Abstract

We have developed a prototype high-definition imaging system using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) light valves, which can modulate unpolarized light with high spatial resolution and exhibit a high optical efficiency, based on the light-scattering effect. We fabricated high-definition light valves with a fine polymer-matrix structure in a PDLC film by controlling the curing conditions used during the photopolymerization-induced phase separation and formation process. This device has excellent characteristics, such as a high resolution, with 50 lp/mm for a limiting resolution and greater than 20 lp/mm at the 50% modulation transfer function point, and a reflectivity of greater than 60%. An optically addressable full-color projection display was designed, consisting of three PDLC light valves, a schlieren optical system based on shift-decentralization optics with a xenon lamp illumination and input-image sources with 1.5 million pixels, including electrical image compensation of the gamma characteristics. We succeeded in displaying pictures on a 110-inch screen with a resolution of 810 TV lines and a luminous flux of 1900–2100 American National Standards Institute lumens.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. H. Stupp and M. S. Brennesholtz, Projection Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999).
  2. H. Kikuchi and K. Takizawa, “Liquid crystal light valve technologies for display applications,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 4457, 122–136 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Okamoto, “Developments in p-Si TFT LCD projectors,” in 2001 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 27 of Society for International Display Proceedings Series (Society for International Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), pp. 1176–1179.
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. M. Alt, “Single crystal silicon for high resolution displays,” in Proceedings of The Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display and IEEE Electron Devices Society, Toronto, Canada, 1997), pp. M19–M28.
  5. P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. P. Bleha, “Image light amplifier (ILA) technology for large-screen projection,” SMPTE J. 106, 710–717 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, and H. Fujikake, “Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal light valves for projection displays,” in 1991 Society for International Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 22 of SID Proceedings Series (Society for International Display, Anaheim, Calif., 1991), pp. 250–253.
  8. K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “High-brightness projection display using spatial light modulators with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 45, 225–233 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Kawakita, Y. Hirano, and F. Sato, “Spatial light modulators for high-brightness projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5646–5655 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, and K. Takizawa, “Design and fabrication of a projection display using optically addressed polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Eng. 39, 656–669 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “HDTV projection display based on high-efficiency optically addressed PDLC light valves,” in Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3634, 180–188 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Coates, S. Greenfield, I. C. Sage, and G. Smith, “Liquid crystal mixtures for polymer matrix displays,” in Liquid Crystal Displays and Applications, J. W. Doane and Z. Yaniv, eds., Proc. SPIE 1257, 37–45 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Fujikake, K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, and M. Kawakita, “Morphological design of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal for spatial light modulators,” IEICE Trans. (in Japanese), J80-C-II, 164–171 (1997).
  19. K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Yokozawa, A. Murata, and K. Kishi, “Spatial light modulators for projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5732–5747 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, and J.-P. Huignard, “Analysis of the optical components in liquid crystal projectors by their geometrical extend,” in Proceedings of The Thirteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Strasbourg, France, 1993), pp. 537–539.
  21. D. Armitage, “Design issues in liquid crystal projection,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 2650, 41–51 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Morimoto, K. Suzuki, K. Kihara, Y. Segawa, and T. Yamada, “1.5-Megapixel Poly-Si TFT-LCD Module with a Fully Integrated Driving Circuit,” SANYO TECHNICAL REVIEW (in Japanese), 28, 74–81 (1996).
  23. American National Standard Institute, “Data projection equipment and large screen data displays-test methods and performance characteristics,” in American National Standard for Audiovisual Systems IT7.215–1992 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1992), http://www.ansi.org/.
  24. R. A. Jones, “An automated technique for deriving MTF’s from edge traces,” Photonics Sci. Eng. 11, 102–106 (1967).
  25. Recommendation ITU-R BT.709–5, “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange,” (International Telecommunications Union-Radiocommunication Sector, Geneva, 2002), http://www.itu.int/ITU-R/.
  26. K. W. Kennedy, R. J. Martinsen, A. J. Radl, J. F. Arntsen, and M. Karakawa, “Laser-based SXGA reflective light valve projector with E-cinema quality contrast and color space,” in Projection Displays 2000, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3954, 168–174 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Kikuchi and K. Takizawa, “Liquid crystal light valve technologies for display applications,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 4457, 122–136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Okamoto, “Developments in p-Si TFT LCD projectors,” in 2001 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 27 of Society for International Display Proceedings Series (Society for International Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), pp. 1176–1179.
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, and K. Takizawa, “Design and fabrication of a projection display using optically addressed polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Eng. 39, 656–669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Kennedy, R. J. Martinsen, A. J. Radl, J. F. Arntsen, and M. Karakawa, “Laser-based SXGA reflective light valve projector with E-cinema quality contrast and color space,” in Projection Displays 2000, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3954, 168–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Kawakita, Y. Hirano, and F. Sato, “Spatial light modulators for high-brightness projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5646–5655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “HDTV projection display based on high-efficiency optically addressed PDLC light valves,” in Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3634, 180–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Stupp and M. S. Brennesholtz, Projection Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999).

