Abstract

Remote sensing from space has become a common method for deriving geophysical parameters such as atmospheric temperature and composition. The Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) instrument was designed to sound the middle and the upper atmosphere (10–180 km) with high spatial resolution. Atmospheric IR emissions were measured with Si:Ga bulk or Si:As blocked impurity band detectors for a wavelength interval of 4–17 μm and Ge:Ga bulk detectors for 56–71 μm. An overview of the calibration of the instrument and the correction of detector signal relaxations for the Si:Ga detectors are given, both of which are necessary to provide high-quality IR radiance data as input for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and trace gas mixing ratios. Laboratory and flight data are shown to demonstrate the quality of the results.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. D. Eckermann, P. Preusse, “Global measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space,” Science 286, 1534–1537 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. J. Fetzer, J. C. Gille, “Gravity wave variance in LIMS temperatures, 1. Variability and comparison with background winds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 2461–2483 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, “Inversion of limb radiance measurements: an operational algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2757–2774 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. L. Gordley, J. M. Russell, “Rapid inversion of limb radiance data using an emissivity growth approximation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 807–813 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “Linepak: algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  18. N. M. Haegel, D. R. Palmieri, A. M. White, “Current transients in extrinsic photoconductors: comprehensive analytical description of initial response,” Appl. Phys. 73, 433–439 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. I. Fouks, J. Schubert, “Precise theoretical description of photoresponse for detectors of ISOPHOT’s Si.Ga array,” in Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE2475, 487–498 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Ern, “Relaxationseffekte der CRISTA-Infrarotdetektoren und ihre Korrektur,” Ph.D. dissertation WUB-DIS 2000-4 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 2000).
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  23. P. Preusse, “Vorbereitung der Eichung der CRISTA Spektrometer,” Diploma Thesis WU D 94-45 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 1995).
  24. J. Schubert, B. I. Fouks, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Transient response of ISOPHOT Si:Ga photodetectors: experimental results and application of the theory of nonstationary processes,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 461–469 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. A. Acosta-Pulido, C. Gabriel, H. O. Castañeda, “Transient effects in ISOPHOT data: status of modeling and correction procedures,” Exp. Astron. 10, 333–346 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Coulais, A. Abergel, “Transient correction of the LW-ISOCAM data for low-contrast illumination,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 533–544 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. E. Church, M. C. Price, N. M. Haegel, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, “Transient response in doped germanium photoconductors under very low background operation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1597–1604 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Ern, K. U. Grossmann, D. Offermann, “Detector signal relaxations and their correction: the Si:Ga bulk detectors of the CRISTA instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4486, 111–121 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. M. Haegel, W. R. Schwartz, J. Zinter, A. M. White, J. W. Beeman, “Origin of the hook effect in extrinsic photoconductors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5748–5754 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Haegel, D. R. Palmieri, A. M. White, “Current transients in extrinsic photoconductors: comprehensive analytical description of initial response,” Appl. Phys. 73, 433–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. U. Grossmann, “Recent improvements in middle atmosphere remote sounding techniques: the CRISTA-SPAS experiment,” in Atmospheric Science across the Stratopause, Geophys. Monogr. 123, 287–304 (2000).

J. A. Acosta-Pulido, C. Gabriel, H. O. Castañeda, “Transient effects in ISOPHOT data: status of modeling and correction procedures,” Exp. Astron. 10, 333–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Coulais, A. Abergel, “Transient correction of the LW-ISOCAM data for low-contrast illumination,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 533–544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Eckermann, P. Preusse, “Global measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space,” Science 286, 1534–1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Haegel, J. C. Simoes, A. M. White, J. W. Beeman, “Transient behavior of infrared photoconductors: application of a numerical model,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1910–1919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “Linepak: algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Marshall, L. L. Gordley, D. A. Chu, “Bandpak: algorithms for modeling broadband transmission and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 581–599 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fetzer, J. C. Gille, “Gravity wave variance in LIMS temperatures, 1. Variability and comparison with background winds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 2461–2483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. 56, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, “Inversion of limb radiance measurements: an operational algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2757–2774 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981

1971

J. C. Gille, F. B. House, “On the inversion of limb radiance measurements. Part I. Temperature and thickness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1427–1442 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abergel, A.

