Abstract

We have studied the diffuse reflection properties of ceramics in the presence of dielectric thin films on the surface. A simple optical model was proposed in which interference effects in a thin film were considered for light scattered out of a ceramic in various directions. Measurements were performed on angle-resolved reflection spectra of a thin-film-coated alumina ceramic in the case of normal incidence. They showed that the presence of the thin film on the ceramic’s surface modified the angular distributions of scattered radiation from that of a bare ceramic, which suggested a way to tailor the scattering properties of a diffuse reflector as needed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. A. Twomey, C. F. Bohren, J. L. Mergenthaler, “Reflectance and albedo differences between wet and dry surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 25, 431–437 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. C. Jezek, G. Koh, “Effects of water and ice layers on the scattering properties of diffuse reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5143–5147 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. B. Wolff, “Diffuse-reflectance model for smooth dielectric surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2956–2968 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. R. Catchpole, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. 2. Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 173–215 (2001), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Ishii, H. Nishikawa, T. Takahashi, Y. Hayashi, “Sub-5 micron thin film crystalline silicon solar cell on alumina ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L770–L773 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Takahashi, R. Shimokawa, Y. Matsumoto, K. Ishii, T. Sekigawa, “Recrystallization of polycrystalline silicon films on ceramics by electron beam,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 327–333 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Reber, J. Aschaber, A. Hurrle, “High temperature diffusion of iron in PECVD-SiO2 barrier layers for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells,” in Second World Conference on PV Solar Energy Conversion, J. Schmid, H. A. Ossenbrink, P. Helm, H. Ehmann, E. D. Dunlop, eds. (European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 1998), pp. 1798–1801.
  8. R. Shimokawa, K. Ishii, T. Takahashi, “Optical confinement in thin film Si solar cells by diffuse reflective substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3445–3456 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Winz, Th. Eickhoff, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, C. M. Fortmann, H. Fujiwara, I. Shimizu, “Novel light-trapping schemes involving planar junctions and diffuse rear reflectors for thin-film silicon-based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49, 195–203 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. Cotter, “Optical intensity of light in layers of silicon with rear diffuse reflectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 618–624 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Effect of buffer layers on optical confinement in thin film Si solar cell formed on alumina ceramic substrate,” in Second World Conference on PV Solar Energy Conversion, J. Schmid, H. A. Ossenbrink, P. Helm, H. Ehmann, E. D. Dunlop, eds. (European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 1998), pp. 1732–1735.
  12. G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, K. Yoshimura, “Optical confinement properties of crystalline silicon film on ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4586–4593 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Optical properties of alumina ceramics as a substrate of thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 315–320 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).
  15. G. Kortüm, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969).
  16. P. Jin, S. Tanemura, “Formation and thermochromism of VO2 films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering at low substrate temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1478–1483 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. S. Hou, “Method for optimized design of dielectric multilayer filters,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1863–1866 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. Harbecke, “Coherent and incoherent reflection and transmission of multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. B 39, 165–170 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1991).

2002 (1)

G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, K. Yoshimura, “Optical confinement properties of crystalline silicon film on ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4586–4593 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. R. Catchpole, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. 2. Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 173–215 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. E. Cotter, “Optical intensity of light in layers of silicon with rear diffuse reflectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 618–624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

K. Winz, Th. Eickhoff, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, C. M. Fortmann, H. Fujiwara, I. Shimizu, “Novel light-trapping schemes involving planar junctions and diffuse rear reflectors for thin-film silicon-based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49, 195–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Takahashi, R. Shimokawa, Y. Matsumoto, K. Ishii, T. Sekigawa, “Recrystallization of polycrystalline silicon films on ceramics by electron beam,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 327–333 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Optical properties of alumina ceramics as a substrate of thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 315–320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Shimokawa, K. Ishii, T. Takahashi, “Optical confinement in thin film Si solar cells by diffuse reflective substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3445–3456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P. Jin, S. Tanemura, “Formation and thermochromism of VO2 films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering at low substrate temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1478–1483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Wolff, “Diffuse-reflectance model for smooth dielectric surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2956–2968 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Ishii, H. Nishikawa, T. Takahashi, Y. Hayashi, “Sub-5 micron thin film crystalline silicon solar cell on alumina ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L770–L773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

S. A. Twomey, C. F. Bohren, J. L. Mergenthaler, “Reflectance and albedo differences between wet and dry surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 25, 431–437 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Harbecke, “Coherent and incoherent reflection and transmission of multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. B 39, 165–170 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Aschaber, J.

S. Reber, J. Aschaber, A. Hurrle, “High temperature diffusion of iron in PECVD-SiO2 barrier layers for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells,” in Second World Conference on PV Solar Energy Conversion, J. Schmid, H. A. Ossenbrink, P. Helm, H. Ehmann, E. D. Dunlop, eds. (European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 1998), pp. 1798–1801.

