Abstract

The Langley method has been applied to the measurements of direct solar radiation made by Brewer spectrophotometers to obtain the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of the atmosphere in the ultraviolet-B range. In several cases the AOT increased with wavelength, which raises suspicion about the stray-light effect. To investigate the quality of the AOT measurements and the possibility of stray light, we conducted a campaign by using single- and double-monochromator Brewers. The campaign’s results have shown that both Brewers’ AOT values are in good agreement and that stray light is not an important effect for AOT at wavelengths above 306 nm.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, C. A. Costa, N. P. Leme, H. G. Pavõ, F. Zaratti, “UV-B optical thickness observations of the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2963–2973 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, D. K. Pinheiro, “Wavelength dependence of aerosol optical thickness in the UV-B band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 58.1–58.4 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Marenco, V. Santacesaria, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, A. Di Sarra, A. Papayannis, C. Zerefos, “Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (photochemical activity and solar ultraviolet radiation campaign),” Appl. Opt. 36, 6875–6886 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. E. Fiotelov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, E. Wu, “Correction of stray light for the Brewer single monochromator,” in Proceedings of the 2000 AGU Spring Meeting, K. P. Bowman, ed. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 369–370.
  6. T. N. Woods, R. T. Wrigley, G. J. Tottman, R. E. Haring, “Scattered-light properties of diffraction gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4273–4285 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurement limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Sci-Tec Instruments Inc., Brewer MKIV Spectrophotometer Operator’s Manual, Saskatoon: (Sci-Tec Instruments, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 1995).
  12. L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “The effect of atmospheric attenuators with structured vertical distributions on air mass determinations and Langley plot analyses,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1851–1854 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. M. Teillet, “Rayleigh optical depth comparisons from various sources,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1897–1900 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14501–14508 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. J. McGee, J. Burris, “SO2 absorption cross sections in the near UV,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 37, 165–182 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. F. Bais, “Absolute spectral measurements of direct solar ultraviolet irradiance with a Brewer spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5199–5204 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. I. Terez, G. A. Terez, “A method to determine atmospheric optical depth using observations of direct solar radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2003JD003829 (2003).
  19. S. J. Abel, J. M. Haywood, E. J. Highwood, J. Li, P. R. Buseck, “Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2003GL017342 (2003).
  20. J. Jaroslawski, J. W. Krzyscin, S. Puchalski, P. Sobolewski, “On the optical thickness in the uv range: analysis of the ground-based data taken at Belsk, Poland,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2003JD003571 (2003).

2003 (3)

E. I. Terez, G. A. Terez, “A method to determine atmospheric optical depth using observations of direct solar radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2003JD003829 (2003).

S. J. Abel, J. M. Haywood, E. J. Highwood, J. Li, P. R. Buseck, “Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2003GL017342 (2003).

J. Jaroslawski, J. W. Krzyscin, S. Puchalski, P. Sobolewski, “On the optical thickness in the uv range: analysis of the ground-based data taken at Belsk, Poland,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2003JD003571 (2003).

2002 (1)

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, D. K. Pinheiro, “Wavelength dependence of aerosol optical thickness in the UV-B band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 58.1–58.4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, C. A. Costa, N. P. Leme, H. G. Pavõ, F. Zaratti, “UV-B optical thickness observations of the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2963–2973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

T. J. McGee, J. Burris, “SO2 absorption cross sections in the near UV,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 37, 165–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14501–14508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “The effect of atmospheric attenuators with structured vertical distributions on air mass determinations and Langley plot analyses,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1851–1854 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

Abel, S. J.

S. J. Abel, J. M. Haywood, E. J. Highwood, J. Li, P. R. Buseck, “Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2003GL017342 (2003).

Bais, A. F.

Balis, D.

Bernhard, G.

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bodhaine, B. A.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Box, M. A.

Burris, J.

T. J. McGee, J. Burris, “SO2 absorption cross sections in the near UV,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 37, 165–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Buseck, P. R.

