Abstract

We present a calibration approach for the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) based on the reflectance properties of the instrument’s onboard diffuser. This technique uses SeaWiFS as a reflectometer, measuring the reflected solar irradiance from the Earth and from the onboard diffuser. Because the Sun is the common source of light for both measurements, the ratio of the SeaWiFS-measured radiances from the Earth and the diffuser provide the ratio for the reflectances of the two samples. The reflectance characterization of the onboard diffuser is the calibration reference for this approach. Knowledge of the value of the solar irradiance is not required for these measurements because it falls out of the ratio. Knowledge of the absolute calibration coefficient for the SeaWiFS measurements of each of the two samples is not required either. Instead, the result of the ratioing technique is based on the linearity of the instrument’s response to the intensity of the input light. The calibration requires knowledge, however, of the reflectance of the onboard diffuser at the start of the SeaWiFS mission and the response of the instrument bands, in digital numbers, for measurements of the diffuser at that time.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

2001 (3)

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

C. Fröhlich, “Observations of irradiance variation,” Space Sci. Rev. 94, 15–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. Gobron, B. Pinty, M. Verstraete, Y. Govaerts, “The MERIS global vegetation index (MGVI): description and preliminary application,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1917–1927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Fröhlich, J. Lean, “The sun’s total irradiance: cycles, trends and related climate change uncertainties since 1976,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4377–4380 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. L. Markham, W. C. Boncyk, D. L. Helder, J. L. Barker, “Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus radiometric calibration,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 23, 318–332 (1997).

1996 (1)

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1985 (1)

C. J. Tucker, J. R. G. Townshend, T. E. Goff, “African land-cover classification using satellite data,” Science 227, 369–375 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

J. J. Hsia, V. R. Weidner, “NBS 45-degree/normal reflectometer for absolute reflectance factors,” Metrologia 17, 97–102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Weidner, J. J. Hsia, “Reflection properties of pressed polytetrafluoroethylene powder,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 856–861 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abel, P.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asanuma, I.

J. Nieke, I. Asanuma, K. Tanaka, Y. Tange, “Global Imager’s on-board calibration (VNIR-SWIR),” in Earth Observing Systems VI, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4483, 231–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

Barker, J.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barker, J. L.

B. L. Markham, W. C. Boncyk, D. L. Helder, J. L. Barker, “Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus radiometric calibration,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 23, 318–332 (1997).

Barnes, P. Y.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, A. C. Paar, “Spectral reflectance,” NIST Special Publ. SP 250-48 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).

Barnes, R. A.

R. A. Barnes, E. F. Zalewski, “Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Conversion to radiance,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1648–1660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, “The SeaWiFS solar diffuser,” in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 39, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996), pp. 54–61.

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, Modeling of the SeaWiFS Solar and Lunar Observations, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993).

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, R. A. Barnes, “Second SeaWiFS preflight solar-radiation-based calibration experiment,” in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 27, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 20–24.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, The SeaWiFS Solar Radiation-Based Calibration and the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., “The 1993 SeaWiFS calibration using band-averaged spectral radiances,” in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 40, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 39–47.

Barnes, W.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, Modeling of the SeaWiFS Solar and Lunar Observations, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993).

Barnsley, M. J.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biggar, S. F.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, The SeaWiFS Solar Radiation-Based Calibration and the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, R. A. Barnes, “Second SeaWiFS preflight solar-radiation-based calibration experiment,” in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 27, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 20–24.

Boncyk, W. C.

B. L. Markham, W. C. Boncyk, D. L. Helder, J. L. Barker, “Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus radiometric calibration,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 23, 318–332 (1997).

Bruegge, C. J.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. J.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Caffrey, R. T.

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Clark, D. K.

Defries, R.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Early, E. A.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, A. C. Paar, “Spectral reflectance,” NIST Special Publ. SP 250-48 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).

Eplee, R. E.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, “The SeaWiFS solar diffuser,” in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 39, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996), pp. 54–61.

