Abstract

We have made simultaneous and nearly simultaneous measurements of ℒ0, the outer scale of turbulence, at the Palomar Observatory by using three techniques: angle-of-arrival covariance measurements with the Generalized Seeing Monitor (GSM), differential-image-motion measurements with the adaptive-optics system on the Hale 5-m telescope, and fringe speed measurements with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI). The three techniques give consistent results, an outer scale of approximately 10–20 m, despite the fact that the spatial scales of the three instruments vary from 1 m for the GSM to 100 m for the PTI.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

2001 (1)

R. P. Linfield, M. M. Colavita, B. F. Lane, “Atmospheric turbulence measurements with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 554, 505–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Ziad, R. Conan, A. Tokovinin, F. Martin, J. Borgnino, “From the Grating Scale Monitor to the Generalized Seeing Monitor,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5415–5425 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Le Louarn, N. Hubin, M. Sarazin, A. Tokovinin, “New challenges for adaptive optics: extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 317, 535–544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Boden, C. D. Koresko, G. T. van Belle, M. M. Colavita, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. Mobley, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, “The visual orbit of Iota Pegasi,” Astrophys. J. 515, 356–364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

V. Voitsekhovich, “Outer scale of turbulence: comparison of different models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1346–1353 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Adaptive optics and the outer scale of turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 2523–2531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. Ziad, J. Borgnino, A. Agabi, F. Martin, “Optimized spectral bandwidth in high angular resolution imaging. Effect of a finite spatial-coherence outer scale,” Exp. Astron. 5, 247–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Bester, W. C. Danchi, C. G. Degiacomi, L. J. Greenhill, C. H. Townes, “Atmospheric fluctuations—structure functions and projected performance of future instruments,” Astrophys. J. 392, 357–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

N. S. Nightingale, D. F. Buscher, “Interferometric seeing measurements at the La Palma Observatory,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 251, 155–166 (1991).

D. M. Winker, “Effect of a finite outer scale on the Zernike decomposition of atmospheric optical turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1568–1573 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

J. M. Mariotti, “Experimental results on atmospheric turbulence obtained with an infrared speckle-interferometer,” Opt. Acta 30, 831–840 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” Prog. Opt. 19, 281–376 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Agabi, A.

R. Avila, A. Ziad, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Agabi, A. Tokovinin, “Theoretical spatiotemporal analysis of angle of arrival induced by atmospheric turbulence as observed with the grating scale monitor experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3070–3082 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ziad, J. Borgnino, A. Agabi, F. Martin, “Optimized spectral bandwidth in high angular resolution imaging. Effect of a finite spatial-coherence outer scale,” Exp. Astron. 5, 247–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T.

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, J. L. Codona, W. B. Davison, B. Martin, “20- and 30-m telescope designs with potential for subsequent incorporation into a track-mounted pair (20/20 or 30/30),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 183–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ardeberg, A. L.

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Avila, R.

Beckers, J.

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J. L.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. LeLouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bester, M.

M. Bester, W. C. Danchi, C. G. Degiacomi, L. J. Greenhill, C. H. Townes, “Atmospheric fluctuations—structure functions and projected performance of future instruments,” Astrophys. J. 392, 357–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bloemhof, E.

M. Troy, R. Dekany, G. Brack, B. Oppenheimer, E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. Dekens, F. Shi, T. Hayward, B. Brandl, “Palomar Adaptive Optics Project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boden, A. F.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Boden, C. D. Koresko, G. T. van Belle, M. M. Colavita, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. Mobley, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, “The visual orbit of Iota Pegasi,” Astrophys. J. 515, 356–364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borgnino, J.

Brack, G.

R. G. Dekany, J. K. Wallace, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, “Initial test results from the Palomar 200-in. Adaptive Optics System,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3126, 269–276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Troy, R. Dekany, G. Brack, B. Oppenheimer, E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. Dekens, F. Shi, T. Hayward, B. Brandl, “Palomar Adaptive Optics Project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brandl, B.

M. Troy, R. Dekany, G. Brack, B. Oppenheimer, E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. Dekens, F. Shi, T. Hayward, B. Brandl, “Palomar Adaptive Optics Project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brunetto, E.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. LeLouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burgarella, D.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Zamkotsian, F. Hammer, F. Sayed, R. Rigaut, “Large petal telescope for the next-generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burge, J. H.

J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, J. L. Codona, W. B. Davison, B. Martin, “20- and 30-m telescope designs with potential for subsequent incorporation into a track-mounted pair (20/20 or 30/30),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 183–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buscher, D. F.

N. S. Nightingale, D. F. Buscher, “Interferometric seeing measurements at the La Palma Observatory,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 251, 155–166 (1991).

Caccia, J. L.

Carlberg, R.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesser, G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chanan, G.

Codona, J. L.

J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, J. L. Codona, W. B. Davison, B. Martin, “20- and 30-m telescope designs with potential for subsequent incorporation into a track-mounted pair (20/20 or 30/30),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 183–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colavita, M. M.