Beneking, C.

K. Winz, Th. Eickhoff, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, C. M. Fortmann, H. Fujiwara, I. Shimizu, “Novel light-trapping schemes involving planar junctions and diffuse rear reflectors for thin-film silicon-based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49, 195–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blakers, A. W.

K. R. Catchpole, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. 2. Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 173–215 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. 2. Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 173–215 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Cotter, J. E.

J. E. Cotter, “Optical intensity of light in layers of silicon with rear diffuse reflectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 618–624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, Th.

K. Winz, Th. Eickhoff, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, C. M. Fortmann, H. Fujiwara, I. Shimizu, “Novel light-trapping schemes involving planar junctions and diffuse rear reflectors for thin-film silicon-based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49, 195–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fortmann, C. M.

K. Winz, Th. Eickhoff, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, C. M. Fortmann, H. Fujiwara, I. Shimizu, “Novel light-trapping schemes involving planar junctions and diffuse rear reflectors for thin-film silicon-based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49, 195–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

K. Winz, Th. Eickhoff, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, C. M. Fortmann, H. Fujiwara, I. Shimizu, “Novel light-trapping schemes involving planar junctions and diffuse rear reflectors for thin-film silicon-based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49, 195–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hapke, B.

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

Harbecke, B.

B. Harbecke, “Coherent and incoherent reflection and transmission of multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. B 39, 165–170 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, Y.

K. Ishii, H. Nishikawa, T. Takahashi, Y. Hayashi, “Sub-5 micron thin film crystalline silicon solar cell on alumina ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L770–L773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1991).

Hou, H. S.

Hurrle, A.

S. Reber, J. Aschaber, A. Hurrle, “High temperature diffusion of iron in PECVD-SiO2 barrier layers for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells,” in Second World Conference on PV Solar Energy Conversion, J. Schmid, H. A. Ossenbrink, P. Helm, H. Ehmann, E. D. Dunlop, eds. (European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 1998), pp. 1798–1801.

Igarashi, K.

M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Optical properties of alumina ceramics as a substrate of thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 315–320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Effect of buffer layers on optical confinement in thin film Si solar cell formed on alumina ceramic substrate,” in Second World Conference on PV Solar Energy Conversion, J. Schmid, H. A. Ossenbrink, P. Helm, H. Ehmann, E. D. Dunlop, eds. (European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 1998), pp. 1732–1735.

Ishii, K.

T. Takahashi, R. Shimokawa, Y. Matsumoto, K. Ishii, T. Sekigawa, “Recrystallization of polycrystalline silicon films on ceramics by electron beam,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 327–333 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Shimokawa, K. Ishii, T. Takahashi, “Optical confinement in thin film Si solar cells by diffuse reflective substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3445–3456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishii, H. Nishikawa, T. Takahashi, Y. Hayashi, “Sub-5 micron thin film crystalline silicon solar cell on alumina ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L770–L773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jezek, K. C.

Jin, P.

G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, K. Yoshimura, “Optical confinement properties of crystalline silicon film on ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4586–4593 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Jin, S. Tanemura, “Formation and thermochromism of VO2 films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering at low substrate temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1478–1483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koh, G.

Kortüm, G.

G. Kortüm, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969).

Matsumoto, Y.

T. Takahashi, R. Shimokawa, Y. Matsumoto, K. Ishii, T. Sekigawa, “Recrystallization of polycrystalline silicon films on ceramics by electron beam,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 327–333 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCann, M. J.

K. R. Catchpole, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. 2. Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 173–215 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Mergenthaler, J. L.

Nishikawa, H.

K. Ishii, H. Nishikawa, T. Takahashi, Y. Hayashi, “Sub-5 micron thin film crystalline silicon solar cell on alumina ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L770–L773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reber, S.

S. Reber, J. Aschaber, A. Hurrle, “High temperature diffusion of iron in PECVD-SiO2 barrier layers for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells,” in Second World Conference on PV Solar Energy Conversion, J. Schmid, H. A. Ossenbrink, P. Helm, H. Ehmann, E. D. Dunlop, eds. (European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 1998), pp. 1798–1801.

Sekigawa, T.

T. Takahashi, R. Shimokawa, Y. Matsumoto, K. Ishii, T. Sekigawa, “Recrystallization of polycrystalline silicon films on ceramics by electron beam,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 327–333 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, I.

K. Winz, Th. Eickhoff, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, C. M. Fortmann, H. Fujiwara, I. Shimizu, “Novel light-trapping schemes involving planar junctions and diffuse rear reflectors for thin-film silicon-based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49, 195–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimokawa, R.

