coronagraph (UVC),” presented at Solar Encounter, The First Solar Orbiter Workshop, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 4–18 May 2001.

Carabetian, C.

J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Catura, R. C.

J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clette, F.

J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Da Deppo, V.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, D. Gardiol, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, M. Romoli, A. Cacciani, M. Malvezzi, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible-light Coronagraph (UVC),” presented at Solar Encounter, The First Solar Orbiter Workshop, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 4–18 May 2001.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, D. Gardiol, G. Naletto, S. Giordano, M. Malvezzi, V. Da Deppo, L. Zangrilli, G. Noci, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible Light Coronagraph Imager (UVCI) for HERSCHEL,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 162–171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davila, J. M.

J. W. Brosius, J. M. Davila, R. J. Thomas, B. C. Monsignori-Fossi, “Measuring active and quiet-Sun coronal plasma properties with extreme-ultraviolet spectra from SERTS,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 106, 143–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Defise, J. M.

J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Delaboudiniére, J. P.

J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Depero, L.

P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fineschi, S.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, D. Gardiol, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, M. Romoli, A. Cacciani, M. Malvezzi, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible-light Coronagraph (UVC),” presented at Solar Encounter, The First Solar Orbiter Workshop, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 4–18 May 2001.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, D. Gardiol, G. Naletto, S. Giordano, M. Malvezzi, V. Da Deppo, L. Zangrilli, G. Noci, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible Light Coronagraph Imager (UVCI) for HERSCHEL,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 162–171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gardiol, D.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, D. Gardiol, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, M. Romoli, A. Cacciani, M. Malvezzi, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible-light Coronagraph (UVC),” presented at Solar Encounter, The First Solar Orbiter Workshop, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 4–18 May 2001.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, D. Gardiol, G. Naletto, S. Giordano, M. Malvezzi, V. Da Deppo, L. Zangrilli, G. Noci, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible Light Coronagraph Imager (UVCI) for HERSCHEL,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 162–171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Pelizzo, A. Patelli, P. Nicolosi, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, E. Bontempi, D. Gardiol, “Development of multilayer coating for solar space experiments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 381–392 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, S.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, D. Gardiol, G. Naletto, S. Giordano, M. Malvezzi, V. Da Deppo, L. Zangrilli, G. Noci, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible Light Coronagraph Imager (UVCI) for HERSCHEL,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 162–171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Graham, W. G.

M. B. Hopkins, W. G. Graham, “Langmuir probe technique for plasma parameter measurement in a medium density discharge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2210–2217 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Grigonis, M.

Harrison, R. A.

R. A. Harrison, “High-resolution observations of extreme ultraviolet sun,” Solar Phys. 170, 124–141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hochedez, J. F. E.

J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, M. B.

M. B. Hopkins, W. G. Graham, “Langmuir probe technique for plasma parameter measurement in a medium density discharge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2210–2217 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

W. R. Hunter, Reflectometers, Vol. 31 of Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, J. A. Samson, D. L. Ederer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1998), pp. 183–226.

Knystautas, É. J.

Maggioni, G.

P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malvezzi, M.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, D. Gardiol, G. Naletto, S. Giordano, M. Malvezzi, V. Da Deppo, L. Zangrilli, G. Noci, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible Light Coronagraph Imager (UVCI) for HERSCHEL,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 162–171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, D. Gardiol, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, M. Romoli, A. Cacciani, M. Malvezzi, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible-light Coronagraph (UVC),” presented at Solar Encounter, The First Solar Orbiter Workshop, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 4–18 May 2001.

Mattei, G.

P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maucherat, A. J.

J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, P.

P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monsignori-Fossi, B. C.

J. W. Brosius, J. M. Davila, R. J. Thomas, B. C. Monsignori-Fossi, “Measuring active and quiet-Sun coronal plasma properties with extreme-ultraviolet spectra from SERTS,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 106, 143–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moses, J. D.

J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Naletto, G.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, D. Gardiol, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, M. Romoli, A. Cacciani, M. Malvezzi, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible-light Coronagraph (UVC),” presented at Solar Encounter, The First Solar Orbiter Workshop, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 4–18 May 2001.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, D. Gardiol, G. Naletto, S. Giordano, M. Malvezzi, V. Da Deppo, L. Zangrilli, G. Noci, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible Light Coronagraph Imager (UVCI) for HERSCHEL,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 162–171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bonanno, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “A test facility to calibrate EUV detectors,” ESA Special Publ. 356 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1992), pp. 233–236.

