Abstract

We have designed an airborne spectrometer system for the simultaneous measurement of the direct Sun irradiance and aureole radiance. The instrument is based on diffraction grating spectrometers with linear image sensors. It is robust, lightweight, compact, and reliable, characteristics that are important for airborne applications. The multispectral radiation measurements are used to derive optical properties of tropospheric aerosols. We extract the altitude dependence of the aerosol volume scattering function and of the aerosol optical depth by using flight patterns with descents and ascents ranging from the surface level to the top of the boundary layer. The extinction coefficient and the product of single scattering albedo and phase function of separate layers can be derived from the airborne measurements.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2003

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

O. Dubovik, M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, S. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessment of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. V. Hobbs, “An overview of the University of Washington airborne measurements and results from the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2233–2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, P. V. Hobbs, “Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289–2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, L. L. Stowe, “Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States East Coast haze plume: an overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2213–2222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, P. A. Durkee, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, “Aerosol optical depth retrieval using ATSR-2 and AVHRR data during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2253–2260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903–31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. E. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, “Radiative forcing and climate response,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6831–6864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

1987

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. v. Ark, “Airborne tracking Sunphotometer,” J. Atmosph. Ocean. Tech. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

N. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

1981

G. P. Box, A. Deepak, “An approximation to multiple scattering in the earth’s atmosphere: Almucantar Radiance Formulation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 23, 1037–1048 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

A. T. Young, “On the Rayleigh-scattering optical depth of the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 328–330 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. T. Twitty, “The inversion of aureole measurements to derive aerosol size distribution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 584–591 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1964

K. Bullrich, “Scattered radiation in the atmosphere and the natural aerosol,” Adv. Geophys. 10, 99–256 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1959

F. E. Volz, “Photometer mit Selen-Photoelement zur spektralen Messung der Sonnenstrahlung und zur Bestimmung der Wellenlängenabhängigkeit der Dunsttrübung,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklim. B 10, 100–131 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1929

A. K. Ångström, “On the atmospheric transmission of Sun radiation and on dust in the air,” Geogr. Ann. 11, 156–166 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Allen, D.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Andeae, M. O.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ångström, A. K.

A. K. Ångström, “On the atmospheric transmission of Sun radiation and on dust in the air,” Geogr. Ann. 11, 156–166 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Ark, W. v.

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. v. Ark, “Airborne tracking Sunphotometer,” J. Atmosph. Ocean. Tech. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Asseng, H.

Th. Ruhtz, J. Fischer, H. Asseng, “FUBISS (Free University Berlin Integrated Spectrographic System) a new remote sensing instrument,” presented at the Fourth International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition/21st Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 21–24 June, 1999 (Environmental Research of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1999).

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, P. V. Hobbs, “Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289–2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R. W.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Box, G. P.

G. P. Box, A. Deepak, “An approximation to multiple scattering in the earth’s atmosphere: Almucantar Radiance Formulation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 23, 1037–1048 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Box, M. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bullrich, K.

K. Bullrich, “Scattered radiation in the atmosphere and the natural aerosol,” Adv. Geophys. 10, 99–256 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Charlson, R. J.

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chien, A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, P. V. Hobbs, “Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289–2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D. R.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Leeuw, G.

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, P. A. Durkee, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, “Aerosol optical depth retrieval using ATSR-2 and AVHRR data during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2253–2260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deepak, A.

G. P. Box, A. Deepak, “An approximation to multiple scattering in the earth’s atmosphere: Almucantar Radiance Formulation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 23, 1037–1048 (1981).
[CrossRef]

DeFoor, T. E.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DeLusi, J. J.

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Demoulin, P.

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

O. Dubovik, M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, S. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessment of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903–31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Durkee, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, P. V. Hobbs, “Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289–2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Durkee, P. A.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, P. A. Durkee, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, “Aerosol optical depth retrieval using ATSR-2 and AVHRR data during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2253–2260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. D.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

O. Dubovik, S. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessment of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fegley, R. W.

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J.

Th. Ruhtz, J. Fischer, H. Asseng, “FUBISS (Free University Berlin Integrated Spectrographic System) a new remote sensing instrument,” presented at the Fourth International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition/21st Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 21–24 June, 1999 (Environmental Research of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1999).

Flagan, R. C.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forgan, B. W.

B. W. Forgan, “A technique for calibrating sunphotometers using solar aureole measurements,” in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1987, B. W. Forgan, G. P. Ayers, eds. (Department of Administrative Services, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, 1987), pp. 15–21.

Formenti, P.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fröhlich, C.

C. Fröhlich, J. London, “Revised Instruction Manual on Radiation Instruments and Measurements,” Vol. 7 of World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Publications Series, World Meteorological Organization/Technical Document (WMO/TD)-No. 149 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1986).

