Abstract

A fully polarimetric optical camera system has been constructed to obtain polarimetric information simultaneously from four synchronized charge-coupled device imagers at video frame rates of 60 Hz and a resolution of 640 × 480 pixels. The imagers view the same scene along the same optical axis by means of a four-way beam-splitting prism similar to ones used for multiple-imager, common-aperture color TV cameras. Appropriate polarizing filters in front of each imager provide the polarimetric information. Mueller matrix analysis of the polarimetric response of the prism, analyzing filters, and imagers is applied to the detected intensities in each imager as a function of the applied state of polarization over a wide range of linear and circular polarization combinations to obtain an average polarimetric calibration consistent to ∼2%. Higher accuracies can be obtained by improvement of the polarimetric modeling of the splitting prism and by implementation of a pixel-by-pixel calibration.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. Guyenot, G. Tittlebach, M. Palme, “Adjustment of multi-CCD-chip-color-camera heads,” in Optomechanical Engineering and Vibration Control, E. A. Derby, C. G. Gordon, D. Vukobratovich, P. R. Yoder, C. Zweben, eds., Proc. SPIE3786, 402–412 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. J. S. Tyo, “Design of optimal polarimeters: maximization of signal-to-noise ratio and minimization of systematic error,” Appl. Opt. 41, 619–630 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. N. Moisseev, C. M. H. Unal, H. W. J. Russchenberg, L. P. Lighart, “Radar Doppler polarimetry: a new approach for characterization of radar targets,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 261–269 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Baum, “Dual polarization wave clutter reduction,” U.S. patent5,805,106 (8September1998).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. J. Duggin, G. J. Kinn, E. Bohling, “Vegetative target enhancement in natural scenes using multiband polarization methods,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 268–277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. G. Egan, M. J. Duggin, “Optical enhancement of aircraft detection using polarization,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 172–178 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. I. Sano, S. Mukai, T. Takashima, “Polarimetric properties of atmospheric aerosols,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 361–369 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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2002 (1)

1996 (1)

Abushagur, M. A. G.

A. M. El-Saba, M. A. G. Abushagur, “Diffractive-optical-element-based photopolarimeter,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 260–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barter, J. D.

J. D. Barter, P. H. Y. Lee, “Polarimetric optical imaging of scattering surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6015–6027 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Barter, P. H. Y. Lee, “Visible Stokes polarimetric imager,” U.S. patent6,122,404 (19September2000).

Baum, E.

E. Baum, “Dual polarization wave clutter reduction,” U.S. patent5,805,106 (8September1998).

Blumer, R. V.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 202–213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bohling, E.

M. J. Duggin, G. J. Kinn, E. Bohling, “Vegetative target enhancement in natural scenes using multiband polarization methods,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 268–277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, G.

L. C. Labonnote, G. Brogniez, J.-F. Gayet, J.-C. Buriez, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, “Modeling of polarized light scattering in cirrus clouds: validation with in-situ measurements and ADEO-SPOLDER reflectance observations,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 320–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buriez, J.-C.

L. C. Labonnote, G. Brogniez, J.-F. Gayet, J.-C. Buriez, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, “Modeling of polarized light scattering in cirrus clouds: validation with in-situ measurements and ADEO-SPOLDER reflectance observations,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 320–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

P.-Y. Gerligand, R. A. Chipman, E. A. Sornsin, M. H. Smith, “Polarization signatures of spherical and conical targets measured by Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 63–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chun, C. S. L.

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, W. A. Harvey, E. J. Torok, “Polarization-sensitive infrared sensor for target discrimination,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 55–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cloude, S. R.

S. R. Cloude, G. D. Lewis, “Eigenvalue analysis of Mueller matrices for bead blasted aluminum surfaces,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 10–23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deuze, J. L.

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Aerosol retrieval using the POLDER instrument: preliminary results,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 342–350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Doutriaux-Boucher, M.

L. C. Labonnote, G. Brogniez, J.-F. Gayet, J.-C. Buriez, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, “Modeling of polarized light scattering in cirrus clouds: validation with in-situ measurements and ADEO-SPOLDER reflectance observations,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 320–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duggin, M. J.

M. J. Duggin, G. J. Kinn, E. Bohling, “Vegetative target enhancement in natural scenes using multiband polarization methods,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 268–277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Egan, M. J. Duggin, “Optical enhancement of aircraft detection using polarization,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 172–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Egan, W. G.