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, The SeaWiFS Solar Radiation-Based Calibration and the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., “The 1993 SeaWiFS calibration using band-averaged spectral radiances,” in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 40, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 39–47.

Esaias, W. E.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, Modeling of the SeaWiFS Solar and Lunar Observations, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993).

Falkowski, P. G.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldman, G. C.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Field, C. B.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fröhlich, C.

C. Fröhlich, “Observations of irradiance variation,” Space Sci. Rev. 94, 15–24 (2000).
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C. Fröhlich, J. Lean, “The sun’s total irradiance: cycles, trends and related climate change uncertainties since 1976,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4377–4380 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gentili, B.

Giglio, L.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ginsberg, I. W.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C., 1977).

Gobron, N.

N. Gobron, B. Pinty, M. Verstraete, Y. Govaerts, “The MERIS global vegetation index (MGVI): description and preliminary application,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1917–1927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Godden, G.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goff, T. E.

C. J. Tucker, J. R. G. Townshend, T. E. Goff, “African land-cover classification using satellite data,” Science 227, 369–375 (1985).
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Govaerts, Y.

N. Gobron, B. Pinty, M. Verstraete, Y. Govaerts, “The MERIS global vegetation index (MGVI): description and preliminary application,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1917–1927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. K.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harnden, J.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helder, D. L.

B. L. Markham, W. C. Boncyk, D. L. Helder, J. L. Barker, “Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus radiometric calibration,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 23, 318–332 (1997).

Holmes, A. W.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, The SeaWiFS Solar Radiation-Based Calibration and the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, R. A. Barnes, “Second SeaWiFS preflight solar-radiation-based calibration experiment,” in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 27, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 20–24.

Hsia, J. J.

V. R. Weidner, J. J. Hsia, “Reflection properties of pressed polytetrafluoroethylene powder,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 856–861 (1981).
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J. J. Hsia, V. R. Weidner, “NBS 45-degree/normal reflectometer for absolute reflectance factors,” Metrologia 17, 97–102 (1981).
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F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C., 1977).

Huete, A. R.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. J. D. van Leeuwen, A. R. Huete, T. Liang, “Evaluation of the MODIS vegetation index algorithm using SeaWiFS data,” in IGARSS ’98: 1998 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium on Sensing and Managing the Environment, T. I. Stein, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1445–1447.

Johnson, B. C.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Justice, C. O.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knight, E.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knyazikhin, Y.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kolber, D. D.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Labs, D.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lean, J.

C. Fröhlich, J. Lean, “The sun’s total irradiance: cycles, trends and related climate change uncertainties since 1976,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4377–4380 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, P.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T.

W. J. D. van Leeuwen, A. R. Huete, T. Liang, “Evaluation of the MODIS vegetation index algorithm using SeaWiFS data,” in IGARSS ’98: 1998 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium on Sensing and Managing the Environment, T. I. Stein, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1445–1447.

Limperis, T.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C., 1977).

Los, S. O.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucht, W.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Markham, B. L.

B. L. Markham, W. C. Boncyk, D. L. Helder, J. L. Barker, “Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus radiometric calibration,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 23, 318–332 (1997).

McClain, C. R.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, Modeling of the SeaWiFS Solar and Lunar Observations, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993).

Mecherikunnel, A. T.

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, Modeling of the SeaWiFS Solar and Lunar Observations, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993).

Montgomery, H.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

Muller, J.-P.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Myneni, R. B.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neckel, H.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nemani, R. R.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nicodemus, F. E.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C., 1977).

Nieke, J.

J. Nieke, I. Asanuma, K. Tanaka, Y. Tange, “Global Imager’s on-board calibration (VNIR-SWIR),” in Earth Observing Systems VI, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4483, 231–241 (2002).
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Paar, A. C.

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, A. C. Paar, “Spectral reflectance,” NIST Special Publ. SP 250-48 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).

Palmer, J. M.

