Abstract

Transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (SiNx:H) coatings were prepared by dual-mode microwave-radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. By controlling the effects of plasma density and ion energy on the film growth, it was possible to modify the microstructure of the coatings and hence the refractive index n. Using this method, we were able to vary n from 1.6 to 2.0, at 550 nm, by adjusting the power levels of the radio-frequency and microwave components while keeping the gas composition (SiH4, N2) and pressure constant. An inhomogeneous bandpass filter with a controlled refractive-index depth profile was fabricated, and its optical performance was compared with that of its multilayer counterpart. Besides the attractive optical features of such single-material rugate filters, we found that the mechanical resistance of inhomogeneous films is superior to that of multilayer systems.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  2. R. Jacobsson, “A review of the optical properties of inhomogeneous thin films,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 2–8 (1993).
  3. W. E. Johnson, R. L. Crane, “Introduction to rugate filter technology,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 88–108 (1993).
  4. B. Bovard, F. J. Van Milligen, M. J. Messerly, S. G. Saxe, H. A. Macleod, “Optical constants derivation for an inhomogeneous thin film from in situ transmission measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1803–1807 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  6. S. Larouche, A. Amassian, S. C. Gujrathi, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Multilayer and inhomogeneous optical filters fabricated by PECVD using titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 277–281.
  7. D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon-based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, N. S. Gluck, “Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2945–2948 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Poitras, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Moussi, L. Martinu, “Properties of multilayer and graded index Si-based coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 179–188 (1993).
  12. D. Poitras, S. Larouche, L. Martinu, “Design and plasma deposition of dispersion-corrected multiband rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5249–5255 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. P. Donovan, D. Van Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, G. K. Hubler, “Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1-x)Nx films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2940–2944 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Properties and applications of electron cyclotron plasma deposited SiOxNy films with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 484–488 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. K. Hubler, P. R. Malmberg, T. P. Smith, “Refractive index profiles and range distributions of silicon implanted with high-energy nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7147–7155 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. F. Hanyaloglu, E. S. Aydil, “Low temperature plasma deposition of silicon nitride from silane and nitrogen plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2794–2803 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Poitras, P. Leroux, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. C. Gujrathi, L. Martinu, “Characterization of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Si-based optical coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2693–2699 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. O. Zabeida, A. Hallil, M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, “Time-resolved measurements of ion energy distributions in dual-mode pulsed-microwave/radio frequency plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 635–642 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave-r.f. plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, M. Moisan, “Microwave and dual-frequency plasma processing,” in Plasma Processing of Polymers, R. d’Agostino, F. Fracassi, P. Favia, eds., Vol. 346 of Applied Sciences Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 101–127.
  22. T.-R. Ji, J. Gerling, “A versatile microwave plasma applicator,” J. Microwave Power Electromagn. Energy 23, 3–10 (1988).
  23. D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. C. Oliver, G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Jedrzejowski, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of nanocomposite TiN/SiN1.3 coatings prepared by low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 426, 150–159 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Amassian, S. Larouche, R. Vernhes, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Analysis and control of optical film growth by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of Opto-Canada, SPIE Regional Meeting on Optoelectronics, Photonics, and Imaging, SPIETD01, pp. 493–495 (2002).
  27. P. Jedrzejowski, J. Cizek, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Vlcek, L. Martinu, “Mechanical and optical properties of hard SiCN coatings prepared by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).
  28. M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

2003 (1)

P. Jedrzejowski, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of nanocomposite TiN/SiN1.3 coatings prepared by low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 426, 150–159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

L. Martinu, D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Zabeida, A. Hallil, M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, “Time-resolved measurements of ion energy distributions in dual-mode pulsed-microwave/radio frequency plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 635–642 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon-based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. F. Hanyaloglu, E. S. Aydil, “Low temperature plasma deposition of silicon nitride from silane and nitrogen plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2794–2803 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Poitras, P. Leroux, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. C. Gujrathi, L. Martinu, “Characterization of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Si-based optical coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2693–2699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Properties and applications of electron cyclotron plasma deposited SiOxNy films with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 484–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. C. Oliver, G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave-r.f. plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

1988 (1)

T.-R. Ji, J. Gerling, “A versatile microwave plasma applicator,” J. Microwave Power Electromagn. Energy 23, 3–10 (1988).

