Abstract

Remote sensing from space has become a common method for deriving geophysical parameters such as atmospheric temperature and composition. The Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) instrument was designed to sound the middle and the upper atmosphere (10–180 km) with high spatial resolution. Atmospheric IR emissions were measured with Si:Ga bulk or Si:As blocked impurity band detectors for a wavelength interval of 4–17 μm and Ge:Ga bulk detectors for 56–71 μm. An overview of the calibration of the instrument and the correction of detector signal relaxations for the Si:Ga detectors are given, both of which are necessary to provide high-quality IR radiance data as input for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and trace gas mixing ratios. Laboratory and flight data are shown to demonstrate the quality of the results.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. D. Eckermann, P. Preusse, “Global measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space,” Science 286, 1534–1537 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. J. Fetzer, J. C. Gille, “Gravity wave variance in LIMS temperatures, 1. Variability and comparison with background winds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 2461–2483 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, “Inversion of limb radiance measurements: an operational algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2757–2774 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. L. Gordley, J. M. Russell, “Rapid inversion of limb radiance data using an emissivity growth approximation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 807–813 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “Linepak: algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Riese, “Das CRISTA-Meβsystem: Struktur und Anwendungen,” Ph.D. dissertation WUB-DIS 94-3 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 1994).
  14. B. T. Marshall, L. L. Gordley, D. A. Chu, “Bandpak: algorithms for modeling broadband transmission and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 581–599 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. 56, 15–21 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. M. Haegel, J. C. Simoes, A. M. White, J. W. Beeman, “Transient behavior of infrared photoconductors: application of a numerical model,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1910–1919 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. N. M. Haegel, D. R. Palmieri, A. M. White, “Current transients in extrinsic photoconductors: comprehensive analytical description of initial response,” Appl. Phys. 73, 433–439 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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  21. M. Ern, “Relaxationseffekte der CRISTA-Infrarotdetektoren und ihre Korrektur,” Ph.D. dissertation WUB-DIS 2000-4 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 2000).
  22. K. U. Grossmann, “Recent improvements in middle atmosphere remote sounding techniques: the CRISTA-SPAS experiment,” in Atmospheric Science across the Stratopause, Geophys. Monogr. 123, 287–304 (2000).
  23. P. Preusse, “Vorbereitung der Eichung der CRISTA Spektrometer,” Diploma Thesis WU D 94-45 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 1995).
  24. J. Schubert, B. I. Fouks, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Transient response of ISOPHOT Si:Ga photodetectors: experimental results and application of the theory of nonstationary processes,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 461–469 (1995).
  25. J. A. Acosta-Pulido, C. Gabriel, H. O. Castañeda, “Transient effects in ISOPHOT data: status of modeling and correction procedures,” Exp. Astron. 10, 333–346 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Coulais, A. Abergel, “Transient correction of the LW-ISOCAM data for low-contrast illumination,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 533–544 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).
  28. S. E. Church, M. C. Price, N. M. Haegel, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, “Transient response in doped germanium photoconductors under very low background operation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1597–1604 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Ern, K. U. Grossmann, D. Offermann, “Detector signal relaxations and their correction: the Si:Ga bulk detectors of the CRISTA instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4486, 111–121 (2002).

2002 (1)

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

N. M. Haegel, D. R. Palmieri, A. M. White, “Current transients in extrinsic photoconductors: comprehensive analytical description of initial response,” Appl. Phys. 73, 433–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Haegel, W. R. Schwartz, J. Zinter, A. M. White, J. W. Beeman, “Origin of the hook effect in extrinsic photoconductors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5748–5754 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

K. U. Grossmann, “Recent improvements in middle atmosphere remote sounding techniques: the CRISTA-SPAS experiment,” in Atmospheric Science across the Stratopause, Geophys. Monogr. 123, 287–304 (2000).

J. A. Acosta-Pulido, C. Gabriel, H. O. Castañeda, “Transient effects in ISOPHOT data: status of modeling and correction procedures,” Exp. Astron. 10, 333–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Coulais, A. Abergel, “Transient correction of the LW-ISOCAM data for low-contrast illumination,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 533–544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

N. M. Haegel, J. C. Simoes, A. M. White, J. W. Beeman, “Transient behavior of infrared photoconductors: application of a numerical model,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1910–1919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Eckermann, P. Preusse, “Global measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space,” Science 286, 1534–1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1994 (3)

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “Linepak: algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Marshall, L. L. Gordley, D. A. Chu, “Bandpak: algorithms for modeling broadband transmission and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 581–599 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fetzer, J. C. Gille, “Gravity wave variance in LIMS temperatures, 1. Variability and comparison with background winds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 2461–2483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. 56, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, “Inversion of limb radiance measurements: an operational algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2757–2774 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1971 (1)

J. C. Gille, F. B. House, “On the inversion of limb radiance measurements. Part I. Temperature and thickness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1427–1442 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abergel, A.

A. Coulais, A. Abergel, “Transient correction of the LW-ISOCAM data for low-contrast illumination,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 533–544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).

