Abstract

Tunable-laser absorption spectroscopy in the mid-IR spectral region is a sensitive analytical technique for trace-gas quantification. The detection of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled breath is of particular interest in the diagnosis of lower-airway inflammation associated with a number of lung diseases and illnesses. A gas analyzer based on a continuous-wave mid-IR quantum cascade laser operating at ∼5.2 μm and on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) has been developed to measure NO concentrations in human breath. A compact sample cell, 5.3 cm in length and with a volume of <80 cm3, that is suitable for on-line and off-line measurements during a single breath cycle, has been designed and tested. A noise-equivalent (signal-to-noise ratio of 1) sensitivity of 10 parts in 109 by volume (ppbv) of NO was achieved. The combination of ICOS with wavelength modulation resulted in a 2-ppbv noise-equivalent sensitivity. The total data acquisition and averaging time was 15 s in both cases. The feasibility of detecting NO in expired human breath as a potential noninvasive medical diagnostic tool is discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (2)

H. Ganser, W. Urban, J. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101, 545–550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (9)

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. D. Jeffers, M. Camp, A. Mock, P. J. McCann, J. Grego, “Nitric oxide breath testing by tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6018–6029 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Weber, T. J. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulation quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentration in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Shin, C. M. Rose-Gottron, R. S. Sufi, F. Perez, D. M. Cooper, A. F. Wilson, S. C. George, “Flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters in cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165, 349–357 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Maniscalo, V. Di Mauro, E. Farinaro, L. Carratu, M. Sofia, “Transient decrease of exhaled nitric oxide after acute exposure to passive smoke in healthy subjects,” Arch. Environ. Health 57, 437–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Baer, J. B. Paul, M. Gupta, A. O’Keefe, “Sensitive absorption measurements in near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 261–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, R. P. Wayne, “Off-axis continuous-wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of narrow-band and broadband absorbers using red diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 755–761 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieto, “Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide concentration in asthma. Technical aspects and clinical usefulness,” Alergol. Immunol. Clin. 17, 72–87 (2002).

2001 (5)

D. H. Yates, “Role of exhaled nitric oxide in asthma,” Immunol. Cell Biol. 79, 178–190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kharitonov, P. J. Barnes, “Exhaled markers of pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 163, 1693–1722 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Paul, L. Larson, J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4904–4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kharitonov, P. J. Barnes, “Clinical aspects of exhaled nitric oxide,” Eur. Respir. J. 16, 781–792 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Binding, W. Muller, P. A. Czeschinski, U. Witting, “NO chemiluminescence in exhaled air: interference of compounds from endogenous or exogenous sources,” Eur. Respir. J. 16, 499–503 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

P. Murtz, L. Menzel, W. Bloch, A. Hess, O. Michel, W. Urban, “LMR spectroscopy: a new sensitive method for on-line recording of nitric oxide in breath,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 1075–1080 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (2)

A. O’Keefe, “Integrated cavity output analysis of ultra-weak absorption,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 293, 331–336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Englen, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Bhagat, P. Vallance, “Nitric oxide 9 years out,” J. R. Soc. Med. 89, 667–673 (1996).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

B. Gaston, J. M. Drazen, J. Loscalso, J. S. Stamler, “The biology of nitrogen oxide in the airways,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 149, 538–551 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1980 (2)

J. M. Herbelin, J. A. McKay, M. A. Kwok, R. H. Ueunten, D. S. Urevig, D. J. Spenser, D. J. Benard, “Sensitive measurement of photon lifetime and true reflectances in an optical cavity by a phase-shift method,” Appl. Opt. 19, 144–147 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 12, 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

Allen, M. G.

S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “Quantum-cascade laser-based sensor for CO and NO measurements in combustor exhaust flows,” presented at AIAA 2001-3317, 37 Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 8–11, 2001.

Anderson, J. G.

Baer, D. S.

D. S. Baer, J. B. Paul, M. Gupta, A. O’Keefe, “Sensitive absorption measurements in near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 261–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Baillargeon, N. J.

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, P. J.

S. A. Kharitonov, P. J. Barnes, “Exhaled markers of pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 163, 1693–1722 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kharitonov, P. J. Barnes, “Clinical aspects of exhaled nitric oxide,” Eur. Respir. J. 16, 781–792 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benard, D. J.