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

G. K. Hubler, P. R. Malmberg, T. P. Smith, “Refractive index profiles and range distributions of silicon implanted with high-energy nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7147–7155 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Amassian, A.

S. Larouche, A. Amassian, S. C. Gujrathi, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Multilayer and inhomogeneous optical filters fabricated by PECVD using titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 277–281.

A. Amassian, S. Larouche, R. Vernhes, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Analysis and control of optical film growth by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of Opto-Canada, SPIE Regional Meeting on Optoelectronics, Photonics, and Imaging, SPIETD01, pp. 493–495 (2002).

P. Jedrzejowski, J. Cizek, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Vlcek, L. Martinu, “Mechanical and optical properties of hard SiCN coatings prepared by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Aydil, E. S.

B. F. Hanyaloglu, E. S. Aydil, “Low temperature plasma deposition of silicon nitride from silane and nitrogen plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2794–2803 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bertram, R. W.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bovard, B.

Bulkin, P. V.

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Properties and applications of electron cyclotron plasma deposited SiOxNy films with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 484–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carosella, C. A.

Cizek, J.

P. Jedrzejowski, J. Cizek, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Vlcek, L. Martinu, “Mechanical and optical properties of hard SiCN coatings prepared by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

Crane, R. L.

W. E. Johnson, R. L. Crane, “Introduction to rugate filter technology,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 88–108 (1993).

Desjardins, P.

A. Amassian, S. Larouche, R. Vernhes, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Analysis and control of optical film growth by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of Opto-Canada, SPIE Regional Meeting on Optoelectronics, Photonics, and Imaging, SPIETD01, pp. 493–495 (2002).

Donovan, E. P.

Gerling, J.

T.-R. Ji, J. Gerling, “A versatile microwave plasma applicator,” J. Microwave Power Electromagn. Energy 23, 3–10 (1988).

Gluck, N. S.

Gujrathi, S. C.

D. Poitras, P. Leroux, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. C. Gujrathi, L. Martinu, “Characterization of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Si-based optical coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2693–2699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Larouche, A. Amassian, S. C. Gujrathi, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Multilayer and inhomogeneous optical filters fabricated by PECVD using titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 277–281.

Gunning, W. J.

Hall, R. L.

Hallil, A.

O. Zabeida, A. Hallil, M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, “Time-resolved measurements of ion energy distributions in dual-mode pulsed-microwave/radio frequency plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 635–642 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanyaloglu, B. F.

B. F. Hanyaloglu, E. S. Aydil, “Low temperature plasma deposition of silicon nitride from silane and nitrogen plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2794–2803 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hubler, G. K.

E. P. Donovan, D. Van Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, G. K. Hubler, “Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1-x)Nx films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2940–2944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Hubler, P. R. Malmberg, T. P. Smith, “Refractive index profiles and range distributions of silicon implanted with high-energy nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7147–7155 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsson, R.

R. Jacobsson, “Light reflection from films of continuously varying refractive index,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), Vol. 5, pp. 247–286.

R. Jacobsson, “A review of the optical properties of inhomogeneous thin films,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 2–8 (1993).

Jedrzejowski, P.

P. Jedrzejowski, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of nanocomposite TiN/SiN1.3 coatings prepared by low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 426, 150–159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Jedrzejowski, J. Cizek, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Vlcek, L. Martinu, “Mechanical and optical properties of hard SiCN coatings prepared by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

Ji, T.-R.

T.-R. Ji, J. Gerling, “A versatile microwave plasma applicator,” J. Microwave Power Electromagn. Energy 23, 3–10 (1988).

Johnson, W. E.

W. E. Johnson, R. L. Crane, “Introduction to rugate filter technology,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 88–108 (1993).

Kahn, A. D. F.

Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.

