Abstract

Results on the monitoring of strong African dust outbreaks at Lecce in the southeastern corner of Italy (40°20′ N, 18°6′ E) during May 2001 are presented. This activity has been performed in the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). The lidar station of Lecce is located on a flat rural area that is approximately 800 km from the northern Africa coast. So it is closer to Africa than most of all other EARLINET stations and allow monitoring African dust transport early in its life cycle, at all levels in the plume. An elastic-backscatter Raman lidar based on a XeF excimer laser (351 nm) has been used to monitor the time evolution and vertical structure of the dust layers and get independent measurements of the aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients. The findings are presented in terms of vertical profiles of the extinction and backscatter coefficients and of the lidar ratio. A quite deep dust layer extending between 2 and 6 km and characterized by a backscatter coefficient of ∼0.0016 (km sr)-1, a lidar ratio of approximately 50 sr, and an aerosol optical depth of 0.26 was observed on 17 May 2001 between 18:55 and 20:07 UT. The layer persisted for approximately five days. Dust layers of lower optical thickness and shorter persistence time have generally been monitored at the lidar site during African dust outbreaks. Results on the chemical and morphological characterization of the dust collected at the lidar station are also given to further support the origin of the monitored aerosol layers.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Muller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Sahara dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 20-1–20-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Muller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “Pollution outbreaks during ACE2, part I: Alofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20723–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, Tim. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20333–20347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Barnaba, G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area and volume: maritime and desert-dust cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3005–3018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, F. Barnaba, R. Giorgi, A. Santacasa, “Altitude-resolved properties of a Sahara dust event over the Mediterranean,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 5119–5127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the Mediterranean basin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22257–22270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Incorporation of mineralogical composition into models of the radiative properties of mineral aerosol from UV to IR wavelenth,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9423–9444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Kottmeier, B. Fay, “Trajectories in the Antarctic lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 10947–10959 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Stohl, “Computation, accuracy and application of trajectories—a review and bibliography,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 947–966 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Ackermann, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 1044–1050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic airborne mineral aerosols,” Nature 381, 681–683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

I. Tegen, I. Fung, “Contribution to the atmospheric mineral aerosol load from land surface modification,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 18707–18726 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

1979 (3)

F. Prodi, G. Fea, “A case of transport and deposition of Sahara dust over the Italian peninsula and southern Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6951–6960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Z. Levin, J. D. Lindberg, “Size distribution, chemical composition, and optical properties of urban and desert aerosols in Israel,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6941–6950 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3797 (1979).
[PubMed]

Ackermann, J.

J. Ackermann, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 1044–1050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Muller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Sahara dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 20-1–20-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Muller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “Pollution outbreaks during ACE2, part I: Alofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20723–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amiridis, V.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Amodeo, A.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

Ancellet, G.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the Mediterranean basin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22257–22270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Muller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Sahara dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 20-1–20-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Muller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “Pollution outbreaks during ACE2, part I: Alofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20723–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Baldasano, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Balis, D.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the Mediterranean basin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22257–22270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

Barnaba, F.

F. Barnaba, G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area and volume: maritime and desert-dust cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3005–3018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, F. Barnaba, R. Giorgi, A. Santacasa, “Altitude-resolved properties of a Sahara dust event over the Mediterranean,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 5119–5127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bockmann, C.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Böckmann, C.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Boselli, A.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Bösenberg, J.

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

J. Bösenberg, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” contract EVR1-CT1999-40003. Scientific report for Feb. 2001–Jan. 2002 (2002) for the European Commission.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Brasseur, L. H.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, Tim. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20333–20347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

Calpini, B.

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Chaikovsky, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Chaykovski, A.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Chazette, P.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the Mediterranean basin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22257–22270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chourdakis, G.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

Comeron, A.

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

D’ Aria, D. M.

J. W. Salisbury, L. S. Walter, N. Vergo, D. M. D’ Aria, Infrared (2.1–25 μm) Spectra of Minerals (John Hopkins Un. Press, Baltimore, Md., 1991).

De Tomasi, F.

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Delaval, A.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

Dubovik, O.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, Tim. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20333–20347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dulac, F.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the Mediterranean basin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22257–22270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eixmann, R.

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

Eixmannm, R.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Esaias, W.

S. B. Hooker, W. Esaias, G. Feldman, W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of the SeaWiFS and ocean color,” SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo.1, 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Evans, K. D.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fay, B.

C. Kottmeier, B. Fay, “Trajectories in the Antarctic lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 10947–10959 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fea, G.

F. Prodi, G. Fea, “A case of transport and deposition of Sahara dust over the Italian peninsula and southern Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6951–6960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G.

S. B. Hooker, W. Esaias, G. Feldman, W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of the SeaWiFS and ocean color,” SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo.1, 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Feltz, W. F.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, Tim. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20333–20347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

Ferrare, R. A.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, Tim. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20333–20347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Franke, K.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Freudenthaler, V.