W. G. Egan, M. J. Duggin, “Optical enhancement of aircraft detection using polarization,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 172–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

El-Saba, A. M.

A. M. El-Saba, M. A. G. Abushagur, “Diffractive-optical-element-based photopolarimeter,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 260–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, D. L.

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, W. A. Harvey, E. J. Torok, “Polarization-sensitive infrared sensor for target discrimination,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 55–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gayet, J.-F.

L. C. Labonnote, G. Brogniez, J.-F. Gayet, J.-C. Buriez, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, “Modeling of polarized light scattering in cirrus clouds: validation with in-situ measurements and ADEO-SPOLDER reflectance observations,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 320–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gerligand, P.-Y.

P.-Y. Gerligand, R. A. Chipman, E. A. Sornsin, M. H. Smith, “Polarization signatures of spherical and conical targets measured by Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 63–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Aerosol retrieval using the POLDER instrument: preliminary results,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 342–350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guyenot, V.

V. Guyenot, G. Tittlebach, M. Palme, “Adjustment of multi-CCD-chip-color-camera heads,” in Optomechanical Engineering and Vibration Control, E. A. Derby, C. G. Gordon, D. Vukobratovich, P. R. Yoder, C. Zweben, eds., Proc. SPIE3786, 402–412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, W. A.

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, W. A. Harvey, E. J. Torok, “Polarization-sensitive infrared sensor for target discrimination,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 55–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Aerosol retrieval using the POLDER instrument: preliminary results,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 342–350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Howe, J. D.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 202–213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, D. L.

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, S. D. Niven, “Comparison of visible and infrared backscattering Mueller matrices from roughened aluminium surfaces,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 266–276 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kinn, G. J.

M. J. Duggin, G. J. Kinn, E. Bohling, “Vegetative target enhancement in natural scenes using multiband polarization methods,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 268–277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Labonnote, L. C.

L. C. Labonnote, G. Brogniez, J.-F. Gayet, J.-C. Buriez, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, “Modeling of polarized light scattering in cirrus clouds: validation with in-situ measurements and ADEO-SPOLDER reflectance observations,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 320–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. H. Y.

J. D. Barter, P. H. Y. Lee, “Polarimetric optical imaging of scattering surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6015–6027 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Barter, P. H. Y. Lee, “Visible Stokes polarimetric imager,” U.S. patent6,122,404 (19September2000).

Lewis, G. D.

S. R. Cloude, G. D. Lewis, “Eigenvalue analysis of Mueller matrices for bead blasted aluminum surfaces,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 10–23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, S. D. Niven, “Comparison of visible and infrared backscattering Mueller matrices from roughened aluminium surfaces,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 266–276 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lighart, L. P.

D. N. Moisseev, C. M. H. Unal, H. W. J. Russchenberg, L. P. Lighart, “Radar Doppler polarimetry: a new approach for characterization of radar targets,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 261–269 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, A.

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Aerosol retrieval using the POLDER instrument: preliminary results,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 342–350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M. A.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 202–213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moisseev, D. N.

D. N. Moisseev, C. M. H. Unal, H. W. J. Russchenberg, L. P. Lighart, “Radar Doppler polarimetry: a new approach for characterization of radar targets,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 261–269 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, S.

I. Sano, S. Mukai, T. Takashima, “Polarimetric properties of atmospheric aerosols,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 361–369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Niven, S. D.

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, S. D. Niven, “Comparison of visible and infrared backscattering Mueller matrices from roughened aluminium surfaces,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 266–276 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palme, M.

V. Guyenot, G. Tittlebach, M. Palme, “Adjustment of multi-CCD-chip-color-camera heads,” in Optomechanical Engineering and Vibration Control, E. A. Derby, C. G. Gordon, D. Vukobratovich, P. R. Yoder, C. Zweben, eds., Proc. SPIE3786, 402–412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petty, T. E.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 202–213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Russchenberg, H. W. J.

D. N. Moisseev, C. M. H. Unal, H. W. J. Russchenberg, L. P. Lighart, “Radar Doppler polarimetry: a new approach for characterization of radar targets,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 261–269 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sano, I.

I. Sano, S. Mukai, T. Takashima, “Polarimetric properties of atmospheric aerosols,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 361–369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. H.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 202–213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-Y. Gerligand, R. A. Chipman, E. A. Sornsin, M. H. Smith, “Polarization signatures of spherical and conical targets measured by Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 63–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sornsin, E. A.