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

R. Englen, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bhagat, K.

K. Bhagat, P. Vallance, “Nitric oxide 9 years out,” J. R. Soc. Med. 89, 667–673 (1996).
[PubMed]

Binding, N.

N. Binding, W. Muller, P. A. Czeschinski, U. Witting, “NO chemiluminescence in exhaled air: interference of compounds from endogenous or exogenous sources,” Eur. Respir. J. 16, 499–503 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloch, W.

P. Murtz, L. Menzel, W. Bloch, A. Hess, O. Michel, W. Urban, “LMR spectroscopy: a new sensitive method for on-line recording of nitric oxide in breath,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 1075–1080 (1999).
[PubMed]

Bomse, D. S.

Brown, J. M.

H. Ganser, W. Urban, J. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101, 545–550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camp, M.

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Canosa-Mas, C. E.

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, R. P. Wayne, “Off-axis continuous-wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of narrow-band and broadband absorbers using red diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 755–761 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

W. H. Weber, T. J. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulation quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentration in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “Quantum-cascade laser-based sensor for CO and NO measurements in combustor exhaust flows,” presented at AIAA 2001-3317, 37 Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 8–11, 2001.

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carratu, L.

M. Maniscalo, V. Di Mauro, E. Farinaro, L. Carratu, M. Sofia, “Transient decrease of exhaled nitric oxide after acute exposure to passive smoke in healthy subjects,” Arch. Environ. Health 57, 437–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chase, R. E.

Cho, A. Y.

W. H. Weber, T. J. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulation quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentration in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. M.

H. W. Shin, C. M. Rose-Gottron, R. S. Sufi, F. Perez, D. M. Cooper, A. F. Wilson, S. C. George, “Flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters in cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165, 349–357 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curl, R. F.

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 12, 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Czeschinski, P. A.

N. Binding, W. Muller, P. A. Czeschinski, U. Witting, “NO chemiluminescence in exhaled air: interference of compounds from endogenous or exogenous sources,” Eur. Respir. J. 16, 499–503 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Di Mauro, V.

M. Maniscalo, V. Di Mauro, E. Farinaro, L. Carratu, M. Sofia, “Transient decrease of exhaled nitric oxide after acute exposure to passive smoke in healthy subjects,” Arch. Environ. Health 57, 437–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drazen, J. M.

B. Gaston, J. M. Drazen, J. Loscalso, J. S. Stamler, “The biology of nitrogen oxide in the airways,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 149, 538–551 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Englen, R.

R. Englen, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Farinaro, E.

M. Maniscalo, V. Di Mauro, E. Farinaro, L. Carratu, M. Sofia, “Transient decrease of exhaled nitric oxide after acute exposure to passive smoke in healthy subjects,” Arch. Environ. Health 57, 437–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ganser, H.

H. Ganser, W. Urban, J. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101, 545–550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gaston, B.

B. Gaston, J. M. Drazen, J. Loscalso, J. S. Stamler, “The biology of nitrogen oxide in the airways,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 149, 538–551 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

George, S. C.

H. W. Shin, C. M. Rose-Gottron, R. S. Sufi, F. Perez, D. M. Cooper, A. F. Wilson, S. C. George, “Flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters in cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165, 349–357 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

W. H. Weber, T. J. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulation quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentration in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “Quantum-cascade laser-based sensor for CO and NO measurements in combustor exhaust flows,” presented at AIAA 2001-3317, 37 Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 8–11, 2001.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grego, J.

Gupta, M.

D. S. Baer, J. B. Paul, M. Gupta, A. O’Keefe, “Sensitive absorption measurements in near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 261–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herbelin, J. M.

Herriott, D. R.

Hess, A.

P. Murtz, L. Menzel, W. Bloch, A. Hess, O. Michel, W. Urban, “LMR spectroscopy: a new sensitive method for on-line recording of nitric oxide in breath,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 1075–1080 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hutchinson, A. L.

W. H. Weber, T. J. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulation quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentration in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeffers, J. D.

Jimenez, J. L.

D. D. Nelson, J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emission from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 180–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kasyutich, V. L.

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, R. P. Wayne, “Off-axis continuous-wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of narrow-band and broadband absorbers using red diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 755–761 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kharitonov, S. A.

S. A. Kharitonov, P. J. Barnes, “Exhaled markers of pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 163, 1693–1722 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kharitonov, P. J. Barnes, “Clinical aspects of exhaled nitric oxide,” Eur. Respir. J. 16, 781–792 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kogelnik, H.