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Frioud, M.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Fung, I.

I. Tegen, I. Fung, “Contribution to the atmospheric mineral aerosol load from land surface modification,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 18707–18726 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Galani, E.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the Mediterranean basin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22257–22270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Giorgi, R.

G. P. Gobbi, F. Barnaba, R. Giorgi, A. Santacasa, “Altitude-resolved properties of a Sahara dust event over the Mediterranean,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 5119–5127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, G. P.

F. Barnaba, G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area and volume: maritime and desert-dust cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3005–3018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, F. Barnaba, R. Giorgi, A. Santacasa, “Altitude-resolved properties of a Sahara dust event over the Mediterranean,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 5119–5127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gregg, W.

S. B. Hooker, W. Esaias, G. Feldman, W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of the SeaWiFS and ocean color,” SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo.1, 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Hågård, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

Hamonou, E.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the Mediterranean basin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22257–22270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heintzenberg, J.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herber, A.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Muller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “Pollution outbreaks during ACE2, part I: Alofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20723–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, W. Esaias, G. Feldman, W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of the SeaWiFS and ocean color,” SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo.1, 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Iarlori, M.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Komguem, L.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

Kottmeier, C.

C. Kottmeier, B. Fay, “Trajectories in the Antarctic lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 10947–10959 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kreipl, S.

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Lahmann, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Larchêveque, G.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Leifer, R.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levin, Z.

Z. Levin, J. D. Lindberg, “Size distribution, chemical composition, and optical properties of urban and desert aerosols in Israel,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6941–6950 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, J. D.

Z. Levin, J. D. Lindberg, “Size distribution, chemical composition, and optical properties of urban and desert aerosols in Israel,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6941–6950 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Linné, H.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Matthey, R.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

Matthias, V.

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Mattis, I.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Muller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Sahara dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 20-1–20-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Mattis, L.

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

McClain, C. R.

S. B. Hooker, W. Esaias, G. Feldman, W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of the SeaWiFS and ocean color,” SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo.1, 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

McCormick, M. P.

Melfi, S. H.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mitev, V.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Muller, D.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Muller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Sahara dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 20-1–20-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Muller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “Pollution outbreaks during ACE2, part I: Alofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20723–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Papayannis, A.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the Mediterranean basin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22257–22270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Pappalardo, G.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Pelon, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Perrone, M. R.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Persson, R.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Prodi, F.

F. Prodi, G. Fea, “A case of transport and deposition of Sahara dust over the Italian peninsula and southern Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6951–6960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Resendes, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Resendes, D. P.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Riebesell, M.

Rizi, V.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

Rocadenbosch, F.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Rodriguez, J.

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

Rodriguez, J. A.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Russell, P. B.

Salisbury, J. W.

J. W. Salisbury, L. S. Walter, N. Vergo, D. M. D’ Aria, Infrared (2.1–25 μm) Spectra of Minerals (John Hopkins Un. Press, Baltimore, Md., 1991).

Santacasa, A.

G. P. Gobbi, F. Barnaba, R. Giorgi, A. Santacasa, “Altitude-resolved properties of a Sahara dust event over the Mediterranean,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 5119–5127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, Y.

Sauvage, L. J.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Schneider, J.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Schneider, X.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the Mediterranean basin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22257–22270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schumaker, R.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Shcherbakov, V.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Simeonov, V.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Sokolik, I.

I. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic airborne mineral aerosols,” Nature 381, 681–683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sokolik, I. N.

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Incorporation of mineralogical composition into models of the radiative properties of mineral aerosol from UV to IR wavelenth,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9423–9444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, N.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Stohl, A.

A. Stohl, “Computation, accuracy and application of trajectories—a review and bibliography,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 947–966 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

Tegen, I.

I. Tegen, I. Fung, “Contribution to the atmospheric mineral aerosol load from land surface modification,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 18707–18726 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tooman, Tim.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, Tim. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20333–20347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Incorporation of mineralogical composition into models of the radiative properties of mineral aerosol from UV to IR wavelenth,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9423–9444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic airborne mineral aerosols,” Nature 381, 681–683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D. D.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, Tim. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20333–20347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, T. T. G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Vergo, N.

J. W. Salisbury, L. S. Walter, N. Vergo, D. M. D’ Aria, Infrared (2.1–25 μm) Spectra of Minerals (John Hopkins Un. Press, Baltimore, Md., 1991).

Visconti, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, F.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Muller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “Pollution outbreaks during ACE2, part I: Alofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20723–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walter, L. S.

J. W. Salisbury, L. S. Walter, N. Vergo, D. M. D’ Aria, Infrared (2.1–25 μm) Spectra of Minerals (John Hopkins Un. Press, Baltimore, Md., 1991).

Wandinger, U.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Muller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Sahara dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 20-1–20-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Muller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “Pollution outbreaks during ACE2, part I: Alofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20723–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Wang, X.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

Weitkamp, C.