Nicolosi, P.

P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Pelizzo, A. Patelli, P. Nicolosi, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, E. Bontempi, D. Gardiol, “Development of multilayer coating for solar space experiments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 381–392 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noci, G.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, D. Gardiol, G. Naletto, S. Giordano, M. Malvezzi, V. Da Deppo, L. Zangrilli, G. Noci, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible Light Coronagraph Imager (UVCI) for HERSCHEL,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 162–171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patelli, A.

M. G. Pelizzo, A. Patelli, P. Nicolosi, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, E. Bontempi, D. Gardiol, “Development of multilayer coating for solar space experiments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 381–392 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, “Novel methods of synthesis of a-Si(H)/Mo multilayers for extreme UV applications,” in X-Ray and Inner-Shell Processes, A. Bianconi, A. Marcelli, N. L. Saini, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.652, 103–111 (2002).

Pelizzo, M. G.

P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Pelizzo, A. Patelli, P. Nicolosi, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, E. Bontempi, D. Gardiol, “Development of multilayer coating for solar space experiments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 381–392 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performances and characterization of an EUV and soft x-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. Woodgate, E. Bruce, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rigato, V.

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, “Novel methods of synthesis of a-Si(H)/Mo multilayers for extreme UV applications,” in X-Ray and Inner-Shell Processes, A. Bianconi, A. Marcelli, N. L. Saini, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.652, 103–111 (2002).

P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Pelizzo, A. Patelli, P. Nicolosi, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, E. Bontempi, D. Gardiol, “Development of multilayer coating for solar space experiments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 381–392 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romoli, M.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, D. Gardiol, G. Naletto, S. Giordano, M. Malvezzi, V. Da Deppo, L. Zangrilli, G. Noci, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible Light Coronagraph Imager (UVCI) for HERSCHEL,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 162–171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, D. Gardiol, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, M. Romoli, A. Cacciani, M. Malvezzi, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible-light Coronagraph (UVC),” presented at Solar Encounter, The First Solar Orbiter Workshop, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 4–18 May 2001.

Salmaso, G.

M. G. Pelizzo, A. Patelli, P. Nicolosi, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, E. Bontempi, D. Gardiol, “Development of multilayer coating for solar space experiments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 381–392 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, X. Y.

J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, in Physics, Fabrication, and Applications of Multilayered Structures, P. Dehz, C. Weisbuch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 271–309.

Thomas, R. J.

J. W. Brosius, J. M. Davila, R. J. Thomas, B. C. Monsignori-Fossi, “Measuring active and quiet-Sun coronal plasma properties with extreme-ultraviolet spectra from SERTS,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 106, 143–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Bonanno, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “A test facility to calibrate EUV detectors,” ESA Special Publ. 356 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1992), pp. 233–236.

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performances and characterization of an EUV and soft x-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. Woodgate, E. Bruce, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, “IMD-software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zangrilli, L.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, D. Gardiol, G. Naletto, S. Giordano, M. Malvezzi, V. Da Deppo, L. Zangrilli, G. Noci, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible Light Coronagraph Imager (UVCI) for HERSCHEL,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 162–171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J. Suppl.

J. W. Brosius, J. M. Davila, R. J. Thomas, B. C. Monsignori-Fossi, “Measuring active and quiet-Sun coronal plasma properties with extreme-ultraviolet spectra from SERTS,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 106, 143–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys.

D. L. Windt, “IMD-software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. B. Hopkins, W. G. Graham, “Langmuir probe technique for plasma parameter measurement in a medium density discharge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2210–2217 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Solar Phys.

R. A. Harrison, “High-resolution observations of extreme ultraviolet sun,” Solar Phys. 170, 124–141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, M. G. Pelizzo, V. Rigato, G. Maggioni, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, G. Mattei, L. Poletto, P. Mazzoldi, G. Tondello, “First realization and characterization of multilayer EUV reflective coatings,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems I, D. A. Tichenor, J. A. Folta, eds., Proc. SPIE4506, 76–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Pelizzo, A. Patelli, P. Nicolosi, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, E. Bontempi, D. Gardiol, “Development of multilayer coating for solar space experiments,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 381–392 (2003).
[CrossRef]

European Space Agency, Solar Orbiter, A High Resolution Mission to the Sun and Inner HeliosphereAssessment Study Rep. ESA-SCI (2000)6 (European Space Agency, Paris, 2000).