J. M. Palmer, P. N. Slater, “A ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. G. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1493, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F. S.

Pavlov, M. M.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pinty, B.

N. Gobron, B. Pinty, M. Verstraete, Y. Govaerts, “The MERIS global vegetation index (MGVI): description and preliminary application,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1917–1927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, N. H.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Privette, J. L.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Randerson, J. T.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
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Rao, C. R. N.

C. R. N. Rao, “Pre-launch calibration of channels 1 and 2 of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer,” NOAA Tech. Rep. NESDIS 36 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C., 1987).

Richmond, J. C.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C., 1977).

Riggs, G.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roberto, M.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W. D.

Roy, D. P.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Running, S. W.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salomonson, V. V.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, G. M.

Slater, P. N.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Palmer, P. N. Slater, “A ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. G. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1493, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, R. A. Barnes, “Second SeaWiFS preflight solar-radiation-based calibration experiment,” in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 27, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 20–24.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, The SeaWiFS Solar Radiation-Based Calibration and the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Spyak, P. R.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strahler, A.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Svitek, T.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Tanaka, K.

J. Nieke, I. Asanuma, K. Tanaka, Y. Tange, “Global Imager’s on-board calibration (VNIR-SWIR),” in Earth Observing Systems VI, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4483, 231–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tange, Y.

J. Nieke, I. Asanuma, K. Tanaka, Y. Tange, “Global Imager’s on-board calibration (VNIR-SWIR),” in Earth Observing Systems VI, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4483, 231–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thome, K. J.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, The SeaWiFS Solar Radiation-Based Calibration and the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, R. A. Barnes, “Second SeaWiFS preflight solar-radiation-based calibration experiment,” in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 27, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 20–24.

Townshend, J. R. G.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tucker, J. R. G. Townshend, T. E. Goff, “African land-cover classification using satellite data,” Science 227, 369–375 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tucker, C. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Tucker, J. R. G. Townshend, T. E. Goff, “African land-cover classification using satellite data,” Science 227, 369–375 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, W.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, W. J. D.

W. J. D. van Leeuwen, A. R. Huete, T. Liang, “Evaluation of the MODIS vegetation index algorithm using SeaWiFS data,” in IGARSS ’98: 1998 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium on Sensing and Managing the Environment, T. I. Stein, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1445–1447.

Vermote, E.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verstraete, M.

N. Gobron, B. Pinty, M. Verstraete, Y. Govaerts, “The MERIS global vegetation index (MGVI): description and preliminary application,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1917–1927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Z.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Weber, R.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weidner, V. R.

J. J. Hsia, V. R. Weidner, “NBS 45-degree/normal reflectometer for absolute reflectance factors,” Metrologia 17, 97–102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Weidner, J. J. Hsia, “Reflection properties of pressed polytetrafluoroethylene powder,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 856–861 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

Wolfe, R. E.

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, R. H.

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, Modeling of the SeaWiFS Solar and Lunar Observations, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993).

Zalewski, E. F.

R. A. Barnes, E. F. Zalewski, “Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Conversion to radiance,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1648–1660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, The SeaWiFS Solar Radiation-Based Calibration and the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Can. J. Remote Sens. (1)

B. L. Markham, W. C. Boncyk, D. L. Helder, J. L. Barker, “Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus radiometric calibration,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 23, 318–332 (1997).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

C. Fröhlich, J. Lean, “The sun’s total irradiance: cycles, trends and related climate change uncertainties since 1976,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4377–4380 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

C. O. Justice, E. Vermote, J. R. G. Townshend, R. Defries, D. P. Roy, D. K. Hall, V. V. Salomonson, J. L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S. W. Running, R. R. Nemani, Z. Wan, A. R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R. E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. J. Barnsley, “The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1228–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

N. Gobron, B. Pinty, M. Verstraete, Y. Govaerts, “The MERIS global vegetation index (MGVI): description and preliminary application,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1917–1927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (2)

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Metrologia (1)

J. J. Hsia, V. R. Weidner, “NBS 45-degree/normal reflectometer for absolute reflectance factors,” Metrologia 17, 97–102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

C. J. Tucker, J. R. G. Townshend, T. E. Goff, “African land-cover classification using satellite data,” Science 227, 369–375 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Phys. (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

C. Fröhlich, “Observations of irradiance variation,” Space Sci. Rev. 94, 15–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 23, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, “The SeaWiFS solar diffuser,” in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 39, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996), pp. 54–61.