Acosta-Pulido, J. A.

J. A. Acosta-Pulido, C. Gabriel, H. O. Castañeda, “Transient effects in ISOPHOT data: status of modeling and correction procedures,” Exp. Astron. 10, 333–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ade, P. A. R.

Bacmeister, J.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bacmeister, J. T.

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, P. L.

P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, “Inversion of limb radiance measurements: an operational algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2757–2774 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Barthol, P.

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beeman, J. W.

Broutman, D.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Castañeda, H. O.

J. A. Acosta-Pulido, C. Gabriel, H. O. Castañeda, “Transient effects in ISOPHOT data: status of modeling and correction procedures,” Exp. Astron. 10, 333–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, D. A.

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “Linepak: algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Marshall, L. L. Gordley, D. A. Chu, “Bandpak: algorithms for modeling broadband transmission and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 581–599 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Church, S. E.

Coulais, A.

A. Coulais, A. Abergel, “Transient correction of the LW-ISOCAM data for low-contrast illumination,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 533–544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).

Dörnbrack, A.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eckermann, S. D.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Eckermann, P. Preusse, “Global measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space,” Science 286, 1534–1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elkins, J. W.

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ern, M.

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Ern, K. U. Grossmann, D. Offermann, “Detector signal relaxations and their correction: the Si:Ga bulk detectors of the CRISTA instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4486, 111–121 (2002).

M. Ern, “Relaxationseffekte der CRISTA-Infrarotdetektoren und ihre Korrektur,” Ph.D. dissertation WUB-DIS 2000-4 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 2000).

Fetzer, E. J.

E. J. Fetzer, J. C. Gille, “Gravity wave variance in LIMS temperatures, 1. Variability and comparison with background winds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 2461–2483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fouks, B. I.

B. I. Fouks, J. Schubert, “Precise theoretical description of photoresponse for detectors of ISOPHOT’s Si.Ga array,” in Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE2475, 487–498 (1995).

B. I. Fouks, “On problems of operation of low-background IR detectors,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 489–500 (1995).

A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).

J. Schubert, B. I. Fouks, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Transient response of ISOPHOT Si:Ga photodetectors: experimental results and application of the theory of nonstationary processes,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 461–469 (1995).

Gabriel, C.

J. A. Acosta-Pulido, C. Gabriel, H. O. Castañeda, “Transient effects in ISOPHOT data: status of modeling and correction procedures,” Exp. Astron. 10, 333–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gille, J. C.

E. J. Fetzer, J. C. Gille, “Gravity wave variance in LIMS temperatures, 1. Variability and comparison with background winds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 2461–2483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, “Inversion of limb radiance measurements: an operational algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2757–2774 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, F. B. House, “On the inversion of limb radiance measurements. Part I. Temperature and thickness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1427–1442 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Giovannelli, J.-F.

A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).

Gordley, L. L.

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “Linepak: algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Marshall, L. L. Gordley, D. A. Chu, “Bandpak: algorithms for modeling broadband transmission and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 581–599 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Gordley, J. M. Russell, “Rapid inversion of limb radiance data using an emissivity growth approximation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 807–813 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffin, M. J.

Grossmann, K. U.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. U. Grossmann, “Recent improvements in middle atmosphere remote sounding techniques: the CRISTA-SPAS experiment,” in Atmospheric Science across the Stratopause, Geophys. Monogr. 123, 287–304 (2000).

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Ern, K. U. Grossmann, D. Offermann, “Detector signal relaxations and their correction: the Si:Ga bulk detectors of the CRISTA instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4486, 111–121 (2002).

Haegel, N. M.

House, F. B.

J. C. Gille, F. B. House, “On the inversion of limb radiance measurements. Part I. Temperature and thickness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1427–1442 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Jarisch, M.

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knieling, P.

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuell, V.

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Latasa, C. A.

N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. 56, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, D.

J. Schubert, B. I. Fouks, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Transient response of ISOPHOT Si:Ga photodetectors: experimental results and application of the theory of nonstationary processes,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 461–469 (1995).

Marks, C. J.

C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, B. T.

B. T. Marshall, L. L. Gordley, D. A. Chu, “Bandpak: algorithms for modeling broadband transmission and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 581–599 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “Linepak: algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Offermann, D.

P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Ern, K. U. Grossmann, D. Offermann, “Detector signal relaxations and their correction: the Si:Ga bulk detectors of the CRISTA instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4486, 111–121 (2002).

Palmieri, D. R.

N. M. Haegel, D. R. Palmieri, A. M. White, “Current transients in extrinsic photoconductors: comprehensive analytical description of initial response,” Appl. Phys. 73, 433–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Preusse, P.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Eckermann, P. Preusse, “Global measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space,” Science 286, 1534–1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Preusse, “Vorbereitung der Eichung der CRISTA Spektrometer,” Diploma Thesis WU D 94-45 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 1995).

Price, M. C.

Riese, M.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Riese, “Das CRISTA-Meβsystem: Struktur und Anwendungen,” Ph.D. dissertation WUB-DIS 94-3 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 1994).