Kolb, C. E.

D. D. Nelson, J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emission from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 180–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kompfner, R.

Kosterev, A. A.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, M. A.

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larson, L.

Litfin, G.

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 12, 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Loscalso, J.

B. Gaston, J. M. Drazen, J. Loscalso, J. S. Stamler, “The biology of nitrogen oxide in the airways,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 149, 538–551 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malinovsky, A. L.

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maniscalo, M.

M. Maniscalo, V. Di Mauro, E. Farinaro, L. Carratu, M. Sofia, “Transient decrease of exhaled nitric oxide after acute exposure to passive smoke in healthy subjects,” Arch. Environ. Health 57, 437–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McCann, P. J.

McKay, J. A.

McManus, J. B.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McRae, G. J.

D. D. Nelson, J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emission from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 180–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G.

R. Englen, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, L.

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Murtz, L. Menzel, W. Bloch, A. Hess, O. Michel, W. Urban, “LMR spectroscopy: a new sensitive method for on-line recording of nitric oxide in breath,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 1075–1080 (1999).
[PubMed]

Michel, O.

P. Murtz, L. Menzel, W. Bloch, A. Hess, O. Michel, W. Urban, “LMR spectroscopy: a new sensitive method for on-line recording of nitric oxide in breath,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 1075–1080 (1999).
[PubMed]

Miliaev, V. A.

E. V. Stepanov, P. V. Zyrianov, V. A. Miliaev, “Single-breath detection with tunable diode lasers for pulmonary disease diagnosis,” in ALT’98 Selected Papers on Novel Laser Methods in Medicine and Biology, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Pustovoy, G. P. Kuz’min, eds., Proc. SPIE3829, 103–109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mock, A.

Muller, W.

N. Binding, W. Muller, P. A. Czeschinski, U. Witting, “NO chemiluminescence in exhaled air: interference of compounds from endogenous or exogenous sources,” Eur. Respir. J. 16, 499–503 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murtz, P.

P. Murtz, L. Menzel, W. Bloch, A. Hess, O. Michel, W. Urban, “LMR spectroscopy: a new sensitive method for on-line recording of nitric oxide in breath,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 1075–1080 (1999).
[PubMed]

Namjou, K.

Nelson, D. D.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emission from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 180–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, A.

D. S. Baer, J. B. Paul, M. Gupta, A. O’Keefe, “Sensitive absorption measurements in near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 261–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe, “Integrated cavity output analysis of ultra-weak absorption,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 293, 331–336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J. B.

D. S. Baer, J. B. Paul, M. Gupta, A. O’Keefe, “Sensitive absorption measurements in near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 261–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Paul, L. Larson, J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4904–4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, R.

R. Englen, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perez, F.

H. W. Shin, C. M. Rose-Gottron, R. S. Sufi, F. Perez, D. M. Cooper, A. F. Wilson, S. C. George, “Flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters in cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165, 349–357 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pfrang, C.

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, R. P. Wayne, “Off-axis continuous-wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of narrow-band and broadband absorbers using red diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 755–761 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, C. R.

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 12, 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, L.

L. Prieto, “Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide concentration in asthma. Technical aspects and clinical usefulness,” Alergol. Immunol. Clin. 17, 72–87 (2002).

Remillard, T. J.

Richert, J. F.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roller, C.

Rose-Gottron, C. M.

H. W. Shin, C. M. Rose-Gottron, R. S. Sufi, F. Perez, D. M. Cooper, A. F. Wilson, S. C. George, “Flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters in cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165, 349–357 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. W.

H. W. Shin, C. M. Rose-Gottron, R. S. Sufi, F. Perez, D. M. Cooper, A. F. Wilson, S. C. George, “Flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters in cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165, 349–357 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shorter, J. H.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M. W.

M. W. Sigrist, Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Silver, J. A.

Sivco, D. L.

W. H. Weber, T. J. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulation quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentration in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sofia, M.

M. Maniscalo, V. Di Mauro, E. Farinaro, L. Carratu, M. Sofia, “Transient decrease of exhaled nitric oxide after acute exposure to passive smoke in healthy subjects,” Arch. Environ. Health 57, 437–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “Quantum-cascade laser-based sensor for CO and NO measurements in combustor exhaust flows,” presented at AIAA 2001-3317, 37 Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 8–11, 2001.

Spenser, D. J.

Stamler, J. S.