Whiteman, D. N.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wiegner, M.

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Bockmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. T. G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the Twentieth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2000), pp. 155–158.

Zerefos, C.

V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (2)

G. P. Gobbi, F. Barnaba, R. Giorgi, A. Santacasa, “Altitude-resolved properties of a Sahara dust event over the Mediterranean,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 5119–5127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Stohl, “Computation, accuracy and application of trajectories—a review and bibliography,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 947–966 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

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A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
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V. Matthias, C. Böckmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmannm, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchêveque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodriguez, L. J. Sauvage, J. Schneider, R. Schumaker, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, C. Zerefos, “Lidar intercomparison on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Report 337 (Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

V. Freudenthaler, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, B. Calpini, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, L. Mattis, V. Rizi, J. Rodriguez, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, J. Bösenberg, “Intercomparison of 21 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmosphere and Earth Sciences,” proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference, Quebec, Canada, 8–12 July 2002, L. R. Bissonette, G. Roy, G. Valle, ed. (Defence RD Canada-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada, 2002).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental layout of the XeF-based Rayleigh-Raman lidar operating at the University of Lecce (40°20′ N, 18°6′ E). A, field-stop aperture; L’s, lenses; Q, uncoated fused-silica plate; F’s, neutral-density filters; Mn’s, monochromators; Ph’s, photosensors; MCS’s, multichannel scalers; Disc’s, discriminators; and PC, personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Four-day back trajectories for air parcels arriving over the lidar station of Lecce on 3 May at 13:00 UT.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SeaWiFS image taken on 4 May over the eastern Mediterranean Sea and southern Italy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average profiles of the aerosol backscatter coefficient measured at different hours of the day on (a) 3 May and (b) 4 May. The measurement time (UT) is reported on the right side of each profile.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average profiles of the (a) aerosol backscatter coefficient, (b) aerosol extinction coefficient, and (c) lidar ratio retrieved from measurements started on 3 May at 23:40 UT and ended on 4 May at 01:00 UT. The backscatter coefficient profile is smoothed with an average window length of 60 m. Error bars indicate one standard deviation caused by statistical uncertainties and have been calculated from the law of error propagation by assuming a Poisson noise on lidar signals. The extinction profile is calculated by a linear fit of the logarithm of the Raman signal as explained in the text. The error bars are one standard deviation in the slope of the fitting straight line. The fitting intervals are 150 and 300 m below and above 1.2-km height, respectively. The potential temperature profile obtained from radiosonde measurements performed at Brindisi on 3 May at 23:00 UT is shown by dots in (a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Average profiles of (a) aerosol backscatter coefficient, (b) aerosol extinction coefficient, and (c) lidar ratio measured on 4 May from 22:00 to 23:00 UT. The backscatter coefficient profile is smoothed with an average window length of 60 m. The extinction profile is calculated by a linear fit of the logarithm of the Raman signal as explained in the text. The fitting intervals are 150 and 450 m below and above 1.2-km height, respectively. The error bars are one standard deviation in the slope of the fitting straight line. The potential temperature profile obtained from radiosonde measurements performed at Brindisi on 4 May at 23:00 UT is shown by dots in (a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Four-day back trajectories for air parcels arriving over the lidar station of Lecce on 17 May at 19:00 UT.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SeaWiFS image taken on 18 May over the eastern Mediterranean Sea, southern Italy, and Greece.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average profiles of the aerosol backscatter coefficient measured on several days of May 2001. The day and measurement time (UT) are reported on the right side of each profile.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average profiles of the (a) aerosol backscatter coefficient, (b) aerosol extinction coefficient, and, (c) lidar ratio measured on 17 May from 18:55 to 20:07 UT. The backscatter coefficient profile is smoothed with a sliding average length of 60 and 120 m below and above 6 km, respectively. The fitting intervals of the extinction profile are 150 and 450 m below and above 1.2-km height, respectively. The potential temperature profile obtained from radiosonde measurements performed at Brindisi on 17 May at 23:00 UT is shown by dots in (a).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical infrared KBr pellet transmission spectrum of dust samples that have been collected at the lidar station during the dust event of 17 May (solid curve). Dotted curve, the transmission spectrum of illite taken from Ref. 29.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Typical energy dispersive x-ray elemental analysis of the dust samples.

Equations (4)

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βλ0aerz=βλ0aerz0+βλ0molz0PN2z0Pλ0zNN2zPλ0z0PN2zNN2z0×ΔTRz, z0-βλ0molz,
ΔTRz, z0=exp-z0zαN2aerζ+αN2molζdζexp-z0zαλ0aerζ+αλ0molζdζ,
αλ0aerz=d/dzlnN2z/PN2zz2-αλ0molz-αN2molz1+λ0/λ Nk.
Sz=αλ0aerz/βλ0aerz.

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