R. P. Linfield, M. M. Colavita, B. F. Lane, “Atmospheric turbulence measurements with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 554, 505–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Boden, C. D. Koresko, G. T. van Belle, M. M. Colavita, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. Mobley, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, “The visual orbit of Iota Pegasi,” Astrophys. J. 515, 356–364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, M. Shao, D. H. Staelin, “Atmospheric phase measurements with the Mark III stellar interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4106–4112 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conan, R.

A. Ziad, R. Conan, A. Tokovinin, F. Martin, J. Borgnino, “From the Grating Scale Monitor to the Generalized Seeing Monitor,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5415–5425 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Conan, “Modélisation des effets de l’échelle externe de cohérence spatiale du front d’onde pour l’observation à haute résolution angulaire en astronomie,” Ph.D. dissertation (Nice University, Nice, France, 2000).

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. LeLouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coqueugniot, Y.

Coulman, C. E.

Crabtree, D. R.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesser, G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crampton, D.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesser, G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, S.

V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Adaptive optics and the outer scale of turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 2523–2531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Danchi, W. C.

M. Bester, W. C. Danchi, C. G. Degiacomi, L. J. Greenhill, C. H. Townes, “Atmospheric fluctuations—structure functions and projected performance of future instruments,” Astrophys. J. 392, 357–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Davidge, T. J.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesser, G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davison, W. B.

J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, J. L. Codona, W. B. Davison, B. Martin, “20- and 30-m telescope designs with potential for subsequent incorporation into a track-mounted pair (20/20 or 30/30),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 183–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Degiacomi, C. G.

M. Bester, W. C. Danchi, C. G. Degiacomi, L. J. Greenhill, C. H. Townes, “Atmospheric fluctuations—structure functions and projected performance of future instruments,” Astrophys. J. 392, 357–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dekany, R.

M. Troy, R. Dekany, G. Brack, B. Oppenheimer, E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. Dekens, F. Shi, T. Hayward, B. Brandl, “Palomar Adaptive Optics Project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dekany, R. G.

R. G. Dekany, J. K. Wallace, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, “Initial test results from the Palomar 200-in. Adaptive Optics System,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3126, 269–276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dekens, F.

M. Troy, R. Dekany, G. Brack, B. Oppenheimer, E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. Dekens, F. Shi, T. Hayward, B. Brandl, “Palomar Adaptive Optics Project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dierickx, P.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. LeLouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dohlen, K.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Zamkotsian, F. Hammer, F. Sayed, R. Rigaut, “Large petal telescope for the next-generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, P. J.

A. F. Boden, C. D. Koresko, G. T. van Belle, M. M. Colavita, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. Mobley, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, “The visual orbit of Iota Pegasi,” Astrophys. J. 515, 356–364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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M. Troy, R. Dekany, G. Brack, B. Oppenheimer, E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. Dekens, F. Shi, T. Hayward, B. Brandl, “Palomar Adaptive Optics Project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).
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Snel, R.

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spyromilio, J.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. LeLouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Staelin, D. H.

Stepp, L. M.

S. E. Strom, L. M. Stepp, B. Gregory, “Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strom, S. E.

S. E. Strom, L. M. Stepp, B. Gregory, “Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Szeto, K.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesser, G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
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Tokovinin, A.

Townes, C. H.

M. Bester, W. C. Danchi, C. G. Degiacomi, L. J. Greenhill, C. H. Townes, “Atmospheric fluctuations—structure functions and projected performance of future instruments,” Astrophys. J. 392, 357–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Trinh, T.

M. Troy, R. Dekany, G. Brack, B. Oppenheimer, E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. Dekens, F. Shi, T. Hayward, B. Brandl, “Palomar Adaptive Optics Project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Troy, M.

M. Troy, R. Dekany, G. Brack, B. Oppenheimer, E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. Dekens, F. Shi, T. Hayward, B. Brandl, “Palomar Adaptive Optics Project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Belle, G. T.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
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A. F. Boden, C. D. Koresko, G. T. van Belle, M. M. Colavita, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. Mobley, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, “The visual orbit of Iota Pegasi,” Astrophys. J. 515, 356–364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Dam, M. A.

Veran, J.-P.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesser, G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
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Vernin, J.

Voitsekhovich, V.

V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Adaptive optics and the outer scale of turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 2523–2531 (1995).
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V. Voitsekhovich, “Outer scale of turbulence: comparison of different models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1346–1353 (1995).
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T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J. K.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Boden, C. D. Koresko, G. T. van Belle, M. M. Colavita, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. Mobley, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, “The visual orbit of Iota Pegasi,” Astrophys. J. 515, 356–364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Dekany, J. K. Wallace, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, “Initial test results from the Palomar 200-in. Adaptive Optics System,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3126, 269–276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

Wizinowich, P. L.

