Abstract

A measurement campaign was carried out in February 1998 at Briançon Station, French Alps (44.9° N, 6.65° E, 1310 m above sea level) in order to determine the UV effective snow albedo that was retrieved for both erythemal and UV-A irradiances from measurements and modeling enhancement factors. The results are presented for 15 cloudless days with very variable snow cover and a small snowfall in the middle of the campaign. Erythemal irradiance enhancement due to the surface albedo was found to decrease from approximately +15% to +5% with a jump to +22% after the snowfall, whereas UV-A irradiance enhancement decreased from 7% to 5% and increased to 15% after the snowfall. These values fit to effective surface albedos of 0.4, 0.1, and 0.5 for erythemal, and to effective albedos of 0.25, 0.1, and 0.4 for UV-A irradiances, respectively. An unexpected difference between the effective albedos retrieved in the two wavelength regions can be explained by the difference of the environment contribution.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Lenoble, “Modeling of the influence of snow reflectance on ultraviolet irradiance for cloudless sky,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2441–2447 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Smolskaia, “Effect of inhomogeneous surface albedo on UV radiation in the Antarctic environment,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 2001).
  4. M. Degünther, R. Meerkötter, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Case study of inhomogeneous surface albedo on UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3587–3590 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Lenoble, “Influence of the environment reflectance on the ultraviolet zenith radiance for cloudless sky,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4247–4254 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. L. McKenzie, K. J. Paulin, S. Madronich, “Effects of snow cover on UV irradiance and surface albedo: a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28785–28792 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Weihs, S. Simic, W. Laube, W. Mikielewicz, G. Rengarajan, M. Mandl, “Albedo influences on surface UV irradiance at the Sonnblick high mountain Observatory (3106 m altitude),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1599–1610 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Kylling, T. Persen, B. Mayer, T. Svenoe, “Determination of an effective spectral surface albedo from ground based global and direct UV irradiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4949–4959 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Consistency test on UV spectral irradiance measurements using modelling and a broadband instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4851–4856 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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2001 (2)

D. Schmucki, S. Voigt, P. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, J. Lenoble, A. Ohmura, C. Wehrli, “Effective albedo derived from UV measurements in the Swiss Alps,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5369–5383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

J. Lenoble, “Influence of the environment reflectance on the ultraviolet zenith radiance for cloudless sky,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4247–4254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kylling, T. Persen, B. Mayer, T. Svenoe, “Determination of an effective spectral surface albedo from ground based global and direct UV irradiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4949–4959 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Barnéoud-Rousset, “Résultats d’une campagne hivernale de mesures du rayonnement ultraviolet (UV) en milieu alpin (Briançon-février 1998),” Nouv. Dermat. 19, 445–450 (2000).

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Consistency test on UV spectral irradiance measurements using modelling and a broadband instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4851–4856 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. Weihs, S. Simic, W. Laube, W. Mikielewicz, G. Rengarajan, M. Mandl, “Albedo influences on surface UV irradiance at the Sonnblick high mountain Observatory (3106 m altitude),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1599–1610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance in the French Alps: results of two campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16777–16784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Degünther, R. Meerkötter, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Case study of inhomogeneous surface albedo on UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3587–3590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lenoble, “Modeling of the influence of snow reflectance on ultraviolet irradiance for cloudless sky,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2441–2447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, K. J. Paulin, S. Madronich, “Effects of snow cover on UV irradiance and surface albedo: a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28785–28792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Solar UV-B albedo of various surfaces,” Photochem. Photobiol. 48, 85–88 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albold, A.

M. Degünther, R. Meerkötter, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Case study of inhomogeneous surface albedo on UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3587–3590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ambach, W.

M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Solar UV-B albedo of various surfaces,” Photochem. Photobiol. 48, 85–88 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnéoud-Rousset, M.

D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Barnéoud-Rousset, “Résultats d’une campagne hivernale de mesures du rayonnement ultraviolet (UV) en milieu alpin (Briançon-février 1998),” Nouv. Dermat. 19, 445–450 (2000).

Blumthaler, M.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Solar UV-B albedo of various surfaces,” Photochem. Photobiol. 48, 85–88 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bocquet, J. L.

D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Barnéoud-Rousset, “Résultats d’une campagne hivernale de mesures du rayonnement ultraviolet (UV) en milieu alpin (Briançon-février 1998),” Nouv. Dermat. 19, 445–450 (2000).

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Consistency test on UV spectral irradiance measurements using modelling and a broadband instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4851–4856 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance in the French Alps: results of two campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16777–16784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, C.

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Consistency test on UV spectral irradiance measurements using modelling and a broadband instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4851–4856 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Barnéoud-Rousset, “Résultats d’une campagne hivernale de mesures du rayonnement ultraviolet (UV) en milieu alpin (Briançon-février 1998),” Nouv. Dermat. 19, 445–450 (2000).

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance in the French Alps: results of two campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16777–16784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cabot, T.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De la Casinière, A.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Degünther, M.