S. J. Abel, J. M. Haywood, E. J. Highwood, J. Li, P. R. Buseck, “Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2003GL017342 (2003).

Costa, C. A.

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, C. A. Costa, N. P. Leme, H. G. Pavõ, F. Zaratti, “UV-B optical thickness observations of the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2963–2973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deepak, A.

Di Sarra, A.

Dutton, E. G.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fiotelov, V. E.

V. E. Fiotelov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, E. Wu, “Correction of stray light for the Brewer single monochromator,” in Proceedings of the 2000 AGU Spring Meeting, K. P. Bowman, ed. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 369–370.

Haring, R. E.

Haywood, J. M.

S. J. Abel, J. M. Haywood, E. J. Highwood, J. Li, P. R. Buseck, “Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2003GL017342 (2003).

Herman, B. M.

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “The effect of atmospheric attenuators with structured vertical distributions on air mass determinations and Langley plot analyses,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1851–1854 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurement limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Highwood, E. J.

S. J. Abel, J. M. Haywood, E. J. Highwood, J. Li, P. R. Buseck, “Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2003GL017342 (2003).

Jaroslawski, J.

J. Jaroslawski, J. W. Krzyscin, S. Puchalski, P. Sobolewski, “On the optical thickness in the uv range: analysis of the ground-based data taken at Belsk, Poland,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2003JD003571 (2003).

Kerr, J. B.

V. E. Fiotelov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, E. Wu, “Correction of stray light for the Brewer single monochromator,” in Proceedings of the 2000 AGU Spring Meeting, K. P. Bowman, ed. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 369–370.

Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, D. K. Pinheiro, “Wavelength dependence of aerosol optical thickness in the UV-B band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 58.1–58.4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, C. A. Costa, N. P. Leme, H. G. Pavõ, F. Zaratti, “UV-B optical thickness observations of the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2963–2973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krzyscin, J. W.

J. Jaroslawski, J. W. Krzyscin, S. Puchalski, P. Sobolewski, “On the optical thickness in the uv range: analysis of the ground-based data taken at Belsk, Poland,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2003JD003571 (2003).

Leme, N. P.

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, C. A. Costa, N. P. Leme, H. G. Pavõ, F. Zaratti, “UV-B optical thickness observations of the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2963–2973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

S. J. Abel, J. M. Haywood, E. J. Highwood, J. Li, P. R. Buseck, “Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2003GL017342 (2003).

Marenco, F.

McElroy, C. T.

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McGee, T. J.

T. J. McGee, J. Burris, “SO2 absorption cross sections in the near UV,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 37, 165–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Molina, L. T.

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14501–14508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Molina, M. J.

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14501–14508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Papayannis, A.

Pavõ, H. G.

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, C. A. Costa, N. P. Leme, H. G. Pavõ, F. Zaratti, “UV-B optical thickness observations of the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2963–2973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pinheiro, D. K.

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, D. K. Pinheiro, “Wavelength dependence of aerosol optical thickness in the UV-B band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 58.1–58.4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Puchalski, S.

J. Jaroslawski, J. W. Krzyscin, S. Puchalski, P. Sobolewski, “On the optical thickness in the uv range: analysis of the ground-based data taken at Belsk, Poland,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2003JD003571 (2003).

Reagan, J. A.

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “The effect of atmospheric attenuators with structured vertical distributions on air mass determinations and Langley plot analyses,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1851–1854 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurement limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santacesaria, V.

Schotland, R. M.

Seckmeyer, G.

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Silva, A. A.

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, D. K. Pinheiro, “Wavelength dependence of aerosol optical thickness in the UV-B band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 58.1–58.4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, C. A. Costa, N. P. Leme, H. G. Pavõ, F. Zaratti, “UV-B optical thickness observations of the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2963–2973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slusser, J. R.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, P.

J. Jaroslawski, J. W. Krzyscin, S. Puchalski, P. Sobolewski, “On the optical thickness in the uv range: analysis of the ground-based data taken at Belsk, Poland,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2003JD003571 (2003).