Furukawa, P. M.

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gasso, S.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gillette, D. A.

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, “Radiative forcing and climate response,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6831–6864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hartley, W. S.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hegg, D. A.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hignett, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, P. V. Hobbs, “Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289–2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Hobbs, “An overview of the University of Washington airborne measurements and results from the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2233–2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, P. V. Hobbs, “Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289–2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, P. A. Durkee, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, “Aerosol optical depth retrieval using ATSR-2 and AVHRR data during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2253–2260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, L. L. Stowe, “Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States East Coast haze plume: an overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2213–2222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

O. Dubovik, S. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessment of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903–31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jankowiak, L.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kasten, F.

Kaufman, Y. J.

O. Dubovik, S. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessment of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903–31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

O. Dubovik, S. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessment of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, P. V. Hobbs, “Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289–2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Labs, D.

N. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K. N.

K. N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation (Academic, New York, 1980).

Liou, N. M.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, P. A. Durkee, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, “Aerosol optical depth retrieval using ATSR-2 and AVHRR data during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2253–2260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, P. V. Hobbs, “Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289–2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

London, J.

C. Fröhlich, J. London, “Revised Instruction Manual on Radiation Instruments and Measurements,” Vol. 7 of World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Publications Series, World Meteorological Organization/Technical Document (WMO/TD)-No. 149 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1986).

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. v. Ark, “Airborne tracking Sunphotometer,” J. Atmosph. Ocean. Tech. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mätzler, C.

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mina, C.

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. v. Ark, “Airborne tracking Sunphotometer,” J. Atmosph. Ocean. Tech. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the properties from aureole and extinction data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951–2959 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Neckel, N.

N. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noone, K. J.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Öström, E.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peter, R.

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pilewskie, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Porch, W. M.

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rabinoff, R. A.

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Redemann, J.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruedy, R.

J. E. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, “Radiative forcing and climate response,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6831–6864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ruhtz, Th.

Th. Ruhtz, J. Fischer, H. Asseng, “FUBISS (Free University Berlin Integrated Spectrographic System) a new remote sensing instrument,” presented at the Fourth International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition/21st Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 21–24 June, 1999 (Environmental Research of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1999).

Russell, P. B.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, L. L. Stowe, “Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States East Coast haze plume: an overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2213–2222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, P. A. Durkee, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, “Aerosol optical depth retrieval using ATSR-2 and AVHRR data during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2253–2260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, P. V. Hobbs, “Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289–2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. v. Ark, “Airborne tracking Sunphotometer,” J. Atmosph. Ocean. Tech. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

J. E. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, “Radiative forcing and climate response,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6831–6864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, B. G.

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Seinfeld, J. H.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sekler, J.

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, S. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessment of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903–31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903–31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, S.

O. Dubovik, S. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessment of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, L. L. Stowe, “Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States East Coast haze plume: an overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2213–2222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903–31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thome, K. J.

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R. P.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Twitty, J. T.

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Twitty, “The inversion of aureole measurements to derive aerosol size distribution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 584–591 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veefkind, J. P.

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, P. A. Durkee, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, “Aerosol optical depth retrieval using ATSR-2 and AVHRR data during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2253–2260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E. F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F. E.

F. E. Volz, “Photometer mit Selen-Photoelement zur spektralen Messung der Sonnenstrahlung und zur Bestimmung der Wellenlängenabhängigkeit der Dunsttrübung,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklim. B 10, 100–131 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weinman, J. A.

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Welton, E. J.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wong, J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, P. V. Hobbs, “Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289–2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamasoe, M.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903–31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, T.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Young, A. T.

F. Kasten, A. T. Young, “Revised optical air mass tables and approximation formula,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4735–4738 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Young, “On the Rayleigh-scattering optical depth of the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 328–330 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Geophys.

K. Bullrich, “Scattered radiation in the atmosphere and the natural aerosol,” Adv. Geophys. 10, 99–256 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklim. B

F. E. Volz, “Photometer mit Selen-Photoelement zur spektralen Messung der Sonnenstrahlung und zur Bestimmung der Wellenlängenabhängigkeit der Dunsttrübung,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklim. B 10, 100–131 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Geogr. Ann.

A. K. Ångström, “On the atmospheric transmission of Sun radiation and on dust in the air,” Geogr. Ann. 11, 156–166 (1929).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

A. T. Young, “On the Rayleigh-scattering optical depth of the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 328–330 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. J. DeLusi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinman, “Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. Part I: size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol suspended in the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441–454 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

G. P. Box, A. Deepak, “An approximation to multiple scattering in the earth’s atmosphere: Almucantar Radiance Formulation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 23, 1037–1048 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Twitty, “The inversion of aureole measurements to derive aerosol size distribution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 584–591 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmosph. Ocean. Tech.