Hughes Santa Barbara Research Center (now Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing), SeaWiFS Critical Design Review, 18–19 December 1991 (Santa Barbara Research Center, Goleta, Calif., 1991).

J. M. Palmer, P. N. Slater, “A ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. G. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1493, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, Modeling of the SeaWiFS Solar and Lunar Observations, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993).

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C., 1977).

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, A. C. Paar, “Spectral reflectance,” NIST Special Publ. SP 250-48 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).

C. R. N. Rao, “Pre-launch calibration of channels 1 and 2 of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer,” NOAA Tech. Rep. NESDIS 36 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C., 1987).

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 4, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, R. A. Barnes, “Second SeaWiFS preflight solar-radiation-based calibration experiment,” in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 27, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 20–24.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, The SeaWiFS Solar Radiation-Based Calibration and the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-206892, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

J. Nieke, I. Asanuma, K. Tanaka, Y. Tange, “Global Imager’s on-board calibration (VNIR-SWIR),” in Earth Observing Systems VI, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4483, 231–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., “The 1993 SeaWiFS calibration using band-averaged spectral radiances,” in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 40, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 39–47.

NOAA, NOAA Global Vegetation Index (GVI) User’s Guide, (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Camp Springs, Md., 1997); see http://www2.ncdc.noaa.goc/docs/gviug/index.htm .

W. J. D. van Leeuwen, A. R. Huete, T. Liang, “Evaluation of the MODIS vegetation index algorithm using SeaWiFS data,” in IGARSS ’98: 1998 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium on Sensing and Managing the Environment, T. I. Stein, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1445–1447.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the SeaWiFS scanner. The solar diffuser (solar calibrator) assembly is pointed aft of the spacecraft’s direction of flight.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the solar diffuser assembly mounted to the SeaWiFS scanner.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffuser attenuator plate performance characteristics as predicted at the SeaWiFS Critical Design Review on 18 and 19 December 1991.11 The solar yaw angles were predicted to have a range on orbit of approximately ±6° about zero yaw at the input aperture of the diffuser assembly. At ±6°, the transmittance of the attenuator plate was predicted to be approximately 96% of that at zero yaw.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectances for the eight SeaWiFS bands. The estimated uncertainty for these measurements is 3%. See text for details.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Atmospheric transmittances during the ground portion of the transfer-to-orbit experiment. The symbols give the measurements from the sunphotometer. The curve gives the derived atmospheric transmittance spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of the transfer-to-orbit experiment for the eight SeaWiFS bands. These are the differences of the on-orbit measurements of the Sun from those predicted from the ground measurements prelaunch. At the 3% level, there is no sign of change in the reflectance of the SeaWiFS diffuser from its laboratory characterization to the start of on-orbit operations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Solar diffuser measurements for SeaWiFS band 1. The measurements are made on a nearly daily basis. They are given as DNs. (a) Uncorrected measurements of the diffuser. (b) Measurements corrected for the Earth-Sun distance and for the temperature dependence of the focal plane for SeaWiFS band 1. The distance correction is to 1 AU and the temperature correction is to 20 °C.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Focal-plane temperature (FPT) effect for SeaWiFS band 1. The effect is calculated by Eq. (9). (a) Focal-plane temperature. (b) Focal-plane temperature effect.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Correction for the long-term changes in the radiometric sensitivity of SeaWiFS band 1. (a) Band 1 response normalized to unity on the day of launch.4 (b) Diffuser measurements after the correction for the change in the instrument response. The measurements without the correction for this change are shown in Fig. 7(b).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Pitch and (b) yaw angles for the measurement set.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Band 1 solar diffuser measurements at -1.5° yaw angle. There are eight days for which the yaw angles are -1.5°, from day 111 after launch to day 799 after launch. (a) Yaw angles for the measurement set. The line connects to values at -1.5° yaw. (b) Band 1 measurements from day 111 to day 799. These measurements come from Fig. 9(b). The curve gives the spline interpolation of the DN on the eight days for which the yaw angle is -1.5°.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Ratios of the band 1 diffuser measurements to the values at -1.5° yaw. The measurements for these plots come from Fig. 11(b). Because each measurement has its own yaw angle, the abscissas of these plots are given in terms of yaw. (a) Ratios to the values at -1.5° yaw. The ratios are fitted to a fourth-order polynomial. The fitted curve is hidden by the data points. (b) The fitted curve from Fig. 12(a). The maximum value for the curve is 1.001 at a yaw angle of -0.8°. For use as a correction factor, the curve is normalized to a maximum value of unity.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Band 1 solar diffuser measurements corrected for the effects of yaw-angle changes. In addition, the effects of the Earth-Sun distance and the changes in the long-term instrument response were removed. The results were fitted to two curves: a first-order polynomial from day zero to day 75; and a ninth-order polynomial for day 75 and longer. (a) Measured results and the fitted curves. For most of the panel, the fitted curves are hidden by the data points. (b) Fitted curves from Fig. 13(a).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Gain ratios for the SeaWiFS solar measurements for the 400 days after launch. For band 2, the solar measurements are made at the standard gain for Earth measurements, gain 1. For the other bands, the measurements are made at gain 3. For each band, the ratios are determined from measurements of an internally generated electronic calibration pulse.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Diffuser reflectance changes for the 400 days after the SeaWiFS launch. The values in each panel are normalized to unity at the launch date, and each panel contains the DN at the launch date.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nominal Center Wavelengths for the SeaWiFS Bands

