Abstract

Working with complex guiding structures such as holey fibers requires coupling light into the input face of the structure. We use a simple in vivo technique to determine the scale, morphology, and orientation of the input cleave of the fiber without resorting to separate and more complex methods like optical imaging or scanning electron microscopy. Further, after obtaining the transverse scan of the fiber tip one can precisely position the focal spot anywhere relative to the fiber structure.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultrashort pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear generation of very high-order UV modes in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 910–918 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1988 (1)

1982 (1)

W. J. Stewart, “Optical fiber and preform profiling technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1451–1466 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, “Determination of optical fiber refractive index profiles by a near-field scanning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255–258 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Arnaud, R. M. Derosier, “Novel technique for measuring the index profile of optical fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1489–1508 (1976).

Adams, M. J.

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, “Determination of optical fiber refractive index profiles by a near-field scanning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255–258 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Arnaud, J. A.

J. A. Arnaud, R. M. Derosier, “Novel technique for measuring the index profile of optical fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1489–1508 (1976).

Atkin, D. M.

Bennett, P. J.

Biancalana, F.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultrashort pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broderick, N. G.

Broeng, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

Derosier, R. M.

J. A. Arnaud, R. M. Derosier, “Novel technique for measuring the index profile of optical fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1489–1508 (1976).

Efimov, A.

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear generation of very high-order UV modes in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 910–918 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultrashort pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultrashort pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear generation of very high-order UV modes in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 910–918 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monro, T. M.

Omenetto, F. G.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultrashort pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear generation of very high-order UV modes in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 910–918 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, D. N.

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, “Determination of optical fiber refractive index profiles by a near-field scanning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255–258 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, W. H.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultrashort pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultrashort pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear generation of very high-order UV modes in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 910–918 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skryabin, D. V.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultrashort pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sladen, F. M. E.

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, “Determination of optical fiber refractive index profiles by a near-field scanning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255–258 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

W. J. Stewart, “Optical fiber and preform profiling technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1451–1466 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear generation of very high-order UV modes in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 910–918 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultrashort pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, “Determination of optical fiber refractive index profiles by a near-field scanning technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255–258 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

J. A. Arnaud, R. M. Derosier, “Novel technique for measuring the index profile of optical fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1489–1508 (1976).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. J. Stewart, “Optical fiber and preform profiling technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1451–1466 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultrashort pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for taking transverse guidance scans of the input tip of the fiber. Laser beam entering from the right is focused on the input fiber cleave with aspheric lens. Large-area silicon photodiode (Si PD) is butt-coupled to the output of the fiber. Control voltages are applied to the X and the Y axis of the fiber stage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transverse optical guidance scans of the input tip of a 2.5-μm-diameter core HF: (a) fresh cleave and (b) after brief exposure to 1.1 W of average power resulting in morphology change of the input tip of the fiber due to melting.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of (a) the unexposed and (b) the damaged HFs, corresponding to Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transverse scan of (a) a precision reticle scale and (b) the experimental (squares) and a linear fit (solid line) to the scale tick positions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transverse scans of (a) 3-μm and (b) 4-μm core HFs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transverse scan of (a) closely packed cobweb and (b) polarization-maintaining HFs.

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