T. Takahashi, R. Shimokawa, Y. Matsumoto, K. Ishii, T. Sekigawa, “Recrystallization of polycrystalline silicon films on ceramics by electron beam,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 327–333 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Shimokawa, K. Ishii, T. Takahashi, “Optical confinement in thin film Si solar cells by diffuse reflective substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3445–3456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, R. Shimokawa, Y. Matsumoto, K. Ishii, T. Sekigawa, “Recrystallization of polycrystalline silicon films on ceramics by electron beam,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 327–333 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Shimokawa, K. Ishii, T. Takahashi, “Optical confinement in thin film Si solar cells by diffuse reflective substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3445–3456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishii, H. Nishikawa, T. Takahashi, Y. Hayashi, “Sub-5 micron thin film crystalline silicon solar cell on alumina ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L770–L773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, S.

M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Optical properties of alumina ceramics as a substrate of thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 315–320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Jin, S. Tanemura, “Formation and thermochromism of VO2 films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering at low substrate temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1478–1483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Effect of buffer layers on optical confinement in thin film Si solar cell formed on alumina ceramic substrate,” in Second World Conference on PV Solar Energy Conversion, J. Schmid, H. A. Ossenbrink, P. Helm, H. Ehmann, E. D. Dunlop, eds. (European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 1998), pp. 1732–1735.

Tazawa, M.

G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, K. Yoshimura, “Optical confinement properties of crystalline silicon film on ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4586–4593 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Optical properties of alumina ceramics as a substrate of thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 315–320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Effect of buffer layers on optical confinement in thin film Si solar cell formed on alumina ceramic substrate,” in Second World Conference on PV Solar Energy Conversion, J. Schmid, H. A. Ossenbrink, P. Helm, H. Ehmann, E. D. Dunlop, eds. (European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 1998), pp. 1732–1735.

Twomey, S. A.

Wagner, H.

K. Winz, Th. Eickhoff, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, C. M. Fortmann, H. Fujiwara, I. Shimizu, “Novel light-trapping schemes involving planar junctions and diffuse rear reflectors for thin-film silicon-based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49, 195–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K. J.

K. R. Catchpole, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. 2. Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 173–215 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Winz, K.

K. Winz, Th. Eickhoff, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, C. M. Fortmann, H. Fujiwara, I. Shimizu, “Novel light-trapping schemes involving planar junctions and diffuse rear reflectors for thin-film silicon-based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49, 195–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, L. B.

Xu, G.

G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, K. Yoshimura, “Optical confinement properties of crystalline silicon film on ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4586–4593 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, K.

G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, K. Yoshimura, “Optical confinement properties of crystalline silicon film on ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4586–4593 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Optical properties of alumina ceramics as a substrate of thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 315–320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Effect of buffer layers on optical confinement in thin film Si solar cell formed on alumina ceramic substrate,” in Second World Conference on PV Solar Energy Conversion, J. Schmid, H. A. Ossenbrink, P. Helm, H. Ehmann, E. D. Dunlop, eds. (European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 1998), pp. 1732–1735.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. Harbecke, “Coherent and incoherent reflection and transmission of multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. B 39, 165–170 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. E. Cotter, “Optical intensity of light in layers of silicon with rear diffuse reflectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 618–624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

P. Jin, S. Tanemura, “Formation and thermochromism of VO2 films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering at low substrate temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1478–1483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishii, H. Nishikawa, T. Takahashi, Y. Hayashi, “Sub-5 micron thin film crystalline silicon solar cell on alumina ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L770–L773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Shimokawa, K. Ishii, T. Takahashi, “Optical confinement in thin film Si solar cells by diffuse reflective substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3445–3456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, K. Yoshimura, “Optical confinement properties of crystalline silicon film on ceramic substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4586–4593 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (4)

M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Optical properties of alumina ceramics as a substrate of thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 315–320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Winz, Th. Eickhoff, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, C. M. Fortmann, H. Fujiwara, I. Shimizu, “Novel light-trapping schemes involving planar junctions and diffuse rear reflectors for thin-film silicon-based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49, 195–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Takahashi, R. Shimokawa, Y. Matsumoto, K. Ishii, T. Sekigawa, “Recrystallization of polycrystalline silicon films on ceramics by electron beam,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 48, 327–333 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. 2. Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 173–215 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, “Effect of buffer layers on optical confinement in thin film Si solar cell formed on alumina ceramic substrate,” in Second World Conference on PV Solar Energy Conversion, J. Schmid, H. A. Ossenbrink, P. Helm, H. Ehmann, E. D. Dunlop, eds. (European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 1998), pp. 1732–1735.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1991).

S. Reber, J. Aschaber, A. Hurrle, “High temperature diffusion of iron in PECVD-SiO2 barrier layers for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells,” in Second World Conference on PV Solar Energy Conversion, J. Schmid, H. A. Ossenbrink, P. Helm, H. Ehmann, E. D. Dunlop, eds. (European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 1998), pp. 1798–1801.

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

G. Kortüm, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969).

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