M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “High-brightness projection display using spatial light modulators with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 45, 225–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

W. P. Bleha, “Image light amplifier (ILA) technology for large-screen projection,” SMPTE J. 106, 710–717 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Alt, “Single crystal silicon for high resolution displays,” in Proceedings of The Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display and IEEE Electron Devices Society, Toronto, Canada, 1997), pp. M19–M28.

H. Fujikake, K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, and M. Kawakita, “Morphological design of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal for spatial light modulators,” IEICE Trans. (in Japanese), J80-C-II, 164–171 (1997).

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Yokozawa, A. Murata, and K. Kishi, “Spatial light modulators for projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5732–5747 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “Optically addressed spatial light modulators using PDLC and a-Si photoconductive films for high-brightness projection displays,” in Proceedings of The Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Birmingham, England, 1996), pp. 80–83.

D. Armitage, “Design issues in liquid crystal projection,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 2650, 41–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Morimoto, K. Suzuki, K. Kihara, Y. Segawa, and T. Yamada, “1.5-Megapixel Poly-Si TFT-LCD Module with a Fully Integrated Driving Circuit,” SANYO TECHNICAL REVIEW (in Japanese), 28, 74–81 (1996).

1994 (1)

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, and J.-P. Huignard, “Analysis of the optical components in liquid crystal projectors by their geometrical extend,” in Proceedings of The Thirteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Strasbourg, France, 1993), pp. 537–539.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

American National Standard Institute, “Data projection equipment and large screen data displays-test methods and performance characteristics,” in American National Standard for Audiovisual Systems IT7.215–1992 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1992), http://www.ansi.org/.

1991 (2)

G. W. Smith, “Cure parameters and phase behavior of an ultraviolet-cured polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 196, 89–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, and H. Fujikake, “Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal light valves for projection displays,” in 1991 Society for International Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 22 of SID Proceedings Series (Society for International Display, Anaheim, Calif., 1991), pp. 250–253.

1990 (1)

D. Coates, S. Greenfield, I. C. Sage, and G. Smith, “Liquid crystal mixtures for polymer matrix displays,” in Liquid Crystal Displays and Applications, J. W. Doane and Z. Yaniv, eds., Proc. SPIE 1257, 37–45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1967 (1)

R. A. Jones, “An automated technique for deriving MTF’s from edge traces,” Photonics Sci. Eng. 11, 102–106 (1967).

Aida, T.

M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “High-brightness projection display using spatial light modulators with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 45, 225–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “HDTV projection display based on high-efficiency optically addressed PDLC light valves,” in Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3634, 180–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “Optically addressed spatial light modulators using PDLC and a-Si photoconductive films for high-brightness projection displays,” in Proceedings of The Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Birmingham, England, 1996), pp. 80–83.

Alt, P. M.

P. M. Alt, “Single crystal silicon for high resolution displays,” in Proceedings of The Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display and IEEE Electron Devices Society, Toronto, Canada, 1997), pp. M19–M28.

Armitage, D.

D. Armitage, “Design issues in liquid crystal projection,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 2650, 41–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arntsen, J. F.

K. W. Kennedy, R. J. Martinsen, A. J. Radl, J. F. Arntsen, and M. Karakawa, “Laser-based SXGA reflective light valve projector with E-cinema quality contrast and color space,” in Projection Displays 2000, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3954, 168–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bleha, W. P.