Rodgers, C. D.

C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

Schaeler, B.

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, J.

J. Schubert, B. I. Fouks, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Transient response of ISOPHOT Si:Ga photodetectors: experimental results and application of the theory of nonstationary processes,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 461–469 (1995).

B. I. Fouks, J. Schubert, “Precise theoretical description of photoresponse for detectors of ISOPHOT’s Si.Ga array,” in Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE2475, 487–498 (1995).

Schwartz, W. R.

Sée, J.

A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).

Simoes, J. C.

Spang, R.

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trant, R.

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
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White, A. M.

N. M. Haegel, D. R. Palmieri, A. M. White, “Current transients in extrinsic photoconductors: comprehensive analytical description of initial response,” Appl. Phys. 73, 433–439 (2001).
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N. M. Haegel, W. R. Schwartz, J. Zinter, A. M. White, J. W. Beeman, “Origin of the hook effect in extrinsic photoconductors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5748–5754 (2001).
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N. M. Haegel, J. C. Simoes, A. M. White, J. W. Beeman, “Transient behavior of infrared photoconductors: application of a numerical model,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1910–1919 (1999).
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N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. 56, 15–21 (1993).
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Wolf, J.

J. Schubert, B. I. Fouks, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Transient response of ISOPHOT Si:Ga photodetectors: experimental results and application of the theory of nonstationary processes,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 461–469 (1995).

Zinter, J.

Adv. Space Res. (1)

P. Preusse, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Offermann, “Evidence for gravity waves in CRISTA temperatures,” Adv. Space Res. 24 (11) 1601–1604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. (2)

N. M. Haegel, C. A. Latasa, A. M. White, “Transient response of infrared photoconductors: the roles of contacts and space charge,” Appl. Phys. 56, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Haegel, D. R. Palmieri, A. M. White, “Current transients in extrinsic photoconductors: comprehensive analytical description of initial response,” Appl. Phys. 73, 433–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

A. Coulais, A. Abergel, “Transient correction of the LW-ISOCAM data for low-contrast illumination,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 533–544 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atmospheric Science across the Stratopause, Geophys. Monogr. (1)

K. U. Grossmann, “Recent improvements in middle atmosphere remote sounding techniques: the CRISTA-SPAS experiment,” in Atmospheric Science across the Stratopause, Geophys. Monogr. 123, 287–304 (2000).

Exp. Astron. (1)

J. A. Acosta-Pulido, C. Gabriel, H. O. Castañeda, “Transient effects in ISOPHOT data: status of modeling and correction procedures,” Exp. Astron. 10, 333–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

E. J. Fetzer, J. C. Gille, “Gravity wave variance in LIMS temperatures, 1. Variability and comparison with background winds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 2461–2483 (1994).
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J. C. Gille, F. B. House, “On the inversion of limb radiance measurements. Part I. Temperature and thickness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1427–1442 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, “Inversion of limb radiance measurements: an operational algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2757–2774 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Marks, C. D. Rodgers, “A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14939–14953 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Preusse, A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, K. U. Grossmann, “Space-based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA, 1. Sensitivity, analysis method, and a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8178, 10.1029/2001JD000699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Riese, R. Spang, P. Preusse, M. Ern, M. Jarisch, D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, “Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16349–16367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, R. Trant, “Cryogenic infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Bacmeister, V. Kuell, D. Offermann, M. Riese, J. W. Elkins, “Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11, and NOy using trajectory mapping,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16379–16390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “Linepak: algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Marshall, L. L. Gordley, D. A. Chu, “Bandpak: algorithms for modeling broadband transmission and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 581–599 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. D. Eckermann, P. Preusse, “Global measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space,” Science 286, 1534–1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

B. I. Fouks, J. Schubert, “Precise theoretical description of photoresponse for detectors of ISOPHOT’s Si.Ga array,” in Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE2475, 487–498 (1995).

B. I. Fouks, “On problems of operation of low-background IR detectors,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 489–500 (1995).

M. Ern, “Relaxationseffekte der CRISTA-Infrarotdetektoren und ihre Korrektur,” Ph.D. dissertation WUB-DIS 2000-4 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 2000).

P. Preusse, “Vorbereitung der Eichung der CRISTA Spektrometer,” Diploma Thesis WU D 94-45 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 1995).

J. Schubert, B. I. Fouks, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Transient response of ISOPHOT Si:Ga photodetectors: experimental results and application of the theory of nonstationary processes,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 461–469 (1995).

A. Coulais, B. I. Fouks, J.-F. Giovannelli, A. Abergel, J. Sée, “Transient response of IR detectors used in space astronomy: what we have learned from ISO satellite,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VIII, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4131, 205–217 (2000).

M. Riese, “Das CRISTA-Meβsystem: Struktur und Anwendungen,” Ph.D. dissertation WUB-DIS 94-3 (Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany, 1994).

M. Ern, K. U. Grossmann, D. Offermann, “Detector signal relaxations and their correction: the Si:Ga bulk detectors of the CRISTA instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE4486, 111–121 (2002).

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