Teillet, P. M.

Terez, E. I.

E. I. Terez, G. A. Terez, “A method to determine atmospheric optical depth using observations of direct solar radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2003JD003829 (2003).

Terez, G. A.

E. I. Terez, G. A. Terez, “A method to determine atmospheric optical depth using observations of direct solar radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2003JD003829 (2003).

Thomason, L. W.

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “The effect of atmospheric attenuators with structured vertical distributions on air mass determinations and Langley plot analyses,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1851–1854 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurement limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tottman, G. J.

Wardle, D. I.

V. E. Fiotelov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, E. Wu, “Correction of stray light for the Brewer single monochromator,” in Proceedings of the 2000 AGU Spring Meeting, K. P. Bowman, ed. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 369–370.

Wood, N. B.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woods, T. N.

Wrigley, R. T.

Wu, E.

V. E. Fiotelov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, E. Wu, “Correction of stray light for the Brewer single monochromator,” in Proceedings of the 2000 AGU Spring Meeting, K. P. Bowman, ed. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 369–370.

Zaratti, F.

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, C. A. Costa, N. P. Leme, H. G. Pavõ, F. Zaratti, “UV-B optical thickness observations of the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2963–2973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zerefos, C.

Zerefos, C. S.

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, D. K. Pinheiro, “Wavelength dependence of aerosol optical thickness in the UV-B band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 58.1–58.4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Abel, J. M. Haywood, E. J. Highwood, J. Li, P. R. Buseck, “Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2003GL017342 (2003).

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “The effect of atmospheric attenuators with structured vertical distributions on air mass determinations and Langley plot analyses,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1851–1854 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

J. Jaroslawski, J. W. Krzyscin, S. Puchalski, P. Sobolewski, “On the optical thickness in the uv range: analysis of the ground-based data taken at Belsk, Poland,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2003JD003571 (2003).

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14501–14508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Terez, G. A. Terez, “A method to determine atmospheric optical depth using observations of direct solar radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2003JD003829 (2003).

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, A. A. Silva, C. A. Costa, N. P. Leme, H. G. Pavõ, F. Zaratti, “UV-B optical thickness observations of the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2963–2973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

T. J. McGee, J. Burris, “SO2 absorption cross sections in the near UV,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 37, 165–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

V. E. Fiotelov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, E. Wu, “Correction of stray light for the Brewer single monochromator,” in Proceedings of the 2000 AGU Spring Meeting, K. P. Bowman, ed. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 369–370.

Sci-Tec Instruments Inc., Brewer MKIV Spectrophotometer Operator’s Manual, Saskatoon: (Sci-Tec Instruments, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative O3 and SO2 values from Brewers MKIV (circles) and MKIII (triangles) in the first part of the campaign.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative O3 and SO2 values from Brewers MKIV (circles) and MKII (triangles) in the second part of the campaign.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AOT values as a function of wavelength from Brewers MKIV (circles) and MKIII (triangles). Except for day 69, all values are related to morning periods.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AOT values as a function of wavelength from Brewers MKIV (circles) and MKII (triangles). All values are related to morning periods.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Report of ds Measurements Made by Brewers MKIII and MKIV in the First Part of the Campaign

Tables Icon

Table 2 Report of ds Measurements Made by Brewers MKII and MKIV in the Second Part of the Campaign

Tables Icon

Table 3 Typical Values of Optical Thickness for Aerosol, O3, SO2, Rayleigh Scattering, and the Atmosphere Obtained from Brewer MKIII on Day 72 as a Function of Wavelength

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Iλ=Iλ0 exp-mτat.
lnIλ=lnIλ0-τatm,
τae=τat-τO3+τSO2+τR.
τi=σN2.69×1016, i=O3 or SO2.
δi=2.69×1016Nδσ2+σδN20.5,i=O3 or SO2.
δae=δat2+δO32+δSO22+δR20.5.

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