A. Coulais, A. Abergel, “Transient correction of the LW-ISOCAM data for low-contrast illumination,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 533–544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Acosta-Pulido, J. A.

J. A. Acosta-Pulido, C. Gabriel, H. O. Castañeda, “Transient effects in ISOPHOT data: status of modeling and correction procedures,” Exp. Astron. 10, 333–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ade, P. A. R.

Bacmeister, J.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bacmeister, J. T.

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, P. L.

P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, “Inversion of limb radiance measurements: an operational algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2757–2774 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Barthol, P.

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beeman, J. W.

Broutman, D.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Castañeda, H. O.

J. A. Acosta-Pulido, C. Gabriel, H. O. Castañeda, “Transient effects in ISOPHOT data: status of modeling and correction procedures,” Exp. Astron. 10, 333–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, D. A.

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “Linepak: algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Marshall, L. L. Gordley, D. A. Chu, “Bandpak: algorithms for modeling broadband transmission and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 581–599 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Church, S. E.

Coulais, A.

A. Coulais, A. Abergel, “Transient correction of the LW-ISOCAM data for low-contrast illumination,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 533–544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dörnbrack, A.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eckermann, S. D.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Eckermann, P. Preusse, “Global measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space,” Science 286, 1534–1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elkins, J. W.

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ern, M.

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Ern, “Relaxationseffekte der CRISTA-Infrarotdetektoren und ihre Korrektur,” Ph.D. dissertation WUB-DIS 2000-4 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 2000).

M. Ern, K. U. Grossmann, D. Offermann, “Detector signal relaxations and their correction: the Si:Ga bulk detectors of the CRISTA instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4486, 111–121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fetzer, E. J.

E. J. Fetzer, J. C. Gille, “Gravity wave variance in LIMS temperatures, 1. Variability and comparison with background winds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 2461–2483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fouks, B. I.

B. I. Fouks, “On problems of operation of low-background IR detectors,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 489–500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Fouks, J. Schubert, “Precise theoretical description of photoresponse for detectors of ISOPHOT’s Si.Ga array,” in Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE2475, 487–498 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Schubert, B. I. Fouks, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Transient response of ISOPHOT Si:Ga photodetectors: experimental results and application of the theory of nonstationary processes,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 461–469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gabriel, C.

J. A. Acosta-Pulido, C. Gabriel, H. O. Castañeda, “Transient effects in ISOPHOT data: status of modeling and correction procedures,” Exp. Astron. 10, 333–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gille, J. C.

E. J. Fetzer, J. C. Gille, “Gravity wave variance in LIMS temperatures, 1. Variability and comparison with background winds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 2461–2483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, “Inversion of limb radiance measurements: an operational algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2757–2774 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, F. B. House, “On the inversion of limb radiance measurements. Part I. Temperature and thickness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1427–1442 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Giovannelli, J.-F.

A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gordley, L. L.

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “Linepak: algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Marshall, L. L. Gordley, D. A. Chu, “Bandpak: algorithms for modeling broadband transmission and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 581–599 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Gordley, J. M. Russell, “Rapid inversion of limb radiance data using an emissivity growth approximation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 807–813 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffin, M. J.

Grossmann, K. U.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. U. Grossmann, “Recent improvements in middle atmosphere remote sounding techniques: the CRISTA-SPAS experiment,” in Atmospheric Science across the Stratopause, Geophys. Monogr. 123, 287–304 (2000).

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Ern, K. U. Grossmann, D. Offermann, “Detector signal relaxations and their correction: the Si:Ga bulk detectors of the CRISTA instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4486, 111–121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haegel, N. M.