M. Degünther, R. Meerkötter, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Case study of inhomogeneous surface albedo on UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3587–3590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

den Outer, P. N.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diffey, B. L.

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” in Human Exposure to UV Radiation: Risks and Regulations, W. F. Passchier, B. F. Bosnajakivic, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), PP 83–87.

Engelsen, O.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fröhlich, C.

D. Schmucki, S. Voigt, P. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, J. Lenoble, A. Ohmura, C. Wehrli, “Effective albedo derived from UV measurements in the Swiss Alps,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5369–5383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, B. G.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gillotay, D.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gröbner, J.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haferl, D.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kylling, A.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kylling, T. Persen, B. Mayer, T. Svenoe, “Determination of an effective spectral surface albedo from ground based global and direct UV irradiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4949–4959 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laube, W.

P. Weihs, S. Simic, W. Laube, W. Mikielewicz, G. Rengarajan, M. Mandl, “Albedo influences on surface UV irradiance at the Sonnblick high mountain Observatory (3106 m altitude),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1599–1610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Schmucki, S. Voigt, P. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, J. Lenoble, A. Ohmura, C. Wehrli, “Effective albedo derived from UV measurements in the Swiss Alps,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5369–5383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Barnéoud-Rousset, “Résultats d’une campagne hivernale de mesures du rayonnement ultraviolet (UV) en milieu alpin (Briançon-février 1998),” Nouv. Dermat. 19, 445–450 (2000).

J. Lenoble, “Influence of the environment reflectance on the ultraviolet zenith radiance for cloudless sky,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4247–4254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Consistency test on UV spectral irradiance measurements using modelling and a broadband instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4851–4856 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance in the French Alps: results of two campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16777–16784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lenoble, “Modeling of the influence of snow reflectance on ultraviolet irradiance for cloudless sky,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2441–2447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Madronich, S.

R. L. McKenzie, K. J. Paulin, S. Madronich, “Effects of snow cover on UV irradiance and surface albedo: a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28785–28792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mandl, M.

P. Weihs, S. Simic, W. Laube, W. Mikielewicz, G. Rengarajan, M. Mandl, “Albedo influences on surface UV irradiance at the Sonnblick high mountain Observatory (3106 m altitude),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1599–1610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, T.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martin, T. J.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masserot, D.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Consistency test on UV spectral irradiance measurements using modelling and a broadband instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4851–4856 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Barnéoud-Rousset, “Résultats d’une campagne hivernale de mesures du rayonnement ultraviolet (UV) en milieu alpin (Briançon-février 1998),” Nouv. Dermat. 19, 445–450 (2000).

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance in the French Alps: results of two campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16777–16784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kylling, T. Persen, B. Mayer, T. Svenoe, “Determination of an effective spectral surface albedo from ground based global and direct UV irradiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4949–4959 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R. L.

R. L. McKenzie, K. J. Paulin, S. Madronich, “Effects of snow cover on UV irradiance and surface albedo: a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28785–28792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McKinlay, A. F.

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” in Human Exposure to UV Radiation: Risks and Regulations, W. F. Passchier, B. F. Bosnajakivic, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), PP 83–87.

Meerkötter, R.

M. Degünther, R. Meerkötter, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Case study of inhomogeneous surface albedo on UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3587–3590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mikielewicz, W.

P. Weihs, S. Simic, W. Laube, W. Mikielewicz, G. Rengarajan, M. Mandl, “Albedo influences on surface UV irradiance at the Sonnblick high mountain Observatory (3106 m altitude),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1599–1610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohmura, A.

D. Schmucki, S. Voigt, P. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, J. Lenoble, A. Ohmura, C. Wehrli, “Effective albedo derived from UV measurements in the Swiss Alps,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5369–5383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pachart, E.

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Consistency test on UV spectral irradiance measurements using modelling and a broadband instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4851–4856 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance in the French Alps: results of two campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16777–16784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Pachart, “Mesures et modélisations du rayonnement ultraviolet solaire au sol,” Ph.D. thesis (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Lille, France, 1997).

Paulin, K. J.

R. L. McKenzie, K. J. Paulin, S. Madronich, “Effects of snow cover on UV irradiance and surface albedo: a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28785–28792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Persen, T.

A. Kylling, T. Persen, B. Mayer, T. Svenoe, “Determination of an effective spectral surface albedo from ground based global and direct UV irradiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4949–4959 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, G.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Philipona, P.

D. Schmucki, S. Voigt, P. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, J. Lenoble, A. Ohmura, C. Wehrli, “Effective albedo derived from UV measurements in the Swiss Alps,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5369–5383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Philipona, R.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pichler, T.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pougatch, E.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rengarajan, G.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Weihs, S. Simic, W. Laube, W. Mikielewicz, G. Rengarajan, M. Mandl, “Albedo influences on surface UV irradiance at the Sonnblick high mountain Observatory (3106 m altitude),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1599–1610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruggaber, A.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmucki, D.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Schmucki, S. Voigt, P. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, J. Lenoble, A. Ohmura, C. Wehrli, “Effective albedo derived from UV measurements in the Swiss Alps,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5369–5383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seckmeyer, G.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Degünther, R. Meerkötter, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Case study of inhomogeneous surface albedo on UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3587–3590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, C.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simic, S.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Weihs, S. Simic, W. Laube, W. Mikielewicz, G. Rengarajan, M. Mandl, “Albedo influences on surface UV irradiance at the Sonnblick high mountain Observatory (3106 m altitude),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1599–1610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smolskaia, I.