W. P. Bleha, “Image light amplifier (ILA) technology for large-screen projection,” SMPTE J. 106, 710–717 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brennesholtz, M. S.

E. H. Stupp and M. S. Brennesholtz, Projection Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Coates, D.

D. Coates, S. Greenfield, I. C. Sage, and G. Smith, “Liquid crystal mixtures for polymer matrix displays,” in Liquid Crystal Displays and Applications, J. W. Doane and Z. Yaniv, eds., Proc. SPIE 1257, 37–45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Douglass, M. R.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, and K. Takizawa, “Design and fabrication of a projection display using optically addressed polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Eng. 39, 656–669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Kawakita, Y. Hirano, and F. Sato, “Spatial light modulators for high-brightness projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5646–5655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “HDTV projection display based on high-efficiency optically addressed PDLC light valves,” in Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3634, 180–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “High-brightness projection display using spatial light modulators with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 45, 225–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujikake, K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, and M. Kawakita, “Morphological design of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal for spatial light modulators,” IEICE Trans. (in Japanese), J80-C-II, 164–171 (1997).

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Yokozawa, A. Murata, and K. Kishi, “Spatial light modulators for projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5732–5747 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “Optically addressed spatial light modulators using PDLC and a-Si photoconductive films for high-brightness projection displays,” in Proceedings of The Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Birmingham, England, 1996), pp. 80–83.

Fujikake, H.

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, and K. Takizawa, “Design and fabrication of a projection display using optically addressed polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Eng. 39, 656–669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “HDTV projection display based on high-efficiency optically addressed PDLC light valves,” in Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3634, 180–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Kawakita, Y. Hirano, and F. Sato, “Spatial light modulators for high-brightness projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5646–5655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “High-brightness projection display using spatial light modulators with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 45, 225–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujikake, K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, and M. Kawakita, “Morphological design of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal for spatial light modulators,” IEICE Trans. (in Japanese), J80-C-II, 164–171 (1997).

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Yokozawa, A. Murata, and K. Kishi, “Spatial light modulators for projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5732–5747 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “Optically addressed spatial light modulators using PDLC and a-Si photoconductive films for high-brightness projection displays,” in Proceedings of The Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Birmingham, England, 1996), pp. 80–83.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, and H. Fujikake, “Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal light valves for projection displays,” in 1991 Society for International Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 22 of SID Proceedings Series (Society for International Display, Anaheim, Calif., 1991), pp. 250–253.

Greenfield, S.

D. Coates, S. Greenfield, I. C. Sage, and G. Smith, “Liquid crystal mixtures for polymer matrix displays,” in Liquid Crystal Displays and Applications, J. W. Doane and Z. Yaniv, eds., Proc. SPIE 1257, 37–45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, Y.

Hornbeck, L. J.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J.-P.

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, and J.-P. Huignard, “Analysis of the optical components in liquid crystal projectors by their geometrical extend,” in Proceedings of The Thirteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Strasbourg, France, 1993), pp. 537–539.

Jones, R. A.

R. A. Jones, “An automated technique for deriving MTF’s from edge traces,” Photonics Sci. Eng. 11, 102–106 (1967).

Karakawa, M.

K. W. Kennedy, R. J. Martinsen, A. J. Radl, J. F. Arntsen, and M. Karakawa, “Laser-based SXGA reflective light valve projector with E-cinema quality contrast and color space,” in Projection Displays 2000, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3954, 168–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawakita, M.

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, and K. Takizawa, “Design and fabrication of a projection display using optically addressed polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Eng. 39, 656–669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Kawakita, Y. Hirano, and F. Sato, “Spatial light modulators for high-brightness projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5646–5655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “HDTV projection display based on high-efficiency optically addressed PDLC light valves,” in Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3634, 180–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “High-brightness projection display using spatial light modulators with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 45, 225–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Yokozawa, A. Murata, and K. Kishi, “Spatial light modulators for projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5732–5747 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fujikake, K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, and M. Kawakita, “Morphological design of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal for spatial light modulators,” IEICE Trans. (in Japanese), J80-C-II, 164–171 (1997).

