Abstract

The optical response of a photopolymerizable formulation consisting of a bisphenol A epoxy acrylate oligomer, a divinyl ether, and a photoinitiator system containing Rose Bengal was studied by recording holographic gratings. This blend is sensitive to blue-green light. Single- and double-exposure volume phase holograms were recorded. In addition to these examples, surface depth measurements were made by means of a holographic contour technique.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. J. Lougnot, C. Turck, C. Leroy-Garel, “New holographic recording materials based on dual-cure photopolymer Systems,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications IV, Roger A. Lessard, ed. Proc. SPIE3417, 165–171 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Decker, D. Decker, “Kinetic and mechanistic study of the UV—curing of vinyl ether-systems,” in Rad. Tech. Conference 1, 602–616 (1994).
  3. U. Rhee, H. J. Caufield, C. S. Vikram, J. Shamir, “Dynamics of hologram recording in DuPont photopolymer,” Appl. Opt. 34, 846–853 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. P. Jordan, F. Marquis-Weible, “Characterization of photopolymerization by a holographic technique applied to a scattering hydrogel,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6146–6150 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. Mallavia, A. Fimia, R. F. Madrigal, “Holography as a technique for the study of photopolymerization kinetics in dry polimeric films with a nonlinear response,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1–8 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. L. Booth, “Photopolymer material for holography,” Appl. Opt. 14, 593–601 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive-index image recording systems,” Adv. Photochem. 12, 201–281 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, H. P. Weber, G. D. Aumiller, “Multicomponent photopolymer systems for volume phase holograms and grating devices,” Appl. Opt. 15, 534–541 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, V. V. Lemeshko, “Spatial transfer of matter as a method of holographic recording in photoformers,” Opt. Commun. 174, 391–404 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Zhao, P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Phys. 41, 1929–1939 (1994).
  12. J. T. Sheridan, J. R. Lawrence, “Nonlocal-response diffusion model of holographic recording in photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1108–1114 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. H. Lin, “Method of characterizing hologram-recording materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 203–208 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, “Contour generation,” in Optical Holography, (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 15, pp. 444–453.
  16. J. S. Zelenka, J. R. Varner, “A new method for generating depth contours holographically,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2107–2110 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. S. Zelenka, J. R. Varner, “Multiple-index holographic contouring,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1431–1434 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, V. V. Lemeshko, “Spatial transfer of matter as a method of holographic recording in photoformers,” Opt. Commun. 174, 391–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Sheridan, J. R. Lawrence, “Nonlocal-response diffusion model of holographic recording in photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1108–1114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. Mallavia, A. Fimia, R. F. Madrigal, “Holography as a technique for the study of photopolymerization kinetics in dry polimeric films with a nonlinear response,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

C. Decker, D. Decker, “Kinetic and mechanistic study of the UV—curing of vinyl ether-systems,” in Rad. Tech. Conference 1, 602–616 (1994).

G. Zhao, P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Phys. 41, 1929–1939 (1994).

1980 (1)

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive-index image recording systems,” Adv. Photochem. 12, 201–281 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

1969 (2)

J. S. Zelenka, J. R. Varner, “Multiple-index holographic contouring,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1431–1434 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

Aumiller, G. D.

Blaya, S.

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. Mallavia, A. Fimia, R. F. Madrigal, “Holography as a technique for the study of photopolymerization kinetics in dry polimeric films with a nonlinear response,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Booth, B. L.

Burckhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, “Contour generation,” in Optical Holography, (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 15, pp. 444–453.

Carretero, L.

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. Mallavia, A. Fimia, R. F. Madrigal, “Holography as a technique for the study of photopolymerization kinetics in dry polimeric films with a nonlinear response,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Caufield, H. J.

Chandross, E. A.

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive-index image recording systems,” Adv. Photochem. 12, 201–281 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, H. P. Weber, G. D. Aumiller, “Multicomponent photopolymer systems for volume phase holograms and grating devices,” Appl. Opt. 15, 534–541 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, “Contour generation,” in Optical Holography, (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 15, pp. 444–453.

Decker, C.

C. Decker, D. Decker, “Kinetic and mechanistic study of the UV—curing of vinyl ether-systems,” in Rad. Tech. Conference 1, 602–616 (1994).

Decker, D.

C. Decker, D. Decker, “Kinetic and mechanistic study of the UV—curing of vinyl ether-systems,” in Rad. Tech. Conference 1, 602–616 (1994).

Fimia, A.

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. Mallavia, A. Fimia, R. F. Madrigal, “Holography as a technique for the study of photopolymerization kinetics in dry polimeric films with a nonlinear response,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, O. P.

Karpov, G. M.

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, V. V. Lemeshko, “Spatial transfer of matter as a method of holographic recording in photoformers,” Opt. Commun. 174, 391–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, J. R.

