We present the design and electromagnetic analysis of an all-diffractive millimeter-wave imaging system having a field of view of ±15°. This system consists of two 16-level diffractive lenses, with the stop in contact with the first lens. By considering the Seidel aberrations for a diffractive lens and applying the corresponding stop shift formula, we established the expressions of third-order wave aberrations for this system. By setting all primary Seidel aberrations to zero and solving the corresponding system of equations, we obtained two sets of solutions for this two-element all-diffractive system, which totally compensate for all Seidel aberrations. To assess image system performance, we apply the finite-difference time-domain technique and a vector plane-wave spectrum method, in combination, to validate the performance of the system. To reduce the computational cost and thereby enable the complete electromagnetic analysis of the system, a four-step analysis procedure has been developed and applied as an electromagnetic system model.
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