T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “Optically addressed spatial light modulators using PDLC and a-Si photoconductive films for high-brightness projection displays,” in Proceedings of The Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Birmingham, England, 1996), pp. 80–83.

Kennedy, K. W.

K. W. Kennedy, R. J. Martinsen, A. J. Radl, J. F. Arntsen, and M. Karakawa, “Laser-based SXGA reflective light valve projector with E-cinema quality contrast and color space,” in Projection Displays 2000, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3954, 168–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kihara, K.

Y. Morimoto, K. Suzuki, K. Kihara, Y. Segawa, and T. Yamada, “1.5-Megapixel Poly-Si TFT-LCD Module with a Fully Integrated Driving Circuit,” SANYO TECHNICAL REVIEW (in Japanese), 28, 74–81 (1996).

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi and K. Takizawa, “Liquid crystal light valve technologies for display applications,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 4457, 122–136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, and K. Takizawa, “Design and fabrication of a projection display using optically addressed polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Eng. 39, 656–669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Kawakita, Y. Hirano, and F. Sato, “Spatial light modulators for high-brightness projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5646–5655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “HDTV projection display based on high-efficiency optically addressed PDLC light valves,” in Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3634, 180–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “High-brightness projection display using spatial light modulators with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 45, 225–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujikake, K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, and M. Kawakita, “Morphological design of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal for spatial light modulators,” IEICE Trans. (in Japanese), J80-C-II, 164–171 (1997).

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Yokozawa, A. Murata, and K. Kishi, “Spatial light modulators for projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5732–5747 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “Optically addressed spatial light modulators using PDLC and a-Si photoconductive films for high-brightness projection displays,” in Proceedings of The Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Birmingham, England, 1996), pp. 80–83.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, and H. Fujikake, “Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal light valves for projection displays,” in 1991 Society for International Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 22 of SID Proceedings Series (Society for International Display, Anaheim, Calif., 1991), pp. 250–253.

Kishi, K.

Loiseaux, B.

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, and J.-P. Huignard, “Analysis of the optical components in liquid crystal projectors by their geometrical extend,” in Proceedings of The Thirteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Strasbourg, France, 1993), pp. 537–539.

Macleod, H. A.

Martin, P. J.

Martinsen, R. J.

K. W. Kennedy, R. J. Martinsen, A. J. Radl, J. F. Arntsen, and M. Karakawa, “Laser-based SXGA reflective light valve projector with E-cinema quality contrast and color space,” in Projection Displays 2000, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3954, 168–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meier, R. E.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, Y.

Y. Morimoto, K. Suzuki, K. Kihara, Y. Segawa, and T. Yamada, “1.5-Megapixel Poly-Si TFT-LCD Module with a Fully Integrated Driving Circuit,” SANYO TECHNICAL REVIEW (in Japanese), 28, 74–81 (1996).

Murata, A.

Namikawa, Y.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

Nicolas, C.

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, and J.-P. Huignard, “Analysis of the optical components in liquid crystal projectors by their geometrical extend,” in Proceedings of The Thirteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Strasbourg, France, 1993), pp. 537–539.

Okamoto, N.

N. Okamoto, “Developments in p-Si TFT LCD projectors,” in 2001 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 27 of Society for International Display Proceedings Series (Society for International Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), pp. 1176–1179.
[CrossRef]

Pacey, C. G.

Radl, A. J.

K. W. Kennedy, R. J. Martinsen, A. J. Radl, J. F. Arntsen, and M. Karakawa, “Laser-based SXGA reflective light valve projector with E-cinema quality contrast and color space,” in Projection Displays 2000, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3954, 168–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sage, I. C.

D. Coates, S. Greenfield, I. C. Sage, and G. Smith, “Liquid crystal mixtures for polymer matrix displays,” in Liquid Crystal Displays and Applications, J. W. Doane and Z. Yaniv, eds., Proc. SPIE 1257, 37–45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

Sato, F.

Segawa, Y.

Y. Morimoto, K. Suzuki, K. Kihara, Y. Segawa, and T. Yamada, “1.5-Megapixel Poly-Si TFT-LCD Module with a Fully Integrated Driving Circuit,” SANYO TECHNICAL REVIEW (in Japanese), 28, 74–81 (1996).