I. Smolskaia, “Effect of inhomogeneous surface albedo on UV radiation in the Antarctic environment,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 2001).

Svenoe, T.

A. Kylling, T. Persen, B. Mayer, T. Svenoe, “Determination of an effective spectral surface albedo from ground based global and direct UV irradiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4949–4959 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Van Weele, M.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, S.

D. Schmucki, S. Voigt, P. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, J. Lenoble, A. Ohmura, C. Wehrli, “Effective albedo derived from UV measurements in the Swiss Alps,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5369–5383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walravens, B.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, “Modélisation et mesure du rayonnement solaire ultraviolet,” Ph.D. thesis, No. 1484 (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Lille, France, 1995).

Wauben, W. M. F.

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wehrli, C.

D. Schmucki, S. Voigt, P. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, J. Lenoble, A. Ohmura, C. Wehrli, “Effective albedo derived from UV measurements in the Swiss Alps,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5369–5383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, P.

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Weihs, S. Simic, W. Laube, W. Mikielewicz, G. Rengarajan, M. Mandl, “Albedo influences on surface UV irradiance at the Sonnblick high mountain Observatory (3106 m altitude),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1599–1610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

M. Degünther, R. Meerkötter, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Case study of inhomogeneous surface albedo on UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3587–3590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Weihs, J. Lenoble, M. Blumthaler, T. Martin, G. Seckmeyer, R. Philipona, A. De la Casinière, C. Sergent, J. Gröbner, T. Cabot, D. Masserot, T. Pichler, E. Pougatch, G. Rengarajan, D. Schmucki, S. Simic, “Modeling the effect of an inhomogeneous surface albedo on incident UV radiation in mountainous terrain: determination of an effective surface albedo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3111–3114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

P. Weihs, S. Simic, W. Laube, W. Mikielewicz, G. Rengarajan, M. Mandl, “Albedo influences on surface UV irradiance at the Sonnblick high mountain Observatory (3106 m altitude),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1599–1610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

D. Schmucki, S. Voigt, P. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, J. Lenoble, A. Ohmura, C. Wehrli, “Effective albedo derived from UV measurements in the Swiss Alps,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5369–5383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Kylling, T. Persen, B. Mayer, T. Svenoe, “Determination of an effective spectral surface albedo from ground based global and direct UV irradiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4949–4959 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance in the French Alps: results of two campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16777–16784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Pachart, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, “Consistency test on UV spectral irradiance measurements using modelling and a broadband instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4851–4856 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumthaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, W. M. F. Wauben, “From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915–4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, K. J. Paulin, S. Madronich, “Effects of snow cover on UV irradiance and surface albedo: a case study,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28785–28792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nouv. Dermat. (1)

D. Masserot, J. L. Bocquet, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Barnéoud-Rousset, “Résultats d’une campagne hivernale de mesures du rayonnement ultraviolet (UV) en milieu alpin (Briançon-février 1998),” Nouv. Dermat. 19, 445–450 (2000).

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Solar UV-B albedo of various surfaces,” Photochem. Photobiol. 48, 85–88 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

I. Smolskaia, “Effect of inhomogeneous surface albedo on UV radiation in the Antarctic environment,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 2001).

E. Pachart, “Mesures et modélisations du rayonnement ultraviolet solaire au sol,” Ph.D. thesis (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Lille, France, 1997).

P. Wang, “Modélisation et mesure du rayonnement solaire ultraviolet,” Ph.D. thesis, No. 1484 (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Lille, France, 1995).

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” in Human Exposure to UV Radiation: Risks and Regulations, W. F. Passchier, B. F. Bosnajakivic, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), PP 83–87.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Meteorological conditions during 1998 Briançon campaign showing daily temperature variations (bars), ground snow cover (solid curve) and cloudiness.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Erythemal and UV-A enhancement factors due to surface reflectance (left scale) and snow cover thickness (right scale). Missing data correspond to overcast days.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Erythemal (solid curve) and UV-A (dashed curve) enhancement factors as a function of uniform ground albedo from modeling.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Erythemal and UV-A effective albedos (left scale) retrieved from measured enhancement shown in Fig. 2. Minimum and Maximum temperatures (right scale) are given as well. Missing data correspond to overcast days.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Contribution function F(R) of the environment to the UV irradiance computed with a Monte Carlo code.

Equations (1)

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Geryth=0.1912ρ2+0.3336ρ+0.9939,GUV-A=0.1275ρ2+0.2812ρ+0.9947.

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