P. Jedrzejowski, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of nanocomposite TiN/SiN1.3 coatings prepared by low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 426, 150–159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Poitras, P. Leroux, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. C. Gujrathi, L. Martinu, “Characterization of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Si-based optical coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2693–2699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave-r.f. plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Amassian, S. Larouche, R. Vernhes, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Analysis and control of optical film growth by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of Opto-Canada, SPIE Regional Meeting on Optoelectronics, Photonics, and Imaging, SPIETD01, pp. 493–495 (2002).

P. Jedrzejowski, J. Cizek, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Vlcek, L. Martinu, “Mechanical and optical properties of hard SiCN coatings prepared by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

S. Larouche, A. Amassian, S. C. Gujrathi, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Multilayer and inhomogeneous optical filters fabricated by PECVD using titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 277–281.

D. Poitras, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Moussi, L. Martinu, “Properties of multilayer and graded index Si-based coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 179–188 (1993).

M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

Küttel, O. M.

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave-r.f. plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lacquet, B. M.

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Properties and applications of electron cyclotron plasma deposited SiOxNy films with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 484–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R. V.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Larouche, S.

D. Poitras, S. Larouche, L. Martinu, “Design and plasma deposition of dispersion-corrected multiband rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5249–5255 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

S. Larouche, A. Amassian, S. C. Gujrathi, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Multilayer and inhomogeneous optical filters fabricated by PECVD using titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 277–281.

A. Amassian, S. Larouche, R. Vernhes, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Analysis and control of optical film growth by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of Opto-Canada, SPIE Regional Meeting on Optoelectronics, Photonics, and Imaging, SPIETD01, pp. 493–495 (2002).

Leroux, P.

D. Poitras, P. Leroux, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. C. Gujrathi, L. Martinu, “Characterization of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Si-based optical coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2693–2699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

Malmberg, P. R.

G. K. Hubler, P. R. Malmberg, T. P. Smith, “Refractive index profiles and range distributions of silicon implanted with high-energy nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7147–7155 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Martinu, L.

P. Jedrzejowski, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of nanocomposite TiN/SiN1.3 coatings prepared by low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 426, 150–159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Poitras, S. Larouche, L. Martinu, “Design and plasma deposition of dispersion-corrected multiband rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5249–5255 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Zabeida, A. Hallil, M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, “Time-resolved measurements of ion energy distributions in dual-mode pulsed-microwave/radio frequency plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 635–642 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu, D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon-based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Poitras, P. Leroux, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. C. Gujrathi, L. Martinu, “Characterization of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Si-based optical coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2693–2699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave-r.f. plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, M. Moisan, “Microwave and dual-frequency plasma processing,” in Plasma Processing of Polymers, R. d’Agostino, F. Fracassi, P. Favia, eds., Vol. 346 of Applied Sciences Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 101–127.

P. Jedrzejowski, J. Cizek, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Vlcek, L. Martinu, “Mechanical and optical properties of hard SiCN coatings prepared by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

A. Amassian, S. Larouche, R. Vernhes, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Analysis and control of optical film growth by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of Opto-Canada, SPIE Regional Meeting on Optoelectronics, Photonics, and Imaging, SPIETD01, pp. 493–495 (2002).

S. Larouche, A. Amassian, S. C. Gujrathi, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Multilayer and inhomogeneous optical filters fabricated by PECVD using titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 277–281.

D. Poitras, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Moussi, L. Martinu, “Properties of multilayer and graded index Si-based coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 179–188 (1993).

M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

Messerly, M. J.

Moisan, M.

M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, M. Moisan, “Microwave and dual-frequency plasma processing,” in Plasma Processing of Polymers, R. d’Agostino, F. Fracassi, P. Favia, eds., Vol. 346 of Applied Sciences Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 101–127.

Moussi, A.

D. Poitras, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Moussi, L. Martinu, “Properties of multilayer and graded index Si-based coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 179–188 (1993).

Oliver, W. C.

W. C. Oliver, G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ouellette, M. F.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Owles, R. S.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pharr, G. M.

W. C. Oliver, G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, D.

D. Poitras, S. Larouche, L. Martinu, “Design and plasma deposition of dispersion-corrected multiband rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5249–5255 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martinu, D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon-based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Poitras, P. Leroux, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. C. Gujrathi, L. Martinu, “Characterization of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Si-based optical coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2693–2699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Poitras, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Moussi, L. Martinu, “Properties of multilayer and graded index Si-based coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 179–188 (1993).