B. Gaston, J. M. Drazen, J. Loscalso, J. S. Stamler, “The biology of nitrogen oxide in the airways,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 149, 538–551 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Statlon, A. C.

Stepanov, E. V.

E. V. Stepanov, P. V. Zyrianov, V. A. Miliaev, “Single-breath detection with tunable diode lasers for pulmonary disease diagnosis,” in ALT’98 Selected Papers on Novel Laser Methods in Medicine and Biology, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Pustovoy, G. P. Kuz’min, eds., Proc. SPIE3829, 103–109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sufi, R. S.

H. W. Shin, C. M. Rose-Gottron, R. S. Sufi, F. Perez, D. M. Cooper, A. F. Wilson, S. C. George, “Flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters in cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165, 349–357 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 12, 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueunten, R. H.

Urban, W.

H. Ganser, W. Urban, J. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101, 545–550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Murtz, L. Menzel, W. Bloch, A. Hess, O. Michel, W. Urban, “LMR spectroscopy: a new sensitive method for on-line recording of nitric oxide in breath,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 1075–1080 (1999).
[PubMed]

Urevig, D. S.

Vallance, P.

K. Bhagat, P. Vallance, “Nitric oxide 9 years out,” J. R. Soc. Med. 89, 667–673 (1996).
[PubMed]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, S.

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, R. P. Wayne, “Off-axis continuous-wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of narrow-band and broadband absorbers using red diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 755–761 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wayne, R. P.

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, R. P. Wayne, “Off-axis continuous-wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of narrow-band and broadband absorbers using red diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 755–761 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weber, W. H.

Wehe, S. D.

S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “Quantum-cascade laser-based sensor for CO and NO measurements in combustor exhaust flows,” presented at AIAA 2001-3317, 37 Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 8–11, 2001.

Wilson, A. F.

H. W. Shin, C. M. Rose-Gottron, R. S. Sufi, F. Perez, D. M. Cooper, A. F. Wilson, S. C. George, “Flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters in cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165, 349–357 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witting, U.

N. Binding, W. Muller, P. A. Czeschinski, U. Witting, “NO chemiluminescence in exhaled air: interference of compounds from endogenous or exogenous sources,” Eur. Respir. J. 16, 499–503 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yates, D. H.

D. H. Yates, “Role of exhaled nitric oxide in asthma,” Immunol. Cell Biol. 79, 178–190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emission from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 180–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zyrianov, P. V.

E. V. Stepanov, P. V. Zyrianov, V. A. Miliaev, “Single-breath detection with tunable diode lasers for pulmonary disease diagnosis,” in ALT’98 Selected Papers on Novel Laser Methods in Medicine and Biology, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Pustovoy, G. P. Kuz’min, eds., Proc. SPIE3829, 103–109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alergol. Immunol. Clin. (1)

L. Prieto, “Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide concentration in asthma. Technical aspects and clinical usefulness,” Alergol. Immunol. Clin. 17, 72–87 (2002).

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (3)

S. A. Kharitonov, P. J. Barnes, “Exhaled markers of pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 163, 1693–1722 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gaston, J. M. Drazen, J. Loscalso, J. S. Stamler, “The biology of nitrogen oxide in the airways,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 149, 538–551 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Shin, C. M. Rose-Gottron, R. S. Sufi, F. Perez, D. M. Cooper, A. F. Wilson, S. C. George, “Flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters in cystic fibrosis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165, 349–357 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

D. S. Baer, J. B. Paul, M. Gupta, A. O’Keefe, “Sensitive absorption measurements in near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 261–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, R. P. Wayne, “Off-axis continuous-wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of narrow-band and broadband absorbers using red diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 755–761 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, N. J. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Arch. Environ. Health (1)

M. Maniscalo, V. Di Mauro, E. Farinaro, L. Carratu, M. Sofia, “Transient decrease of exhaled nitric oxide after acute exposure to passive smoke in healthy subjects,” Arch. Environ. Health 57, 437–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. O’Keefe, “Integrated cavity output analysis of ultra-weak absorption,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 293, 331–336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Respir. J. (2)

S. A. Kharitonov, P. J. Barnes, “Clinical aspects of exhaled nitric oxide,” Eur. Respir. J. 16, 781–792 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Binding, W. Muller, P. A. Czeschinski, U. Witting, “NO chemiluminescence in exhaled air: interference of compounds from endogenous or exogenous sources,” Eur. Respir. J. 16, 499–503 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Immunol. Cell Biol. (1)