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Table 2 Characteristics of the Fourth-Order Polynomial Curves Used to Describe the Yaw-Angle Dependence of the SeaWiFS Diffuser Assemblya

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Table 3 Components of the Calculation of the Calibration Coefficient kF (t 0 )

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Table 4 Comparison of the Values of DND (t 0 ) with Those Predicted for the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment a

Equations (16)

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FλϕI, θI= LλEλ cosθI,
Eλ= EM,λDES2,
Lλ=DN-DN0k2g,
DN-DN0= Lλk2g= EM,λFλϕI, θIcosθIDES2k2g.
k2g= LBDN-DN0= λ1λ2 LλRλdλλ1λ2 RλdλDN-DN0,
DN-DN0TOA= cosθIDTOA2k2gTOA× λ1λ2 EM,λFλϕI, θIRλdλλ1λ2 Rλdλ.
DN-DN0GND= cosθIDGND2k2gGND× λ1λ2 EM,λFλϕI, θITλRλdλλ1λ2 Rλdλ.
DN-DN0TOADN-DN0GND= DGND2k2gGNDDTOA2k2gTOA× λ1λ2 EM,λFλϕI, θIRλdλλ1λ2 EM,λFλϕI, θITλRλdλ.
EFPT=1+k3T-TREF,
REt=πFEt=DNt-DN0tEDES2tcosθIπkFt0αt0×ΔGt-1ΔFt-1,
kFt0= FDt0DNDt0GRt0-1,
FEt0DNEt0cosθIDES2t0= FDt0DNDt01GRt0-1,
LTt=DNt-DN0tEk2t0αt0×1-β1-γ exp-δt-1,
REt=πFEt=DNt-DN0tEDES2tcosθIπkFt0αt0×1-β1-γ exp-δt-1.
NDVI= RS865-RS670RS865+RS670,
EVI= RS865-RS670RS865+C1RS670-C2RS443+L×1+L,

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