Yaitskova, N.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. LeLouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
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Yu, J. W.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
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Zamkotsian, F.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Zamkotsian, F. Hammer, F. Sayed, R. Rigaut, “Large petal telescope for the next-generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
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Appl. Opt. (4)

Astrophys. J. (4)

M. Bester, W. C. Danchi, C. G. Degiacomi, L. J. Greenhill, C. H. Townes, “Atmospheric fluctuations—structure functions and projected performance of future instruments,” Astrophys. J. 392, 357–374 (1992).
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R. P. Linfield, M. M. Colavita, B. F. Lane, “Atmospheric turbulence measurements with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 554, 505–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Boden, C. D. Koresko, G. T. van Belle, M. M. Colavita, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. Mobley, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, “The visual orbit of Iota Pegasi,” Astrophys. J. 515, 356–364 (1999).
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Exp. Astron. (1)

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R. Conan, “Modélisation des effets de l’échelle externe de cohérence spatiale du front d’onde pour l’observation à haute résolution angulaire en astronomie,” Ph.D. dissertation (Nice University, Nice, France, 2000).

J. M. Mariotti, “Adaptive optics for long baseline optical interferometry,” in Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, D. M. Alloin, J.-M. Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 309–320.
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J. E. Nelson, “Progress on the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 47–59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, J. L. Codona, W. B. Davison, B. Martin, “20- and 30-m telescope designs with potential for subsequent incorporation into a track-mounted pair (20/20 or 30/30),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 183–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Zamkotsian, F. Hammer, F. Sayed, R. Rigaut, “Large petal telescope for the next-generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. LeLouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesser, G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Strom, L. M. Stepp, B. Gregory, “Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Racine, “Astronomical seeing at Mauna Kea and in particular at the CFHT,” in Very Large Telescopes: Their Instrumentation and Programs, M. H. Ulrich, K. Kjär, eds., IAU Colloquium 79 (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1984), pp. 235–243.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 2000), pp. 399–400.

F. Rigaut, M. Sarazin, “Seeing constraints in adaptive optics calibrations,” in Astronomy with Adaptive Optics: Present Results and Future Programs, D. Bonaccini, ed., Vol. 56 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1999), p. 383.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Dekany, J. K. Wallace, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. Palmer, “Initial test results from the Palomar 200-in. Adaptive Optics System,” in Adaptive Optics and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3126, 269–276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Troy, R. Dekany, G. Brack, B. Oppenheimer, E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. Dekens, F. Shi, T. Hayward, B. Brandl, “Palomar Adaptive Optics Project: status and performance,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Atmospheric parameters measured by the GSM at the Palomar Observatory: ℒ0 is the outer scale of turbulence, ∊0 is the seeing FWHM (as inferred from atmospheric coherence diameter r 0), θ0 is the isoplanatic angle, and τ0AA is the angle-of-arrival atmospheric coherence time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distributions of the atmospheric optical parameters obtained with the GSM at the Palomar Observatory in September 2001. Dashed curves, best-fit log-normal distributions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of atmospheric coherence length r 0 measurements obtained with the GSM and from PALAO telemetry data during the nights of 7, 8, and 9 September 2001 (respectively, top left, top right, and bottom) at the Palomar Observatory. Differences are due to the different locations of the instruments and display the expected behavior, as explained in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of outer-scale of turbulence (ℒ0) measurements obtained with the GSM and from PALAO telemetry data during the nights of 7, 8, and 9 September 2001 (respectively, top left, top right, and bottom) at the Palomar Observatory. These results are to our knowledge the first independent verification of the validity of our method to determine ℒ0 from AO telemetry data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical results for temporal differential variance (fringe speed multiplied by sampling time) measured with the PTI interferometer and modeled from the GSM data. These data were obtained during the night of 9 September 2001 at the Palomar Observatory.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical results for outer-scale of turbulence ℒ0 as measured by the GSM and by the PTI interferometer. We deduced the ℒ0 values obtained with the PTI by fitting the measured fringe speed with the theoretical expression given in Subsection 2.C. These data were obtained during the night of 9 September 2001 at the Palomar Observatory.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σϕ,τ2=ϕx, y, t-ϕx, y, t+τ2,
σϕ,τ2ϕx, y, tt2τ2=2Cφ/t0, 0-Cφ/tbx, byτ2,
φx, y, tt=φx, y, txxt+φx, y, tyyt,
xt=v cos θ, yt=v sin θ,
α=-λ2πφx, yx, β=-λ2πφx, yy
Cφ/tbx, 0=2πvλ2Cαbx, 0cos2 θ+Cβbx, 0sin2 θ.
Cα/βbx, 0=λ2  fx/y2Wφfx, fyexp-2iπbxfx×2J1πDfπDf2dfxdfy,
Wφfx, fy=0.0229r0-5/3fx2+fy2+0-2-11/6,
σα2r, τ=αr, t-αr, t+τ2,

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