Abstract

We present the first wind-velocity profiles obtained with a direct-detection Doppler lidar that uses a Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as spectral discriminator. The measurements were performed in the lower stratosphere, between 10 and 40 km in altitude, at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP), France, during nighttime. They are in excellent agreement with those obtained simultaneously and independently with the already validated double Fabry–Perot interferometer (FPI) of the OHP Doppler lidar (mean difference lower than the combined standard deviation). A statistical analysis shows that the random error obtained with this experimental MZI is 1.94 times the Cramer-Rao lower bound and is approximately half of that given by the FPI (both operating in photometric mode). Nevertheless, the present MZI measurements are sensitive to the presence of atmospheric particles and need an additional correction, whereas the OHP FPI is designed to be insensitive to particulate scattering.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Garnier, M.-L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2410–2421 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2422–2431 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, C. Y. Weng, “Edge technique: theory and application to the lidar measurement of atmospheric wind,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4202–4213 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. M. Gentry, C. L. Korb, “Edge technique for high-accuracy Doppler velocimetry,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5770–5777 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, S. X. Xingfu Li, “Edge technique Doppler lidar wind measurements with high vertical resolution,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5976–5983 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. J. Abreu, J. E. Barnes, P. B. Hays, “Observations of winds with an incoherent lidar detector,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4509–4514 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Rees, I. S. McDermid, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensor: reevaluation of a 355-nm incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4133–4144 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. J. McGill, J. D. Spinhirne, “Comparison of two direct-detection Doppler lidar techniques,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2675–2686 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. McKay, “Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. I. The edge technique,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6480–6486 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. McKay, “Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. II. The fringe imaging technique,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6487–6493 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Liu, T. Kobayashi, “Differential discrimination technique for incoherent Doppler lidar to measure atmospheric wind and backscatter ratio,” Opt. Rev. 3, 47–52 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Bruneau, “Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a spectral analyzer for molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Opt. 40, 391–399 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Bruneau, “Fringe-imaging Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a spectral analyzer for molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 503–510 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Bruneau, J. Pelon, “Simultaneous measurements of particle backscattering and extinction coefficients and wind velocity by lidar with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer: principle of operation and performance assessment,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1101–1114 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. J. Rye, R. M. Hardesty, “Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I. Spectral accumulation and the Cramer–Rao lower bound,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 16–27 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.
  19. C. Flesia, C. L. Korb, “Theory of the double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. 38, 432–440 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, “Defocusing a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2569–2571 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195–23207 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2003

2002

2001

1999

1998

1997

1996

Z. Liu, T. Kobayashi, “Differential discrimination technique for incoherent Doppler lidar to measure atmospheric wind and backscatter ratio,” Opt. Rev. 3, 47–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195–23207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

B. J. Rye, R. M. Hardesty, “Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I. Spectral accumulation and the Cramer–Rao lower bound,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 16–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1990

1989

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1981

1971

Abreu, V. J.

Aupierre, M.

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Barnes, J. E.

Bruneau, D.

D. Bruneau, J. Pelon, “Simultaneous measurements of particle backscattering and extinction coefficients and wind velocity by lidar with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer: principle of operation and performance assessment,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1101–1114 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bruneau, “Fringe-imaging Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a spectral analyzer for molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 503–510 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bruneau, “Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a spectral analyzer for molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Opt. 40, 391–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Chanin, M. L.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chanin, M.-L.

A. Garnier, M.-L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chazette, P.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195–23207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195–23207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Delaval, A.

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Delville, P.

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Flamant, P. H.

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Flesia, C.

Garnier, A.

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2422–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnier, M.-L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Gentry, B. M.

Godin, S.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195–23207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, R. M.

B. J. Rye, R. M. Hardesty, “Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I. Spectral accumulation and the Cramer–Rao lower bound,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 16–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Hauchecorne, A.

Hays, P. B.

Hertzog, A.

Klett, J. D.

Kobayashi, T.

Z. Liu, T. Kobayashi, “Differential discrimination technique for incoherent Doppler lidar to measure atmospheric wind and backscatter ratio,” Opt. Rev. 3, 47–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Korb, C. L.

Le Rille, O.

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Lefrère, J.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195–23207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, T. Kobayashi, “Differential discrimination technique for incoherent Doppler lidar to measure atmospheric wind and backscatter ratio,” Opt. Rev. 3, 47–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Loth, C.

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

McDermid, I. S.

McGill, M. J.

M. J. McGill, J. D. Spinhirne, “Comparison of two direct-detection Doppler lidar techniques,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2675–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McKay, J. A.

Mégie, G.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195–23207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

D. Bruneau, J. Pelon, “Simultaneous measurements of particle backscattering and extinction coefficients and wind velocity by lidar with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer: principle of operation and performance assessment,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1101–1114 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195–23207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Porteneuve, J.

Rees, D.

D. Rees, I. S. McDermid, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensor: reevaluation of a 355-nm incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4133–4144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Rye, B. J.

B. J. Rye, R. M. Hardesty, “Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I. Spectral accumulation and the Cramer–Rao lower bound,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 16–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

Souprayen, C.

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2422–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Spinhirne, J. D.