House, F. B.

J. C. Gille, F. B. House, “On the inversion of limb radiance measurements. Part I. Temperature and thickness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1427–1442 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Jarisch, M.

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knieling, P.

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuell, V.

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Latasa, C. A.

N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. 56, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, D.

J. Schubert, B. I. Fouks, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Transient response of ISOPHOT Si:Ga photodetectors: experimental results and application of the theory of nonstationary processes,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 461–469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marks, C. J.

C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, B. T.

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “Linepak: algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Marshall, L. L. Gordley, D. A. Chu, “Bandpak: algorithms for modeling broadband transmission and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 581–599 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Offermann, D.

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Ern, K. U. Grossmann, D. Offermann, “Detector signal relaxations and their correction: the Si:Ga bulk detectors of the CRISTA instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4486, 111–121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palmieri, D. R.

N. M. Haegel, D. R. Palmieri, A. M. White, “Current transients in extrinsic photoconductors: comprehensive analytical description of initial response,” Appl. Phys. 73, 433–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Preusse, P.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Eckermann, P. Preusse, “Global measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space,” Science 286, 1534–1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Preusse, “Vorbereitung der Eichung der CRISTA Spektrometer,” Diploma Thesis WU D 94-45 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 1995).

Price, M. C.

Riese, M.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Riese, “Das CRISTA-Meβsystem: Struktur und Anwendungen,” Ph.D. dissertation WUB-DIS 94-3 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 1994).

Rodgers, C. D.

C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

Schaeler, B.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, J.

J. Schubert, B. I. Fouks, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Transient response of ISOPHOT Si:Ga photodetectors: experimental results and application of the theory of nonstationary processes,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 461–469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Fouks, J. Schubert, “Precise theoretical description of photoresponse for detectors of ISOPHOT’s Si.Ga array,” in Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE2475, 487–498 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, W. R.

Sée, J.

A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simoes, J. C.

Spang, R.

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trant, R.

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

White, A. M.

N. M. Haegel, W. R. Schwartz, J. Zinter, A. M. White, J. W. Beeman, “Origin of the hook effect in extrinsic photoconductors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5748–5754 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Haegel, D. R. Palmieri, A. M. White, “Current transients in extrinsic photoconductors: comprehensive analytical description of initial response,” Appl. Phys. 73, 433–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Haegel, J. C. Simoes, A. M. White, J. W. Beeman, “Transient behavior of infrared photoconductors: application of a numerical model,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1910–1919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. 56, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.

J. Schubert, B. I. Fouks, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Transient response of ISOPHOT Si:Ga photodetectors: experimental results and application of the theory of nonstationary processes,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 461–469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zinter, J.

Adv. Space Res.

P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys.

N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. 56, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Haegel, D. R. Palmieri, A. M. White, “Current transients in extrinsic photoconductors: comprehensive analytical description of initial response,” Appl. Phys. 73, 433–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser.

A. Coulais, A. Abergel, “Transient correction of the LW-ISOCAM data for low-contrast illumination,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 533–544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atmospheric Science across the Stratopause, Geophys. Monogr.

K. U. Grossmann, “Recent improvements in middle atmosphere remote sounding techniques: the CRISTA-SPAS experiment,” in Atmospheric Science across the Stratopause, Geophys. Monogr. 123, 287–304 (2000).

Exp. Astron.

J. A. Acosta-Pulido, C. Gabriel, H. O. Castañeda, “Transient effects in ISOPHOT data: status of modeling and correction procedures,” Exp. Astron. 10, 333–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

E. J. Fetzer, J. C. Gille, “Gravity wave variance in LIMS temperatures, 1. Variability and comparison with background winds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 2461–2483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, F. B. House, “On the inversion of limb radiance measurements. Part I. Temperature and thickness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1427–1442 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, “Inversion of limb radiance measurements: an operational algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2757–2774 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “Linepak: algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Marshall, L. L. Gordley, D. A. Chu, “Bandpak: algorithms for modeling broadband transmission and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 581–599 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science

S. D. Eckermann, P. Preusse, “Global measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space,” Science 286, 1534–1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Riese, “Das CRISTA-Meβsystem: Struktur und Anwendungen,” Ph.D. dissertation WUB-DIS 94-3 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 1994).