P.-Y. Gerligand, R. A. Chipman, E. A. Sornsin, M. H. Smith, “Polarization signatures of spherical and conical targets measured by Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 63–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M. A.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 202–213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, T.

I. Sano, S. Mukai, T. Takashima, “Polarimetric properties of atmospheric aerosols,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 361–369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Aerosol retrieval using the POLDER instrument: preliminary results,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 342–350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Teale, D. M.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 202–213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tittlebach, G.

V. Guyenot, G. Tittlebach, M. Palme, “Adjustment of multi-CCD-chip-color-camera heads,” in Optomechanical Engineering and Vibration Control, E. A. Derby, C. G. Gordon, D. Vukobratovich, P. R. Yoder, C. Zweben, eds., Proc. SPIE3786, 402–412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Torok, E. J.

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, W. A. Harvey, E. J. Torok, “Polarization-sensitive infrared sensor for target discrimination,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 55–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tyo, J. S.

Unal, C. M. H.

D. N. Moisseev, C. M. H. Unal, H. W. J. Russchenberg, L. P. Lighart, “Radar Doppler polarimetry: a new approach for characterization of radar targets,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 261–269 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Other (17)

D. N. Moisseev, C. M. H. Unal, H. W. J. Russchenberg, L. P. Lighart, “Radar Doppler polarimetry: a new approach for characterization of radar targets,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 261–269 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Baum, “Dual polarization wave clutter reduction,” U.S. patent5,805,106 (8September1998).

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, W. A. Harvey, E. J. Torok, “Polarization-sensitive infrared sensor for target discrimination,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 55–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Cloude, G. D. Lewis, “Eigenvalue analysis of Mueller matrices for bead blasted aluminum surfaces,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 10–23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Aerosol retrieval using the POLDER instrument: preliminary results,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 342–350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Duggin, G. J. Kinn, E. Bohling, “Vegetative target enhancement in natural scenes using multiband polarization methods,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 268–277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Egan, M. J. Duggin, “Optical enhancement of aircraft detection using polarization,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 172–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-Y. Gerligand, R. A. Chipman, E. A. Sornsin, M. H. Smith, “Polarization signatures of spherical and conical targets measured by Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 63–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 202–213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Labonnote, G. Brogniez, J.-F. Gayet, J.-C. Buriez, M. Doutriaux-Boucher, “Modeling of polarized light scattering in cirrus clouds: validation with in-situ measurements and ADEO-SPOLDER reflectance observations,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 320–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, S. D. Niven, “Comparison of visible and infrared backscattering Mueller matrices from roughened aluminium surfaces,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 266–276 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Sano, S. Mukai, T. Takashima, “Polarimetric properties of atmospheric aerosols,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 361–369 (1997).
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M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, W. L. Wolfe, eds., Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. II, Chap. 22.

V. Guyenot, G. Tittlebach, M. Palme, “Adjustment of multi-CCD-chip-color-camera heads,” in Optomechanical Engineering and Vibration Control, E. A. Derby, C. G. Gordon, D. Vukobratovich, P. R. Yoder, C. Zweben, eds., Proc. SPIE3786, 402–412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

See Richter Enterprises at http://www.techexpo.com/www/richter/ .