M. J. McGill, J. D. Spinhirne, “Comparison of two direct-detection Doppler lidar techniques,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2675–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, M.

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Vialle, C.

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Weng, C. Y.

Wilson, R.

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

Xingfu Li, S. X.

Zwick, H. H.

Appl. Opt.

J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, I. S. McDermid, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensor: reevaluation of a 355-nm incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4133–4144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, C. Y. Weng, “Edge technique: theory and application to the lidar measurement of atmospheric wind,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4202–4213 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Abreu, J. E. Barnes, P. B. Hays, “Observations of winds with an incoherent lidar detector,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4509–4514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Gentry, C. L. Korb, “Edge technique for high-accuracy Doppler velocimetry,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5770–5777 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, S. X. Xingfu Li, “Edge technique Doppler lidar wind measurements with high vertical resolution,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5976–5983 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. McKay, “Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. I. The edge technique,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6480–6486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. McKay, “Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. II. The fringe imaging technique,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6487–6493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Flesia, C. L. Korb, “Theory of the double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. 38, 432–440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2422–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, “Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a spectral analyzer for molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Opt. 40, 391–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, “Fringe-imaging Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a spectral analyzer for molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 503–510 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bruneau, J. Pelon, “Simultaneous measurements of particle backscattering and extinction coefficients and wind velocity by lidar with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer: principle of operation and performance assessment,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1101–1114 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, “Defocusing a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2569–2571 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

A. Garnier, M.-L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

B. J. Rye, R. M. Hardesty, “Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I. Spectral accumulation and the Cramer–Rao lower bound,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 16–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195–23207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. J. McGill, J. D. Spinhirne, “Comparison of two direct-detection Doppler lidar techniques,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2675–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev.

Z. Liu, T. Kobayashi, “Differential discrimination technique for incoherent Doppler lidar to measure atmospheric wind and backscatter ratio,” Opt. Rev. 3, 47–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Delaval, P. H. Flamant, M. Aupierre, P. Delville, C. Loth, A. Garnier, C. Souprayen, D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, R. Wilson, C. Vialle, D. Rees, M. Vaughan, R. M. Hardesty, “Intercomparison of wind profiling instruments during the VALID field campaign,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, Selected Papers Presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, 2000), pp. 101–104.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OHP Doppler lidar general arrangement. ERB, emission-reception block (east, north, zenith pointing); SM, switching mirror; FM, fiber mixing; FS, fiber switching; SF, spectral filter; MS, mode scrambler; S, separator; PMT, photomultipliers. The thin continuous curves are optical fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MZI optical arrangement. M, mirror; PZTM, piezotranslated mirror; BS, beam splitter; DP, dichroic plate; FCP, field-compensation plate; CL, collimation lens; SF, signal fiber; HF, He-Ne laser fiber; PM1 and PM2, photomultipliers; PD1 and PD2, photodiodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Record of MZI stability. δ, OPD variation; V 0, equivalent wind-velocity variation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Statistical error comparison, as function of the total MZI signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MZI and FPI total signals (1-μs gate, 1-min accumulation, vertical pointing).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Vertical wind profiles. (a) MZI measurement and (b) FPI measurement.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Meridional wind-velocity profiles. ECMWF #1 is the numerical analysis on 16 January 2003, 18:00, and ECMWF #2 was on 17 January 2003, 0:00.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Zonal wind-velocity profiles. ECMWF #1 is the numerical analysis on 16 January 2003, 18:00, and ECMWF #2 was on 17 January 2003, 0:00.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

MZI–FPI measurement difference. (a) Meridional component and (b) zonal component.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

MZI Mie scattering correction. (a) Retrieved backscatter ratio and (b) wind-velocity correction.

Equations (19)

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uz=ΔRzR/u,
S1=η1I0F1-M sin ϕ;S2=η2I0F2+M sin ϕ,
S1=η1I0F1-MMa sinu/u0;S2=η2I0F2+MMa sinu/u0,
Ma=1Rβ Mm+Rβ-1Rβ Mp,
Mm=exp-T2T0; Mp1,
u=u0arcsinQRβexp-T2T0+Rβ-1,
Q=F2Mη1η2F1F2 S2-S1η1η2 S2+S1
u=u0arcsinQ expT2T0,
δu=uRβ-11-expT2T0.
CRLB=kTmηN¯1/2,
F1=2RT; F2=R2+T2; M=2RTMQ,
MQ=S1Max-S1minS1Max+S1min.
S1A=η1 I0RT; S2A=η2 I0R2,
S1B=η1 I0RT;  S2B=η2 I0T2.
F1=2S¯1AS¯2AS¯1BS¯2B1/2S¯1AS¯2B1/2+S¯2AS¯1B1/22,
F2=S¯1AS¯2B+S¯2AS¯1BS¯1AS¯2B1/2+S¯2AS¯1B1/22,
M=2MQS¯1AS¯2AS¯1BS¯2B1/2S¯1AS¯2B1/2+S¯2AS¯1B1/22.
η1η2=S¯1AS¯1BS¯2AS¯2B1/2.
MQ=0.90; F1=0.496; F2=0.504; M=0.447; η1η2=1.357.

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