Abstract

Data obtained from 102 skin lesions in vivo by spectroscopic oblique-incidence reflectometry were analyzed. The participating physicians initially divided the skin lesions into two visually distinguishable groups based on the lesions’ melanocytic conditions. Group 1 consisted of the following two cancerous and benign subgroups: (1) basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas and (2) benign actinic keratoses, seborrheic keratoses, and warts. Group 2 consisted of (1) dysplastic nevi and (2) benign common nevi. For each group, a bootstrap-based Bayes classifier was designed to separate the benign from the dysplastic or cancerous tissues. A genetic algorithm was then used to obtain the most effective combination of spatiospectral features for each classifier. The classifiers, tested with prospective blind studies, reached statistical accuracies of 100% and 95% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Properties that related to cell-nuclear size, to the concentration of oxyhemoglobin, and to the concentration of deoxyhemoglobin as well as the derived concentration of total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation were defined to explain the origins of the classification outcomes.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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2002 (2)

M. Mehrubeoglu, N. Kehtarnavaz, G. Marquez, M. Duvic, L.-H. Wang, “Skin lesion classification using oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Opt. 41, 182–192 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, V. Doddi, J. P. Freyer, “Angular dependent light scattering from multicellular spheroids,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 93–99 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

H. Ganster, A. Pinz, R. Rohrer, E. Wildling, M. Binder, H. Kittler, “Automated melanoma recognition,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, J. C. Bamber, “Spectrophotometric assessment of pigmented skin lesions: methods and feature selection for evaluation of diagnostic performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 735–751 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (5)

H. Jiang, G. Marquez, L.-H. Wang, “Particle sizing in concentrated suspensions by use of steady-state, continuous-wave photon migration techniques,” Opt. Lett. 23, 394–396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3586–3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Zoubir, B. Boashash, “The bootstrap and its applications in signal processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 15(1), 56–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomsen, D. Tatman, “Physiological and pathological factors of human breast disease that can influence optical diagnosis,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 171–193 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

G. Marquez, L.-H. Wang, “White light oblique incidence reflectometer for measuring absorption and reduced scattering spectra of tissue-like turbid media,” Opt. Express 1, 454–460 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Pierce, H. B. Jiang, J. Kao, “Photon-migration measurement of latex size distribution in concentrated suspensions,” AIChE J. 43, 655–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, “Use of a laser beam with an oblique angle of incidence to measure the reduced scattering coefficient of a turbid medium,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2362–2366 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

H. B. Stone, J. M. Brown, T. L. Phillips, R. M. Sutherland, “Oxygen in human tumors: correlations between methods of measurement and response to therapy,” Radiat. Res. 136, 422–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arendt, J. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bamber, J. C.

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, J. C. Bamber, “Spectrophotometric assessment of pigmented skin lesions: methods and feature selection for evaluation of diagnostic performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 735–751 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binder, M.

H. Ganster, A. Pinz, R. Rohrer, E. Wildling, M. Binder, H. Kittler, “Automated melanoma recognition,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boashash, B.

A. M. Zoubir, B. Boashash, “The bootstrap and its applications in signal processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 15(1), 56–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brocker, C.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. M.

H. B. Stone, J. M. Brown, T. L. Phillips, R. M. Sutherland, “Oxygen in human tumors: correlations between methods of measurement and response to therapy,” Radiat. Res. 136, 422–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canpolat, M.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, A.

J. Groswami, A. Chan, Fundamentals of Wavelets, Theory, Algorithms and Applications, 1st ed. (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1999).

Chance, B.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, T.

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, T. Collins, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, 6th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1999), pp. 1–498 and 1170–1268.

Cooney, K. M.

K. M. Cooney, K. W. Gossage, M. J. McShane, E. W. J. van der Breggen, M. Motamedi, G. L. Cote, “Development of an optical system for the detection of oral cancer using near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J. (1998), pp. 906–909.

Cote, G. L.

K. M. Cooney, K. W. Gossage, M. J. McShane, E. W. J. van der Breggen, M. Motamedi, G. L. Cote, “Development of an optical system for the detection of oral cancer using near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J. (1998), pp. 906–909.

Cotran, R. S.

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, T. Collins, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, 6th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1999), pp. 1–498 and 1170–1268.

Crawford, D. C.

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, J. C. Bamber, “Spectrophotometric assessment of pigmented skin lesions: methods and feature selection for evaluation of diagnostic performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 735–751 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doddi, V.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, V. Doddi, J. P. Freyer, “Angular dependent light scattering from multicellular spheroids,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 93–99 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

Duda, R. O.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley Interscience, New York, 2000).

