Abstract

Unabsorbed pump light in passively Q-switched microlasers leads to suboptimal pulse generation by bleaching the saturable absorber. This mechanism increases the effective unsaturated transmission of the absorber, which leads to a change in the system dynamics that results in increased pulse durations and decreased pulse energies. We report experimental evidence of pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber, an increase in the pulse duration from 360 to 880 ps, and develop a simple analytical treatment that includes this effect within the framework of existing passive Q-switching models.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Martin A. Jaspan, David Welford, and Jeffrey A. Russell, "Passively Q-switched microlaser performance in the presence of pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber: erratum," Appl. Opt. 43, 4100-4100 (2004)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-43-20-4100

References

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  1. J. J. Zayhowski, “Passively Q-switched microchip lasers and applications,” Rev. Laser Eng. 26, 841–846 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890–1901 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Welford, “Passively Q-switched lasers: short pulse duration, single-frequency sources,” in Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 121–122.
  4. J. J. Zayhowski, A. J. Wilson, “Pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber in short-pulse Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched microchip lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1588–1593 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Dascalu, N. Pavel, V. Lupei, G. Philipps, T. Beck, H. Weber, “Investigation of a passive Q-switched, externally controlled, quasicontinuous or continuous pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1247–1251 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  6. Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Xiao, M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched lasers including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41–44 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. M. Zverev, A. V. Shestakov, “Tunable near-infrared oxide crystal lasers,” in Proceedings of Tunable Solid-State Lasers, M. L. Shand, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 66–70.
  10. D. Welford, M. A. Jaspan, G. Xiao, M. Bass, “Atypical behavior of Cr:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microlasers at high-pumping rates,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, T. Li, ed., Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 454–454.
  11. J. Zheng, S. Zhao, L. Chen, “Laser-diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2271–2275 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Liu, B. Ozygus, S. Yang, J. Erhard, U. Seelig, A. Ding, H. Weber, X. Meng, L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Xu, Z. Shao, “Efficient passive Q-switching operation of a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 652–661 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. J. Zayhowski, A. J. Wilson, “Pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber in short-pulse Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched microchip lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1588–1593 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, B. Ozygus, S. Yang, J. Erhard, U. Seelig, A. Ding, H. Weber, X. Meng, L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Xu, Z. Shao, “Efficient passive Q-switching operation of a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 652–661 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Zheng, S. Zhao, L. Chen, “Laser-diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2271–2275 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[Crossref]

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. J. Zayhowski, “Passively Q-switched microchip lasers and applications,” Rev. Laser Eng. 26, 841–846 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Xiao, M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched lasers including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41–44 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

T. Dascalu, N. Pavel, V. Lupei, G. Philipps, T. Beck, H. Weber, “Investigation of a passive Q-switched, externally controlled, quasicontinuous or continuous pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1247–1251 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890–1901 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bass, M.

G. Xiao, M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched lasers including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41–44 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Welford, M. A. Jaspan, G. Xiao, M. Bass, “Atypical behavior of Cr:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microlasers at high-pumping rates,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, T. Li, ed., Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 454–454.

Beck, T.

T. Dascalu, N. Pavel, V. Lupei, G. Philipps, T. Beck, H. Weber, “Investigation of a passive Q-switched, externally controlled, quasicontinuous or continuous pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1247–1251 (1996).
[Crossref]

Blau, P.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Burshtein, Z.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

J. Zheng, S. Zhao, L. Chen, “Laser-diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2271–2275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Coyle, D. B.

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dascalu, T.

T. Dascalu, N. Pavel, V. Lupei, G. Philipps, T. Beck, H. Weber, “Investigation of a passive Q-switched, externally controlled, quasicontinuous or continuous pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1247–1251 (1996).
[Crossref]

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890–1901 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ding, A.

Erhard, J.

Jaspan, M. A.

D. Welford, M. A. Jaspan, G. Xiao, M. Bass, “Atypical behavior of Cr:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microlasers at high-pumping rates,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, T. Li, ed., Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 454–454.

Kalisky, Y.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kay, R. B.

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kokta, M. R.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Lupei, V.

T. Dascalu, N. Pavel, V. Lupei, G. Philipps, T. Beck, H. Weber, “Investigation of a passive Q-switched, externally controlled, quasicontinuous or continuous pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1247–1251 (1996).
[Crossref]

Meng, X.

Ozygus, B.

Pavel, N.

T. Dascalu, N. Pavel, V. Lupei, G. Philipps, T. Beck, H. Weber, “Investigation of a passive Q-switched, externally controlled, quasicontinuous or continuous pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1247–1251 (1996).
[Crossref]

Philipps, G.