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. v. Ark, “Airborne tracking Sunphotometer,” J. Atmosph. Ocean. Tech. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, P. A. Durkee, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, “Aerosol optical depth retrieval using ATSR-2 and AVHRR data during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2253–2260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. D. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Hobbs, “An overview of the University of Washington airborne measurements and results from the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2233–2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, P. V. Hobbs, “Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289–2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, S. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessment of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, “Radiative forcing and climate response,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6831–6864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903–31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, L. L. Stowe, “Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States East Coast haze plume: an overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2213–2222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, N. M. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. F. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, L. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solar Phys.

N. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tellus B

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andeae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. W. Forgan, “A technique for calibrating sunphotometers using solar aureole measurements,” in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1987, B. W. Forgan, G. P. Ayers, eds. (Department of Administrative Services, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, 1987), pp. 15–21.

MMS (Monolitische Miniatur-Spektrometer) Spektralsensoren , Carl Zeiss Geschäftsbereich Sondertechnik , Vertrieb optische Komponenten , 73446 Oberkochen, Germany (1994).

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, B. Schmid, J. A. Eilers, “Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometers, AATS-6 and AATS-14,” ARCA_CSunphotsAATS6_14long.pdf (2003), http://geo.arc.nasa.gov/sgg/AATS-website/AATS6_AATS14 .

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, C. A. Johnson, eds., IPCC, 2001: Climate Change: Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2001).

Th. Ruhtz, J. Fischer, H. Asseng, “FUBISS (Free University Berlin Integrated Spectrographic System) a new remote sensing instrument,” presented at the Fourth International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition/21st Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 21–24 June, 1999 (Environmental Research of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1999).

C. Fröhlich, J. London, “Revised Instruction Manual on Radiation Instruments and Measurements,” Vol. 7 of World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Publications Series, World Meteorological Organization/Technical Document (WMO/TD)-No. 149 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1986).

K. N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation (Academic, New York, 1980).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measuring head (ASA) of the Sun and aureole spectrometer FUBISS-ASA. The optical paths (thin dotted lines) for the aureole (A) and for the direct solar radiation (D) focus on the entrance of the fiber (E). Quartz filters are placed in front of the fiber entrance of the direct path.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measuring head ASA is mounted on the automatic Sun tracking system (T) that is prepared for an operation on an aircraft roof. Solar tube (S) and aureole tube (A) are connected.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of three measured solar irradiances at different altitudes with top-of-atmosphere (TOA) solar irradiance30 (19 June 2000).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aureole irradiances measured at three different altitudes (19 June 2000).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency distribution of the measured aerosol optical depth at 499 nm during five different horizontal flight tracks on the morning of 10 August 1998 during the campaign LACE98.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AOD measurements at 546 nm during an ascent on the morning of 19 June 2000.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Layerwise linearization (gray curve) of the measured AOD at 546 nm (points) during an ascent on the morning of 19 June 2000. Dotted lines represent the altitude intervals.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Layerwise linearization (gray curve) of the volume scattering function at 546 nm (points) during an ascent on the morning of 19 June 2000. Dotted lines represent the altitude intervals.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Profile of the aerosol extinction coefficient at 546 nm (19 June 2000). The dotted lines show the standard deviation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Profile of the product of the single scattering albedo and the phase function at 546 nm (19 June 2000). The dotted lines show the standard deviation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectrum of the aerosol extinction coefficient σ a and the gas absorption expression σ̃ x of the layer between 1309 and 1646 m (19 June 2000). Important absorption bands of water vapor (α, 0.8μ, and ρστ) and oxygen (O2A) are labeled. Nonabsorbing regions are emphasized (gray fields). The aerosol extinction in the absorbing regions is interpolated from absorption-free wavelengths, assuming a λ-1 law (gray curve).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectrum of the product of single scattering albedo and phase function ω0 P a multiplied by the ratio of σ a to σ a + σ̃ x (19 June 2000). This ratio becomes unique in nonabsorbing regions. The gray curve illustrates the interpolation of ω0 P a in absorbing regions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Technical Data for Three Spectrometers Available for FUBISS

Tables Icon

Table 2 Technical Data on FUBISS-ASA

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δa=ln I0-ln IDm-δm-δ˜x.
δ˜x=ln Tx/m.
βa=ω0Paδa=IAIDmΔΩ-PRδR,
σa=Δδa/Δh.
σa+σ˜x=Δδa+δ˜xΔh.
σ˜x=Δln Tx/mΔh.
ω0Pa=Δβa/Δδa.
ω0Paσaσa+σ˜x=ΔβaΔδa+δ˜x.

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