Rats, D.

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon-based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raveh, A.

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, M.-A.

M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

Saxe, S. G.

Smith, T. P.

G. K. Hubler, P. R. Malmberg, T. P. Smith, “Refractive index profiles and range distributions of silicon implanted with high-energy nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7147–7155 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Soro, J. M.

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon-based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Swart, P. L.

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Properties and applications of electron cyclotron plasma deposited SiOxNy films with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 484–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Van Milligen, F. J.

Van Vechten, D.

Vernhes, R.

A. Amassian, S. Larouche, R. Vernhes, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Analysis and control of optical film growth by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of Opto-Canada, SPIE Regional Meeting on Optoelectronics, Photonics, and Imaging, SPIETD01, pp. 493–495 (2002).

Vlcek, J.

P. Jedrzejowski, J. Cizek, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Vlcek, L. Martinu, “Mechanical and optical properties of hard SiCN coatings prepared by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

von Stebut, J.

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon-based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wertheimer, M. R.

O. Zabeida, A. Hallil, M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, “Time-resolved measurements of ion energy distributions in dual-mode pulsed-microwave/radio frequency plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 635–642 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave-r.f. plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, M. Moisan, “Microwave and dual-frequency plasma processing,” in Plasma Processing of Polymers, R. d’Agostino, F. Fracassi, P. Favia, eds., Vol. 346 of Applied Sciences Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 101–127.

Woodberry, F. J.

Yan, K. L.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zabeida, O.

O. Zabeida, A. Hallil, M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, “Time-resolved measurements of ion energy distributions in dual-mode pulsed-microwave/radio frequency plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 635–642 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. K. Hubler, P. R. Malmberg, T. P. Smith, “Refractive index profiles and range distributions of silicon implanted with high-energy nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7147–7155 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O. Zabeida, A. Hallil, M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, “Time-resolved measurements of ion energy distributions in dual-mode pulsed-microwave/radio frequency plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 635–642 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

W. C. Oliver, G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Microwave Power Electromagn. Energy (1)

T.-R. Ji, J. Gerling, “A versatile microwave plasma applicator,” J. Microwave Power Electromagn. Energy 23, 3–10 (1988).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Properties and applications of electron cyclotron plasma deposited SiOxNy films with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 484–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (4)

L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Hanyaloglu, E. S. Aydil, “Low temperature plasma deposition of silicon nitride from silane and nitrogen plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2794–2803 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu, D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. Poitras, P. Leroux, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. C. Gujrathi, L. Martinu, “Characterization of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Si-based optical coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2693–2699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon-based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (3)

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave-r.f. plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Jedrzejowski, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of nanocomposite TiN/SiN1.3 coatings prepared by low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 426, 150–159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

D. Poitras, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Moussi, L. Martinu, “Properties of multilayer and graded index Si-based coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 179–188 (1993).

A. Amassian, S. Larouche, R. Vernhes, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Analysis and control of optical film growth by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of Opto-Canada, SPIE Regional Meeting on Optoelectronics, Photonics, and Imaging, SPIETD01, pp. 493–495 (2002).

P. Jedrzejowski, J. Cizek, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Vlcek, L. Martinu, “Mechanical and optical properties of hard SiCN coatings prepared by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, M. Moisan, “Microwave and dual-frequency plasma processing,” in Plasma Processing of Polymers, R. d’Agostino, F. Fracassi, P. Favia, eds., Vol. 346 of Applied Sciences Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 101–127.

R. Jacobsson, “Light reflection from films of continuously varying refractive index,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), Vol. 5, pp. 247–286.

R. Jacobsson, “A review of the optical properties of inhomogeneous thin films,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 2–8 (1993).

W. E. Johnson, R. L. Crane, “Introduction to rugate filter technology,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 88–108 (1993).

S. Larouche, A. Amassian, S. C. Gujrathi, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Multilayer and inhomogeneous optical filters fabricated by PECVD using titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 277–281.

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