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, D. Gardiol, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, M. Romoli, A. Cacciani, M. Malvezzi, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible-light Coronagraph (UVC),” presented at Solar Encounter, The First Solar Orbiter Workshop, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 4–18 May 2001.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, D. Gardiol, G. Naletto, S. Giordano, M. Malvezzi, V. Da Deppo, L. Zangrilli, G. Noci, “Extended UV corona imaging from the Solar Orbiter: the Ultraviolet and Visible Light Coronagraph Imager (UVCI) for HERSCHEL,” in Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, S. L. Keil, S. V. Avakyan, eds., Proc. SPIE4853, 162–171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, in Physics, Fabrication, and Applications of Multilayered Structures, P. Dehz, C. Weisbuch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 271–309.

J. M. Defise, X. Y. Song, J. P. Delaboudiniére, G. E. Artzner, C. Carabetian, J. F. E. Hochedez, J. Brunaud, J. D. Moses, R. C. Catura, F. Clette, A. J. Maucherat, in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, 29–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, “Novel methods of synthesis of a-Si(H)/Mo multilayers for extreme UV applications,” in X-Ray and Inner-Shell Processes, A. Bianconi, A. Marcelli, N. L. Saini, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.652, 103–111 (2002).

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Optical performances and characterization of an EUV and soft x-ray test facility,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, B. Woodgate, E. Bruce, R. A. Kimble, eds., Proc. SPIE3764, 94–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bonanno, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “A test facility to calibrate EUV detectors,” ESA Special Publ. 356 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1992), pp. 233–236.

W. R. Hunter, Reflectometers, Vol. 31 of Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, J. A. Samson, D. L. Ederer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1998), pp. 183–226.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical design of a single HERSCHEL-UVCI channel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulations of multilayer reflectivity for different coupled materials and optimized for 304-Å high reflectivity: Mo–Si (solid curve), B4C–Si (dashed curve), C–Al (dotted–dashed curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Eight contour plots of angle of incidence at surfaces of mirror M1 for rays coming from different point sources in the FOV symmetrically distributed at a distance of 2.2 solar radii (FOV sources are marked by shaded areas on the picture of the Sun’s corona). Incident points of rays on the mirror surface are marked by single filled circles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Eight contour plots of angle of incidence at surfaces of mirror M2 for rays coming from different point sources in the FOV symmetrically distributed at a distance of 2.2 solar radii (FOV sources are marked by shaded areas on the picture of the Sun’s corona). Incident points of rays on the mirror surface are marked by single filled circles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectivity R λ versus wavelength for a point source at 2.2 solar radii and 90° of azimuth. The nominal curve is shown as a dashed curve for comparison (see text).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mirror M1 multilayer reflectivity curve superimposed upon the solar disk’s emission spectrum.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Combined effect of R λ efficiency and the solar disk’s spectrum.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

α-2.0-MeV Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy measured and simulated spectrum of a sample optimized for high, 30.4-nm efficiency (θ = 20°, φ = 55°). The multilayered structure is highlighted.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

XRR and relative fits of two multilayer samples [(a) sample A, (b) sample B] in which structural parameters match mirror M2’s nominal parameters.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic of the vacuum facility used for θ–2θ reflectivity measurement at 304 Å.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured reflectivity at 304 Å and relative fits of sample A (crosses) and sample B (triangles) as functions of incidence angle on the samples.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

In-band reflectivity of sample B recovered by simulation. Dashed curve, nominal reflectivity curve shown for comparison.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Schematic of the vacuum facility used for θ–2θ reflectivity measurement at 1216 Å.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Measured reflectivity at 1216 Å and fits of sample B (triangles) and sample C (diamonds) as functions of incidence angle on the samples.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Schematic of the apparatus used for reflectivity measurement in the visible spectral range.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Measured reflectivity in the visible spectral range (diamonds) and relative data fit of sample C.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Multilayer Coating Requirements, Theoretical Calculations, and Experimental Valuesa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Multilayer-Coating Parameters of Mirrors M1 and M2

Equations (1)

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Rλ=ij mθi, φjr1λθir2λφjij mθi, φj,

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