Smith, G.

D. Coates, S. Greenfield, I. C. Sage, and G. Smith, “Liquid crystal mixtures for polymer matrix displays,” in Liquid Crystal Displays and Applications, J. W. Doane and Z. Yaniv, eds., Proc. SPIE 1257, 37–45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. W.

G. W. Smith, “Cure parameters and phase behavior of an ultraviolet-cured polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 196, 89–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stupp, E. H.

E. H. Stupp and M. S. Brennesholtz, Projection Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Suzuki, K.

Y. Morimoto, K. Suzuki, K. Kihara, Y. Segawa, and T. Yamada, “1.5-Megapixel Poly-Si TFT-LCD Module with a Fully Integrated Driving Circuit,” SANYO TECHNICAL REVIEW (in Japanese), 28, 74–81 (1996).

Tada, K.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takizawa, K.

H. Kikuchi and K. Takizawa, “Liquid crystal light valve technologies for display applications,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 4457, 122–136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, and K. Takizawa, “Design and fabrication of a projection display using optically addressed polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Eng. 39, 656–669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “HDTV projection display based on high-efficiency optically addressed PDLC light valves,” in Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3634, 180–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Kawakita, Y. Hirano, and F. Sato, “Spatial light modulators for high-brightness projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5646–5655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “High-brightness projection display using spatial light modulators with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 45, 225–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujikake, K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, and M. Kawakita, “Morphological design of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal for spatial light modulators,” IEICE Trans. (in Japanese), J80-C-II, 164–171 (1997).

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, M. Yokozawa, A. Murata, and K. Kishi, “Spatial light modulators for projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5732–5747 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “Optically addressed spatial light modulators using PDLC and a-Si photoconductive films for high-brightness projection displays,” in Proceedings of The Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Birmingham, England, 1996), pp. 80–83.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, and H. Fujikake, “Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal light valves for projection displays,” in 1991 Society for International Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 22 of SID Proceedings Series (Society for International Display, Anaheim, Calif., 1991), pp. 250–253.

Van Kessel, P. F.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

Y. Morimoto, K. Suzuki, K. Kihara, Y. Segawa, and T. Yamada, “1.5-Megapixel Poly-Si TFT-LCD Module with a Fully Integrated Driving Circuit,” SANYO TECHNICAL REVIEW (in Japanese), 28, 74–81 (1996).

Yokozawa, M.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Trans. Broadcast. (1)

M. Kawakita, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “High-brightness projection display using spatial light modulators with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 45, 225–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. (1)

H. Fujikake, K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, and M. Kawakita, “Morphological design of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal for spatial light modulators,” IEICE Trans. (in Japanese), J80-C-II, 164–171 (1997).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

G. W. Smith, “Cure parameters and phase behavior of an ultraviolet-cured polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 196, 89–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, and K. Takizawa, “Design and fabrication of a projection display using optically addressed polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Eng. 39, 656–669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, and K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Photonics Sci. Eng. (1)

R. A. Jones, “An automated technique for deriving MTF’s from edge traces,” Photonics Sci. Eng. 11, 102–106 (1967).

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

SANYO TECHNICAL REVIEW (1)

Y. Morimoto, K. Suzuki, K. Kihara, Y. Segawa, and T. Yamada, “1.5-Megapixel Poly-Si TFT-LCD Module with a Fully Integrated Driving Circuit,” SANYO TECHNICAL REVIEW (in Japanese), 28, 74–81 (1996).

SMPTE J. (1)

W. P. Bleha, “Image light amplifier (ILA) technology for large-screen projection,” SMPTE J. 106, 710–717 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, and H. Fujikake, “Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal light valves for projection displays,” in 1991 Society for International Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 22 of SID Proceedings Series (Society for International Display, Anaheim, Calif., 1991), pp. 250–253.

E. H. Stupp and M. S. Brennesholtz, Projection Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999).

H. Kikuchi and K. Takizawa, “Liquid crystal light valve technologies for display applications,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 4457, 122–136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Okamoto, “Developments in p-Si TFT LCD projectors,” in 2001 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 27 of Society for International Display Proceedings Series (Society for International Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), pp. 1176–1179.
[CrossRef]

P. M. Alt, “Single crystal silicon for high resolution displays,” in Proceedings of The Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display and IEEE Electron Devices Society, Toronto, Canada, 1997), pp. M19–M28.

T. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “Optically addressed spatial light modulators using PDLC and a-Si photoconductive films for high-brightness projection displays,” in Proceedings of The Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Birmingham, England, 1996), pp. 80–83.

H. Kikuchi, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, H. Fujikake, T. Aida, and K. Takizawa, “HDTV projection display based on high-efficiency optically addressed PDLC light valves,” in Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3634, 180–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Coates, S. Greenfield, I. C. Sage, and G. Smith, “Liquid crystal mixtures for polymer matrix displays,” in Liquid Crystal Displays and Applications, J. W. Doane and Z. Yaniv, eds., Proc. SPIE 1257, 37–45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

American National Standard Institute, “Data projection equipment and large screen data displays-test methods and performance characteristics,” in American National Standard for Audiovisual Systems IT7.215–1992 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1992), http://www.ansi.org/.

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, and J.-P. Huignard, “Analysis of the optical components in liquid crystal projectors by their geometrical extend,” in Proceedings of The Thirteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Strasbourg, France, 1993), pp. 537–539.

D. Armitage, “Design issues in liquid crystal projection,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 2650, 41–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Recommendation ITU-R BT.709–5, “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange,” (International Telecommunications Union-Radiocommunication Sector, Geneva, 2002), http://www.itu.int/ITU-R/.

K. W. Kennedy, R. J. Martinsen, A. J. Radl, J. F. Arntsen, and M. Karakawa, “Laser-based SXGA reflective light valve projector with E-cinema quality contrast and color space,” in Projection Displays 2000, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 3954, 168–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure and operating principle of the PDLC light valve: (a) with no write-light irradiation (off-state) and (b) with sufficient write-light irradiation (on-state).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral characteristics of input-image optics. The solid curve and the dashed curve indicate the spectral photosensitivity of B-doped a-SiN:H film and the write-light spectrum on the PDLC light valves in the projection system, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relation between structure and resolution characteristics of PDLC film with the light valves: (a) observational result of polymer matrix morphology by a scanning electron microscope and (b) microscope photograph (magnification = 100, lens NA = 0.25) of PDLC film with fine ITO electrode pattern (USAF 1951 resolution chart). This image shows a limiting resolution greater than 100 lp/mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Configuration of the HDTV projection system with three PDLC light valves: PP1 and PP2, pre- and post-projection-lens group, respectively; R-DM and B-DM are the red and the blue color reflected dichroic mirrors, respectively; MM, miniature mirror; and AD, aperture diaphragm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PDLC light-valve projector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated results showing the dependency of the optical efficiency and contrast ratio on the light acceptance angle in the projector for several diagonal sizes of PDLC light valve with a 16:9 aspect ratio format and a light source with a 1.65-mm short-arc gap. Here the numbers beside the lines show the diagonal sizes of the PDLC light valves.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relation between projector screen luminance and input video signal level for RGB primary color channels: (a) before compensation, (b) reverse gamma correction data with 10-bit data (corresponding to γ = 2.2), (c) after compensation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Primary configuration of schlieren optical system based on shift-decentration optics for the projection system.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependency of output power and contrast ratio on acceptance angle. The closed circles and the open circles show the output power and contrast ratio in the projection system, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spatial frequency characteristics. The dashed curve and the solid curve show MTF curves of the image projected with the projection optics and with the PDLC light valve, including the optics, respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Resolution chart image projected by the prototype projection system.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Example on a 110-in. screen of an image display by the projector.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Representative color gamut characteristics of the projection system in RGB colorimetric coordinates of the CIE 1934 chromaticity diagram. The closed circles and the open circles show the primary colors in the prototype projection system and in the HDTV standards, respectively (ITU-R BT.709, Ref. 25).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications and Performance of Optically Addressed PDLC Light Valves

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications of Telecentric Optics in the Input-Image System

Tables Icon

Table 3 Specifications and Performance of the Prototype HDTV Imaging System

Equations (2)

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η=rlvτoptSlvSssin2β/21.
C=1sin2β/2.

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