Abstract

We present a method for characterizing transceiver performance in parallel optical data links. By establishing a bidirectional link between two optically enabled chips, the conditions for a ring oscillator are made possible. We propose this technique as a means of measuring the sensitivity of transceiver latency to controlled variables such as temperature, optical output power, supply voltage, and device misalignment. This method is noninvasive and independent of the packaging, circuit topology, and optical medium used. The technique is demonstrated experimentally, and results are compared with a simulation.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, D. A. B. Miller, “Optical pump-probe measurements of the latency of silicon CMOS optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1214–1216 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, D. A. B. Miller, “Performance enhancement of an optical interconnect using short pulses from a modelocked diode laser,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Long Beach, California, 19–24 May 2002.
  4. D. Agarwal, D. A. B. Miller, “Latency in short pulse based optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Laser and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, Calif., 2001), pp. 812–813.
  5. E. Laprise, D. V. Plant, “Method and Apparatus for Opto-electronic Built-in Tests,” U.S. patent application #20020025100, filed 15June2001 (pending).
  6. M. B. Venditti, J. D. Schwartz, D. V. Plant, “Skew and latency reduction for synchronous OE-VLSI receiver applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).
  7. D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Abidi, “How phase noise appears in oscillators,” in Analog Circuit Design—RF Analog-to-Digital Converters: Sensor and Actuator Interfaces; Low Noise Oscillators; PLLs and Synthesizers, R. J. van de Plassche, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1997), pp. 428–447.

2002 (1)

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, D. A. B. Miller, “Optical pump-probe measurements of the latency of silicon CMOS optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1214–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abidi, A. A.

A. A. Abidi, “How phase noise appears in oscillators,” in Analog Circuit Design—RF Analog-to-Digital Converters: Sensor and Actuator Interfaces; Low Noise Oscillators; PLLs and Synthesizers, R. J. van de Plassche, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1997), pp. 428–447.

Agarwal, D.

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, D. A. B. Miller, “Optical pump-probe measurements of the latency of silicon CMOS optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1214–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, D. A. B. Miller, “Performance enhancement of an optical interconnect using short pulses from a modelocked diode laser,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Long Beach, California, 19–24 May 2002.

D. Agarwal, D. A. B. Miller, “Latency in short pulse based optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Laser and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, Calif., 2001), pp. 812–813.

Ahearn, J. S.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Châteauneuf, M.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Debaes, C.

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, D. A. B. Miller, “Optical pump-probe measurements of the latency of silicon CMOS optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1214–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, J.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Focht, M. W.

T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guth, G. D.

T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Helman, N. C.

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, D. A. B. Miller, “Optical pump-probe measurements of the latency of silicon CMOS optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1214–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, D. A. B. Miller, “Performance enhancement of an optical interconnect using short pulses from a modelocked diode laser,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Long Beach, California, 19–24 May 2002.

Hui, S.

T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keeler, G. A.

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, D. A. B. Miller, “Optical pump-probe measurements of the latency of silicon CMOS optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1214–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, D. A. B. Miller, “Performance enhancement of an optical interconnect using short pulses from a modelocked diode laser,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Long Beach, California, 19–24 May 2002.

Kirk, A. G.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laprise, E.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Laprise, D. V. Plant, “Method and Apparatus for Opto-electronic Built-in Tests,” U.S. patent application #20020025100, filed 15June2001 (pending).

Leibenguth, R. E.

T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, D. A. B. Miller, “Optical pump-probe measurements of the latency of silicon CMOS optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1214–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, D. A. B. Miller, “Performance enhancement of an optical interconnect using short pulses from a modelocked diode laser,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Long Beach, California, 19–24 May 2002.

D. Agarwal, D. A. B. Miller, “Latency in short pulse based optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Laser and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, Calif., 2001), pp. 812–813.

Nelson, B. E.

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, D. A. B. Miller, “Optical pump-probe measurements of the latency of silicon CMOS optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1214–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, D. A. B. Miller, “Performance enhancement of an optical interconnect using short pulses from a modelocked diode laser,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Long Beach, California, 19–24 May 2002.

Novotny, R. A.

T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Venditti, J. D. Schwartz, D. V. Plant, “Skew and latency reduction for synchronous OE-VLSI receiver applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

E. Laprise, D. V. Plant, “Method and Apparatus for Opto-electronic Built-in Tests,” U.S. patent application #20020025100, filed 15June2001 (pending).

Razavi, K.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, J. D.

M. B. Venditti, J. D. Schwartz, D. V. Plant, “Skew and latency reduction for synchronous OE-VLSI receiver applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Smith, L. E.

T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, D. A. B. Miller, “Optical pump-probe measurements of the latency of silicon CMOS optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1214–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Venditti, M. B.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Venditti, J. D. Schwartz, D. V. Plant, “Skew and latency reduction for synchronous OE-VLSI receiver applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Woodward, T. K.

T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, D. A. B. Miller, “Optical pump-probe measurements of the latency of silicon CMOS optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1214–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, D. A. B. Miller, “Performance enhancement of an optical interconnect using short pulses from a modelocked diode laser,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Long Beach, California, 19–24 May 2002.

D. Agarwal, D. A. B. Miller, “Latency in short pulse based optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Laser and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, Calif., 2001), pp. 812–813.

E. Laprise, D. V. Plant, “Method and Apparatus for Opto-electronic Built-in Tests,” U.S. patent application #20020025100, filed 15June2001 (pending).

M. B. Venditti, J. D. Schwartz, D. V. Plant, “Skew and latency reduction for synchronous OE-VLSI receiver applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

A. A. Abidi, “How phase noise appears in oscillators,” in Analog Circuit Design—RF Analog-to-Digital Converters: Sensor and Actuator Interfaces; Low Noise Oscillators; PLLs and Synthesizers, R. J. van de Plassche, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1997), pp. 428–447.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of possible ring oscillator setups. (a) Electrical ring oscillator with optical readout. A cw laser beam is encoded with the oscillation by an MQW reflector and then detected for measurement. (b) OERO (two chips) using on-chip sources and detectors. (c) OERO using one chip only.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of a packaged test chip corner with a 1 × 4 bar of VCSELs (bottom) and another of PDs (left).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of face-to-face identically packaged test chips. The rotation illustrated from starting position (dotted) is necessary to properly align the image of one chip with the inverted image of the other.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top view of OERO optical system. Cameras #1 and #2 image chips A and B, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of the assembled OERO. Two CCD imaging cameras and a photodetector are used simultaneously by using two beam-splitters (BS).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sample of an OERO sinusoid captured on the digital scope. Period of oscillation is approximately 15 ns.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Software simulation of OERO for 4 receiver types (does not account for time-of-flight and interconnect delays).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

OERO results for the CGA-based receivers (top) and TIA-based receivers (bottom).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical System Properties

Equations (1)

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TOSC=2LRX+LTX+LINV+LEI+TOF,

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