Lemeshko, V. V.

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, V. V. Lemeshko, “Spatial transfer of matter as a method of holographic recording in photoformers,” Opt. Commun. 174, 391–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leroy-Garel, C.

D. J. Lougnot, C. Turck, C. Leroy-Garel, “New holographic recording materials based on dual-cure photopolymer Systems,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications IV, Roger A. Lessard, ed. Proc. SPIE3417, 165–171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. H.

L. H. Lin, “Method of characterizing hologram-recording materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 203–208 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, “Contour generation,” in Optical Holography, (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 15, pp. 444–453.

Lougnot, D. J.

D. J. Lougnot, C. Turck, C. Leroy-Garel, “New holographic recording materials based on dual-cure photopolymer Systems,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications IV, Roger A. Lessard, ed. Proc. SPIE3417, 165–171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Madrigal, R. F.

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. Mallavia, A. Fimia, R. F. Madrigal, “Holography as a technique for the study of photopolymerization kinetics in dry polimeric films with a nonlinear response,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mallavia, R.

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. Mallavia, A. Fimia, R. F. Madrigal, “Holography as a technique for the study of photopolymerization kinetics in dry polimeric films with a nonlinear response,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marquis-Weible, F.

Mouroulis, P.

G. Zhao, P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Phys. 41, 1929–1939 (1994).

Obukhovsky, V. V.

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, V. V. Lemeshko, “Spatial transfer of matter as a method of holographic recording in photoformers,” Opt. Commun. 174, 391–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pampalone, T. R.

Rhee, U.

Shamir, J.

Sheridan, J. T.

Smirnova, T. N.

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, V. V. Lemeshko, “Spatial transfer of matter as a method of holographic recording in photoformers,” Opt. Commun. 174, 391–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive-index image recording systems,” Adv. Photochem. 12, 201–281 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, H. P. Weber, G. D. Aumiller, “Multicomponent photopolymer systems for volume phase holograms and grating devices,” Appl. Opt. 15, 534–541 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turck, C.

D. J. Lougnot, C. Turck, C. Leroy-Garel, “New holographic recording materials based on dual-cure photopolymer Systems,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications IV, Roger A. Lessard, ed. Proc. SPIE3417, 165–171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Varner, J. R.

Vikram, C. S.

Weber, H. P.

Wopschall, R. H.

Zelenka, J. S.

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Phys. 41, 1929–1939 (1994).

Adv. Photochem. (1)

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive-index image recording systems,” Adv. Photochem. 12, 201–281 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Phys. (1)

G. Zhao, P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Phys. 41, 1929–1939 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, V. V. Lemeshko, “Spatial transfer of matter as a method of holographic recording in photoformers,” Opt. Commun. 174, 391–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rad. Tech. Conference (1)

C. Decker, D. Decker, “Kinetic and mechanistic study of the UV—curing of vinyl ether-systems,” in Rad. Tech. Conference 1, 602–616 (1994).

Other (2)

D. J. Lougnot, C. Turck, C. Leroy-Garel, “New holographic recording materials based on dual-cure photopolymer Systems,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications IV, Roger A. Lessard, ed. Proc. SPIE3417, 165–171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, “Contour generation,” in Optical Holography, (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 15, pp. 444–453.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffraction efficiency curves for five power densities of the recording beams. An interference pattern of 500 lines/mm was recorded on 20-μm layers during 60 s. Each layer was prepolymerized with an argon laser beam for 60 s.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency curves for layers of different thickness. Layers were prepolymerized with an expanded argon laser beam. This recording was made with an interference pattern of 500 lines/mm for 60 s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance as a function of wavelength for 20- and 150-μm samples of photopolymerizable material.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency curves for three spatial frequency interference patterns. Each 20-μm layer was illuminated during 60 s with a power density of 12 mW/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Maximum diffraction efficiency as a function of the intensity of the interfering beams. Power density in the recording area was of 44 mW/cm2. A pattern of 1000 lines/mm was recorded on 20-μm layers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Image of a coin, (b) Image of the corresponding hologram after 5 min exposure time. Power density was 0.4 mW/cm2 with a beam ratio of 3:5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Telescopic optical setup for the recording of holograms by the two refractive index contouring method.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Image of a double-exposure hologram of a brass disk. Elliptic contouring fringes indicate a slight angle between disk and reference plane (front wall of the glass cell).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Top) Image of a double-exposure hologram of the surface of a brass disk. A circular interference pattern of contours at the same depth is observed. Calculated depth between consecutive fringes is 51.45 μm. (Bottom) Projection fringes over the profile given by a profilemeter of the same surface with an average depth of 52 μm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Best diffraction efficiencies obtained with films of different thickness

Equations (1)

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δ=λ2|n1-n2|,

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