P. Preusse, “Vorbereitung der Eichung der CRISTA Spektrometer,” Diploma Thesis WU D 94-45 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 1995).

J. Schubert, B. I. Fouks, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Transient response of ISOPHOT Si:Ga photodetectors: experimental results and application of the theory of nonstationary processes,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 461–469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Fouks, J. Schubert, “Precise theoretical description of photoresponse for detectors of ISOPHOT’s Si.Ga array,” in Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE2475, 487–498 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Fouks, “On problems of operation of low-background IR detectors,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 489–500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ern, “Relaxationseffekte der CRISTA-Infrarotdetektoren und ihre Korrektur,” Ph.D. dissertation WUB-DIS 2000-4 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 2000).

A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ern, K. U. Grossmann, D. Offermann, “Detector signal relaxations and their correction: the Si:Ga bulk detectors of the CRISTA instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4486, 111–121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the limb-scanning technique of the CRISTA-SPAS satellite.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Footprint sequence of four orbits of the first CRISTA flight.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section of the CRISTA instrument in the horizontal plane (y-z): MDA, XXX.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup during the radiometric calibrations of CRISTA employing the MCU.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for the wavelength calibrations of CRISTA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sequence of detector responses (Si:Ga) to steplike illumination changes. (b) Magnification of the dotted rectangle in (a). The magnification shows two hook responses with a different illumination history.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup for measurement of detector signal relaxations with the RMC.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Front view of the hole patterns of the RMC copper plates. (a) hole patterns in the closed state with the hole pattern of the movable plate shifted; (b) hole patterns in the open state with the holes coaligned. In (a) the holes of the movable plate are dashed because they are not visible for CRISTA. Only part of the copper plates (∼10%) is shown.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fit of Eq. (1) to experimental data. Zero has been suppressed for clarification. The horizontal line indicates the equilibrium signal level U 100 reached after longer times.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Time constant τ1 versus U 100 for one of the detector channels.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Composition of the total relaxation as a sum of single components stemming from step responses (for details see text).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

As in Fig. 6, after application of the correction algorithm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Spectra measured during the radiometric calibration of CRISTA before the correction algorithm is applied (Si:Ga detector channel SL1). The lower panel shows deviations from the reference spectrum (see text). The wavelength range covered corresponding to the grating positions given approximately is 7.35–8.87 μm.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

As in Fig. 13, after application of the correction algorithm.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Flight spectra measured during a forward/backward validation mode before application of the correction algorithm (detector channel SL5). In the lower panel the differences between the two spectra are shown. The wavelength range covered, corresponding to the grating positions given, is approximately 11.56–12.85 μm.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

As in Fig. 15, after application of the correction algorithm.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Flight spectra measured during a forward/backward validation mode when looking toward a cloud before application of the correction algorithm (detector channel SR6). In the lower panel differences between the two spectra are given. The wavelength range covered, corresponding to the grafting positions given, is approximately 11.57–12.86 μm.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

As in Fig. 17, after application of the correction algorithm.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Left panel: temperature profiles derived from CO2 emissions near 15 μm in a validation measurement mode before application of the correction algorithm. Right panel: difference of the two profiles from their mean (for details see text).

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

As in Fig. 19, after application of the correction algorithm.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Temperature differences (absolute values) of pairs of viewing directions before (left column) and after (right column) application of the correction algorithm. Altitude/latitude distributions of zonal means are given.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Detector-Channel Subdivision and Atmospheric Parameters during the CRISTA 1 Mission

Equations (1)

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Ut=U0+U100-U0×1-exp-t/τ1+A exp-t/τ2

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