T. Dascalu, N. Pavel, V. Lupei, G. Philipps, T. Beck, H. Weber, “Investigation of a passive Q-switched, externally controlled, quasicontinuous or continuous pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1247–1251 (1996).
[Crossref]

Qin, L.

Seelig, U.

Shao, Z.

Shestakov, A. V.

G. M. Zverev, A. V. Shestakov, “Tunable near-infrared oxide crystal lasers,” in Proceedings of Tunable Solid-State Lasers, M. L. Shand, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 66–70.

Shimony, Y.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Weber, H.

J. Liu, B. Ozygus, S. Yang, J. Erhard, U. Seelig, A. Ding, H. Weber, X. Meng, L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Xu, Z. Shao, “Efficient passive Q-switching operation of a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 652–661 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Dascalu, N. Pavel, V. Lupei, G. Philipps, T. Beck, H. Weber, “Investigation of a passive Q-switched, externally controlled, quasicontinuous or continuous pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1247–1251 (1996).
[Crossref]

Welford, D.

D. Welford, “Passively Q-switched lasers: short pulse duration, single-frequency sources,” in Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 121–122.

D. Welford, M. A. Jaspan, G. Xiao, M. Bass, “Atypical behavior of Cr:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microlasers at high-pumping rates,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, T. Li, ed., Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 454–454.

Wilson, A. J.

J. J. Zayhowski, A. J. Wilson, “Pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber in short-pulse Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched microchip lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1588–1593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xiao, G.

G. Xiao, M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched lasers including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41–44 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Welford, M. A. Jaspan, G. Xiao, M. Bass, “Atypical behavior of Cr:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microlasers at high-pumping rates,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, T. Li, ed., Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 454–454.

Xu, X.

Yang, S.

Zayhowski, J. J.

J. J. Zayhowski, A. J. Wilson, “Pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber in short-pulse Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched microchip lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1588–1593 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. J. Zayhowski, “Passively Q-switched microchip lasers and applications,” Rev. Laser Eng. 26, 841–846 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

J. Zheng, S. Zhao, L. Chen, “Laser-diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2271–2275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, S. Zhao, L. Chen, “Laser-diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2271–2275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

Zverev, G. M.

G. M. Zverev, A. V. Shestakov, “Tunable near-infrared oxide crystal lasers,” in Proceedings of Tunable Solid-State Lasers, M. L. Shand, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 66–70.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890–1901 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. J. Zayhowski, A. J. Wilson, “Pump-induced bleaching of the saturable absorber in short-pulse Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched microchip lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1588–1593 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Xiao, M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched lasers including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41–44 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. Zheng, S. Zhao, L. Chen, “Laser-diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2271–2275 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Dascalu, N. Pavel, V. Lupei, G. Philipps, T. Beck, H. Weber, “Investigation of a passive Q-switched, externally controlled, quasicontinuous or continuous pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1247–1251 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

J. J. Zayhowski, “Passively Q-switched microchip lasers and applications,” Rev. Laser Eng. 26, 841–846 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

D. Welford, “Passively Q-switched lasers: short pulse duration, single-frequency sources,” in Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 121–122.

G. M. Zverev, A. V. Shestakov, “Tunable near-infrared oxide crystal lasers,” in Proceedings of Tunable Solid-State Lasers, M. L. Shand, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 66–70.

D. Welford, M. A. Jaspan, G. Xiao, M. Bass, “Atypical behavior of Cr:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microlasers at high-pumping rates,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, T. Li, ed., Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 454–454.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the optical pumping arrangement for a Cr:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YAG microlaser pumped with a cw Ti:Al2O3 laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microlaser output pulse profile for 700 mW of incident pump power at 809.0 nm. The pulse duration was 640 ps.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microlaser pulse duration and energy data as a function of the Nd:YAG-layer transmission. The pump power incident on the Cr:YAG layer increases with increasing Nd:YAG-layer transmission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cr:YAG energy-level diagram.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microlaser pulse duration as a function of residual pump intensity incident on the Cr:YAG layer, I p , normalized to the saturation intensity, I sat. Triangles, experimental data shown in Fig. 3; solid curve, analytical estimates of pulse duration.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Passively Q-Switched Microlaser Performance Data

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dϕdt=2σnl-2σsnsls-2σesanuls-ln1R+Lϕtr,
dndt=-γσcϕn,
dnsdt=-γsσscϕns+n0-nsτs-γpσpΦpns,
nsi=n01+I/Isat,
n0=ns+nu+n3+n4.
n0=ns+nu.
α=nsσs+nuσesa,
TI=T0IsatIsat+ITIIsat+I.
T0=exp-n0σsls,
T=exp-n0σesals

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