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A. M. El-Saba, M. A. G. Abushagur, “Diffractive-optical-element-based photopolarimeter,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 260–265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the VISPI camera head illustrating the relationships of the input bandpass filter, zoom lens, image relay optics, multiple-output beam-splitting prism, polarization filters, imagers, and micropositioners. The fourth output channel of the prism is directed out of the plane of the paper and was omitted for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the beam-splitting prism as offered commercially for TV applications. Used by permission of Richter Enterprises (http://www.techexpo.com/WWW/richter/).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of a high-contrast alignment target with sharp horizontal and vertical edges to highlight any misalignment between imagers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Linear polarizer rotation. Stokes parameter reconstruction of the calibration circuit [Eq. (4.7)] that demonstrates calibration variances of 2%. The polarization state presented to the instrument is indicated by the continuous curves whereas the calibrated measurements are indicated by the symbols.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linear retarder rotation. Stokes parameter reconstruction of the calibration circuit [Eq. (4.8)] with ηPOL = 90° that demonstrates variances of 2%. The departure of s 0 from 1 is caused by the slight attenuation of the λ/4 retarder.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Linear retarder rotation. Stokes parameter reconstruction of the calibration circuit [Eq. (4.8)] with ηPOL = -45° that demonstrates 5% accuracy over the remainder of the Poincaré surface. The departure of s 0 from 1 is caused by the slight attenuation of the λ/4 retarder.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Linear retarder rotation. Stokes parameter reconstruction of the calibration circuit [Eq. (4.8)] with ηPOL = 0° that demonstrates 5% accuracy over the remainder of the Poincaré surface. The departure of s 0 from 1 is caused by the slight attenuation of the λ/4 retarder.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Linear retarder rotation. Stokes parameter reconstruction of the calibration circuit [Eq. (4.8)] with ηPOL = 45° that demonstrates 5% accuracy over the remainder of the Poincaré surface. The departure of s 0 from 1 is caused by the slight attenuation of the λ/4 retarder.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diagram of the flight viewing geometry. FOV, field of view; 2000 ft (610 m); 1400 ft (427 m).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Polarimetric view of the cultivated fields and a freeway. The flight path is east (90°) with the Sun at 207° as indicated. The camera system is mounted sideways such that the flight direction is right to left in the image and the plane of incidence is horizontal. Thus the directions of s and p polarizations for the image are reversed from the normal geometry. The upper-left panel is the normalized irradiance image I = Σ 0/Σ 0max in gray scale. The upper-right panel is the normalized horizontal-vertical plane polarization image -1 ≤ s 1 ≤ 1. The lower-left panel is the normalized oblique polarization image -1 ≤ s 2 ≤ 1, and the lower-right panel is the degree of circular polarization -1 ≤ s 3 ≤ 1. Color scales and the polarization orientations in the image are indicated. lcp, left-circularly polarized; rcp, right-circularly polarized.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Same field of view as Fig. 4 presenting the orientation of the plane of polarization -90° ≤ η ≤ 90° in the upper-left panel. The total degree of polarization 0 ≤ DOP ≤ 1 is presented in the upper-right panel, the degree of linear polarization 0 ≤ DOLP ≤ 1 is presented in the lower-left panel, and the degree of circular polarization 0 ≤ DOCP ≤ 1 is presented in the lower-right panel.

Equations (11)

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jΨ=jψ11jψ1njψ1nmaxjψm1jψmnjψmnmaxjψmmax1jψmmaxnjψmmaxnmax,
0r · Σ =0αQinc10020g-1020g1-0g1/2000020g1-0g1/2020g-1001 ·120q-10020q-11000020q1-0q1/2 cos 0δ20q1-0q1/2 sin 0δ00-20q1-0q1/2 sin 0δ20q1-0q1/2 cos 0δ1s1s2s3,
1r · Σ =1αQinc1cos 21ηsin 21η0cos 21ηcos2 21ηsin 21η cos 21η0sin 21ηsin 21η cos 21ηsin2 21η000001000010000cos1 δsin1 δ00-sin1 δcos1 δ1s1s2s3,
2r · Σ =2αQinc10-100000-10100000122q-10022q-11000022q1-2q1/2 cos 2δ22q1-2q1/2 sin 2δ00-22q1-2q1/2 sin 2δ22q1-2q1/2 cos 2δ· 1s1s2s3,
3r · Σ =3αQinc10-100000-10100000123q-10023q-11000023q1-3q1/2 cos 323q1-3q1/2 sin 300-23q1-3q1/2 sin 323q1-3q1/2 cos 3· 1s1s2s3,
I=R · Σ+O,
Σ=R-1 · I-O.
sPOL=1cos 2ηPOLsin 2ηPOL0,
sRET=1cos 2ηPOLcos2 2ηRET+cos δRETsin2 2ηRET+sin 2ηPOL sin 2ηRET cos 2ηRET1-cos δRETcos 2ηPOL sin 2ηRET cos 2ηRET1-cos δRET+sin 2ηPOLcos2 2ηRET+cos δRETsin2 2ηRETcos 2ηPOL sin 2ηRET sin δRET-sin 2ηPOL cos 2ηRET sin δRET,
Σ=Σ0Σ1Σ2Σ3=PH+PVPH-PVP45-P135PR-PL=Σ0s=Σ01s1s2s3,
DOPdegree of polarization=s12+s22+s321/2,DOLPdegree of linear polarization=s12+s221/2,η orientation of polarization plane=12tan-1s2s1,DOCPdegree of circular polarization=|s3|.

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