Dunn, A.

Duvic, M.

Eick, A. A.

Esponda-Ramos, O.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, V. Doddi, J. P. Freyer, “Angular dependent light scattering from multicellular spheroids,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 93–99 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3586–3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ganster, H.

H. Ganster, A. Pinz, R. Rohrer, E. Wildling, M. Binder, H. Kittler, “Automated melanoma recognition,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossage, K. W.

K. M. Cooney, K. W. Gossage, M. J. McShane, E. W. J. van der Breggen, M. Motamedi, G. L. Cote, “Development of an optical system for the detection of oral cancer using near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J. (1998), pp. 906–909.

Groswami, J.

J. Groswami, A. Chan, Fundamentals of Wavelets, Theory, Algorithms and Applications, 1st ed. (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1999).

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamano, T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hart, P. E.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley Interscience, New York, 2000).

Hielscher, A. H.

Itzkan, I.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

Jiang, H.

Jiang, H. B.

E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Pierce, H. B. Jiang, J. Kao, “Photon-migration measurement of latex size distribution in concentrated suspensions,” AIChE J. 43, 655–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, V. Doddi, J. P. Freyer, “Angular dependent light scattering from multicellular spheroids,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 93–99 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3586–3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jong, K.

H. Vafaie, K. Jong, “Genetic algorithms as a tool for feature selection in machine learning,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (Institute of Electrical Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1992), pp. 200–203.

Kabani, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kao, J.

E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Pierce, H. B. Jiang, J. Kao, “Photon-migration measurement of latex size distribution in concentrated suspensions,” AIChE J. 43, 655–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kehtarnavaz, N.

Kittler, H.

H. Ganster, A. Pinz, R. Rohrer, E. Wildling, M. Binder, H. Kittler, “Automated melanoma recognition,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kline, E.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, V.

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, T. Collins, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, 6th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1999), pp. 1–498 and 1170–1268.

Levin, H. S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lima, C.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marquez, G.

Matanock, A.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGillican, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McShane, M. J.

K. M. Cooney, K. W. Gossage, M. J. McShane, E. W. J. van der Breggen, M. Motamedi, G. L. Cote, “Development of an optical system for the detection of oral cancer using near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J. (1998), pp. 906–909.

Mehrubeoglu, M.

Mortimer, P. S.

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, J. C. Bamber, “Spectrophotometric assessment of pigmented skin lesions: methods and feature selection for evaluation of diagnostic performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 735–751 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

K. M. Cooney, K. W. Gossage, M. J. McShane, E. W. J. van der Breggen, M. Motamedi, G. L. Cote, “Development of an optical system for the detection of oral cancer using near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J. (1998), pp. 906–909.

Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, V. Doddi, J. P. Freyer, “Angular dependent light scattering from multicellular spheroids,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 93–99 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3586–3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M. G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nusrat, A.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ott, R. J.

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, J. C. Bamber, “Spectrophotometric assessment of pigmented skin lesions: methods and feature selection for evaluation of diagnostic performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 735–751 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, T. L.

H. B. Stone, J. M. Brown, T. L. Phillips, R. M. Sutherland, “Oxygen in human tumors: correlations between methods of measurement and response to therapy,” Radiat. Res. 136, 422–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, J.

E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Pierce, H. B. Jiang, J. Kao, “Photon-migration measurement of latex size distribution in concentrated suspensions,” AIChE J. 43, 655–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pinz, A.

H. Ganster, A. Pinz, R. Rohrer, E. Wildling, M. Binder, H. Kittler, “Automated melanoma recognition,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Riech, M.

J. Roning, M. Riech, “Registration of nevi in successive skin images for early detection of melanoma,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Pattern Recognition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., (1998), pp. 352–357.

Rohrer, R.

H. Ganster, A. Pinz, R. Rohrer, E. Wildling, M. Binder, H. Kittler, “Automated melanoma recognition,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roning, J.

J. Roning, M. Riech, “Registration of nevi in successive skin images for early detection of melanoma,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Pattern Recognition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., (1998), pp. 352–357.

Seiler, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sevick-Muraca, E.

E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Pierce, H. B. Jiang, J. Kao, “Photon-migration measurement of latex size distribution in concentrated suspensions,” AIChE J. 43, 655–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shapshay, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D.

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stetter, K.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, H. B.

H. B. Stone, J. M. Brown, T. L. Phillips, R. M. Sutherland, “Oxygen in human tumors: correlations between methods of measurement and response to therapy,” Radiat. Res. 136, 422–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stork, D. G.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley Interscience, New York, 2000).