D. H. Yates, “Role of exhaled nitric oxide in asthma,” Immunol. Cell Biol. 79, 178–190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

P. Murtz, L. Menzel, W. Bloch, A. Hess, O. Michel, W. Urban, “LMR spectroscopy: a new sensitive method for on-line recording of nitric oxide in breath,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 1075–1080 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 12, 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Soc. Med. (1)

K. Bhagat, P. Vallance, “Nitric oxide 9 years out,” J. R. Soc. Med. 89, 667–673 (1996).
[PubMed]

Mol. Phys. (1)

H. Ganser, W. Urban, J. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101, 545–550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Englen, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “Quantum-cascade laser-based sensor for CO and NO measurements in combustor exhaust flows,” presented at AIAA 2001-3317, 37 Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 8–11, 2001.

E. V. Stepanov, P. V. Zyrianov, V. A. Miliaev, “Single-breath detection with tunable diode lasers for pulmonary disease diagnosis,” in ALT’98 Selected Papers on Novel Laser Methods in Medicine and Biology, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Pustovoy, G. P. Kuz’min, eds., Proc. SPIE3829, 103–109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Sigrist, Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1994).

D. D. Nelson, J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emission from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 180–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Off-axis beam propagation. L is the cavity length (5.3 cm in our experiments); x 0, y 0, the coordinates of the injected laser beam on the input mirror. (b) Laser spots on the input mirror. Numbers corresponding to spots reflect the numbers of round-trip passes within the cavity. The reentrant condition occurs after 48 round-trip passes. A is the radius of the circle of laser spots.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Frequency hierarchy for off-axis alignment when the reentrant condition is satisfied after 48 round trips. Spectral width of the cavity mode is 0.2 MHz. Fluctuations of the cavity FSR due to thermal displacement of the mirrors are of the order of 0.15 FSR. (b) The same hierarchy for on-axis laser-cavity alignment. Spectral width of the absorption line is 0.019 cm-1, laser linewidth ∼1 × 10-4 cm-1 (∼3 MHz), cavity FRS = 0.1 cm-1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Off-axis ICOS experimental arrangement: L1 and L2, two collimating lenses; W1 and W2, two 30′ wedged uncoated ZnSe windows for frequency calibration; QCL, the QC laser mounted inside a cryostat; P, an off-axis parabolic mirror; MCZT, a room-temperature HgCdZnTe photodetector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of a compact OA-ICOS gas cell.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectral characteristic of a mid-IR high-reflectivity mirror (diameter of 50.8 mm, ROC of 1 m; data provided by Los Gatos Research, Inc., Mountain View, Calif.). (b) Typical ringdown event of 0.7 μs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral calibration of the QC laser scan using an air-spaced Fabry-Perot etalon (separation of reflecting surfaces is 20 cm; FSR = 0.025 cm-1).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

HITRAN-based simulation of mid-IR absorption spectrum of a NO-CO2-H2O mixture in the tuning range of the two available QC lasers. The total pressure of the mixture is 50 Torr; path length is 100 m; concentrations of NO, CO2, and H2O are 0.5 ppbv, 4%, and 1%, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical transmitted intensity through the OA-ICOS cavity for a single laser current scan. The QC laser scan frequency is 2 KHz.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

OA-ICOS absorption (1 - I/ I 0) as a function of CO2 concentration in a CO2-air mixture. Curve fitting parameters yield the effective optical path length of 80 m for a specific OA-ICOS cavity alignment.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) R(13.5) NO absorption line at 1920.7 cm-1 after baseline correction and frequency calibration. NO concentration measurements for two different calibration mixtures: 490-ppbv NO in N2 and 95-ppbv NO in N2. The total gas mixture pressure is 100 Torr. (b) Voigt fit of the R(13.5) NO absorption line data (same 95-ppbv NO in N2 mixture).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

NO concentration measurement with wavelength modulation applied to OA-ICOS: (1) NO concentration of 53 ppbv in nasal breath; (2) NO-N2 calibration mixture for 95-ppbv NO.

Equations (9)

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0<1-L/r2<1,
y0=A/fL,
cos θ=1-L/r.
2mθ=2nπ,
τempty=Lc11-R,
I=I0Cp1-R221-R+kL,
II01-R21-kL1-R,
Peff=L1-Reff,
A=kL1-Reff+kL.

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