Sutherland, R. M.

H. B. Stone, J. M. Brown, T. L. Phillips, R. M. Sutherland, “Oxygen in human tumors: correlations between methods of measurement and response to therapy,” Radiat. Res. 136, 422–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tatman, D.

S. Thomsen, D. Tatman, “Physiological and pathological factors of human breast disease that can influence optical diagnosis,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 171–193 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S.

S. Thomsen, D. Tatman, “Physiological and pathological factors of human breast disease that can influence optical diagnosis,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 171–193 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vafaie, H.

H. Vafaie, K. Jong, “Genetic algorithms as a tool for feature selection in machine learning,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (Institute of Electrical Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1992), pp. 200–203.

Valdez, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

van der Breggen, E. W. J.

K. M. Cooney, K. W. Gossage, M. J. McShane, E. W. J. van der Breggen, M. Motamedi, G. L. Cote, “Development of an optical system for the detection of oral cancer using near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J. (1998), pp. 906–909.

Vandam, J.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M. B.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, J. C. Bamber, “Spectrophotometric assessment of pigmented skin lesions: methods and feature selection for evaluation of diagnostic performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 735–751 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.-H.

Wildling, E.

H. Ganster, A. Pinz, R. Rohrer, E. Wildling, M. Binder, H. Kittler, “Automated melanoma recognition,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A. M.

A. M. Zoubir, B. Boashash, “The bootstrap and its applications in signal processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 15(1), 56–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

AIChE J. (1)

E. Sevick-Muraca, J. Pierce, H. B. Jiang, J. Kao, “Photon-migration measurement of latex size distribution in concentrated suspensions,” AIChE J. 43, 655–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

S. Thomsen, D. Tatman, “Physiological and pathological factors of human breast disease that can influence optical diagnosis,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 171–193 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

A. M. Zoubir, B. Boashash, “The bootstrap and its applications in signal processing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 15(1), 56–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

H. Ganster, A. Pinz, R. Rohrer, E. Wildling, M. Binder, H. Kittler, “Automated melanoma recognition,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, V. Doddi, J. P. Freyer, “Angular dependent light scattering from multicellular spheroids,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 93–99 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, J. C. Bamber, “Spectrophotometric assessment of pigmented skin lesions: methods and feature selection for evaluation of diagnostic performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 735–751 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Vandam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue—a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Res. (1)

H. B. Stone, J. M. Brown, T. L. Phillips, R. M. Sutherland, “Oxygen in human tumors: correlations between methods of measurement and response to therapy,” Radiat. Res. 136, 422–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, T. Collins, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, 6th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1999), pp. 1–498 and 1170–1268.

K. M. Cooney, K. W. Gossage, M. J. McShane, E. W. J. van der Breggen, M. Motamedi, G. L. Cote, “Development of an optical system for the detection of oral cancer using near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J. (1998), pp. 906–909.

J. Roning, M. Riech, “Registration of nevi in successive skin images for early detection of melanoma,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Pattern Recognition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., (1998), pp. 352–357.

J. Groswami, A. Chan, Fundamentals of Wavelets, Theory, Algorithms and Applications, 1st ed. (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1999).

H. Vafaie, K. Jong, “Genetic algorithms as a tool for feature selection in machine learning,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (Institute of Electrical Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1992), pp. 200–203.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley Interscience, New York, 2000).

American Cancer Society, “Melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer,” http://www.cancer.org (2002).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of SOIR. (b) Configuration of the optical-fiber probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample SOIR images: intensity of light is represented by different shades. Vertical axis, wavelengths in nanometers; horizontal axis, probe fiber number.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of a Morlet wavelet and 64 scaling functions. Each CWT feature is extracted from a portion of this two-dimensional plot.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Results of the design dataset for group 1. (b) Prospective blind-study dataset results for group 1. Vertical axes, CIF values; horizontal axes, relative case numbers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Results of the design dataset for group 1. (b) Prospective blind-study dataset results for group 1. Vertical axes, CIF values; horizontal axes, relative case numbers.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Effective Image Features for Group 1 Lesions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Effective Image Features for Group 2 Lesions

Tables Icon

Table 3 Average Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Specificity in the 50%–50% Analysis with 10,000 Random Selections

Tables Icon

Table 4 Averages of Physiological Parameters for Each Lesion Group

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Wfψb, a=1a- ftψt-badt, a>0.
μaλ=εoxλCox+εdeλCde+μabg,
μsλ=Cs03Qsϕ, n, λ1-gϕ, n, λ2ϕ fϕdϕ,

Metrics