Abstract

The baseline design for an Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) is a dual-recycled Michelson interferometer with cavities in each of the Michelson interferometer arms. We describe one possible length-sensing and control scheme for such a dual-recycled, cavity-enhanced Michelson interferometer. We discuss the principles of this scheme and derive the first-order sensing signals. We also present a successful experimental verification of our length-sensing system using a prototype tabletop interferometer. Our results demonstrate the robustness of the scheme against deviations from the idealized design. We also identify potential weaknesses and discuss possible improvements. These results as well as other benchtop experiments that we present form the basis for a sensing and control scheme for Advanced LIGO.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.
  3. K. Tsubono, “300-m laser interferometer gravitational wave detector (TAMA300) in Japan,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 112–114.
  4. C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. LIGO Science Collaboration, “Advanced LIGO systems design,” P. Fritschel, ed., LIGO Tech. Note T010075; available from the LIGO Document Control Center at http://antares.ligo.caltech.edu/dcc/default.htf (2001); also see documents in www.ligo.caltech.edu/ligo2 .
  6. K. A. Strain, G. Müller, T. Delker, D. H. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. E. Mason, P. A. Willems, D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, C. Mow-Lowry, D. E. McClelland, “Sensing and control in dual-recycling laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1244–1256 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. E. Mason, P. A. Willems, “Signal extraction and optical design for an advanced gravitational-wave interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1269–1282 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, C. Mow-Lowry, D. E. McClelland, “Power-recycled Michelson interferometer with resonant sideband extraction,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1283–1295 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.
  10. D. Jackrel, “High-power high-efficiency photodiode for advanced LIGO,” LIGO Document G010359-00; available from the LIGO Document Control Center at http://antares.ligo.caltech.edu/dcc/default.htf .
  11. The optimization of the parameters, the amplitudes of the different frequency components in the various ports of the interferometer, the locking matrix, and the sensitivities were modeled with a software package called Finesse, written by Andreas Freise. Information about Finesse can be found on the Software Tools for Advanced Interferometer Configurations webpage at www.phys.ufl.edu/LIGO/LIGO/STAIC.html or at www.mpq.mpg.de/ãdf .

2003

1992

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abramovici, A.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adhikari, R.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Aguirregabiria, J. M.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Althouse, W.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aufmuth, P.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Barone, F.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bel, H.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. R. J.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Bonazzola, S.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bradaschia, C.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brillet, A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Camp, J.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Campbell, A. M.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Capozzi, M.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cregut, O.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Damour, T.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Del Fabbro, R.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Delker, T.

K. A. Strain, G. Müller, T. Delker, D. H. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. E. Mason, P. A. Willems, D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, C. Mow-Lowry, D. E. McClelland, “Sensing and control in dual-recycling laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1244–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Di Fiore, L.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Di Virgilio, A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duruisseau, J. P.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fritschel, P.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Fuligni, F.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Giazotto, A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gourghoulon, Y.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

Gursel, Y.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heefner, J.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Hello, P.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, L. E.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Iafolla, V.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kautzky, H.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, S.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kells, B.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Kose, V.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Kühne, M.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Le Denmat, G.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Logan, J. E.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Longo, M.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lops, M.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lück, H.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Man, C. N.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Manh, P. T.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marck, J. A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marraud, A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mason, J. E.

Mavalvala, N.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

McClelland, D. E.

Milano, L.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Montelatici, V.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mow-Lowry, C.

Mueller, G.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Müller, G.

Natale, G.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Newton, G. P.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Nicholson, D.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Ouimette, D.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Passuello, D.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, I.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Raab, F.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitze, D.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Reitze, D. H.

Rinkleff, R.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Robertson, D. I.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Robertson, N. A.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Rong, H.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Rotoli, G.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rüdiger, A.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Russo, G.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Schrempel, M.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Schutz, B. F.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Shaddock, D. A.

Shoemaker, D.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shu, Q.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Shuttleworth, J.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Sievers, L.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigg, D.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Spero, R.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strain, K. A.

K. A. Strain, G. Müller, T. Delker, D. H. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. E. Mason, P. A. Willems, D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, C. Mow-Lowry, D. E. McClelland, “Sensing and control in dual-recycling laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1244–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Tanner, D. B.

K. A. Strain, G. Müller, T. Delker, D. H. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. E. Mason, P. A. Willems, D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, C. Mow-Lowry, D. E. McClelland, “Sensing and control in dual-recycling laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1244–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Thorne, K.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tourrenc, Ph.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tsubono, K.

K. Tsubono, “300-m laser interferometer gravitational wave detector (TAMA300) in Japan,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 112–114.

Tünnermann, A.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Vinet, J. Y.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, R.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Weiss, R.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welling, H.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Whitcomb, S.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willems, P. A.

Willke, B.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Winkler, W.

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Yoshida, S.

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Zucker, M.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

Appl. Opt.

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Le Denmat, Ph. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

K. Danzmann, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kühne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tünnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600—a 600-m Laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

K. Tsubono, “300-m laser interferometer gravitational wave detector (TAMA300) in Japan,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 112–114.

LIGO Science Collaboration, “Advanced LIGO systems design,” P. Fritschel, ed., LIGO Tech. Note T010075; available from the LIGO Document Control Center at http://antares.ligo.caltech.edu/dcc/default.htf (2001); also see documents in www.ligo.caltech.edu/ligo2 .

S. Yoshida, G. Mueller, T. Delker, Q. Shu, D. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. Camp, J. Heefner, B. Kells, N. Mavalvala, D. Ouimette, H. Rong, R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, M. Zucker, D. Sigg, “Recent development in the LIGO input optics,” in Proceedings of the Second Tama International Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 51–59.

D. Jackrel, “High-power high-efficiency photodiode for advanced LIGO,” LIGO Document G010359-00; available from the LIGO Document Control Center at http://antares.ligo.caltech.edu/dcc/default.htf .

The optimization of the parameters, the amplitudes of the different frequency components in the various ports of the interferometer, the locking matrix, and the sensitivities were modeled with a software package called Finesse, written by Andreas Freise. Information about Finesse can be found on the Software Tools for Advanced Interferometer Configurations webpage at www.phys.ufl.edu/LIGO/LIGO/STAIC.html or at www.mpq.mpg.de/ãdf .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Advanced LIGO consists of two arm cavities formed between the input test mass ITM1(2) and the end test mass ETM1(2) of length L 1 and L 2. The distances of the arm cavities from the beam splitter are l 1 and l 2. These arm cavities in conjunction with the beam splitter (BS) form the Michelson interferometer (MI). The power-recycling mirror (PR) at a distance l p in front of the beam splitter and the signal-recycling mirror (SR) at l s behind the beam splitter complete the interferometer. The lengths L i of the arm cavities are approximately 4000 m, whereas the other distances are of the order of a few meters up to probably 20 m. These distances depend on the final length-sensing scheme and have to match the used modulation frequencies. We use three different detection ports for length sensing and control: the dark port (DP), the bright port (BP), and the pickoff (PO).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

First set of sidebands Ω1 will be nonresonant in the arm cavities, dark in the MI, and slightly off resonance in the PR cavity. The reflected field will be detected to generate the error signal for the Φ+ degree of freedom. ϕ+ will be sensed at the pickoff port. Depending on the losses and impedances of the various cavities, it could also make sense to switch the detection ports or detect both degrees of freedom at only one port as indicated by the degrees of freedom in parentheses. The inlets show the frequency of the carrier and the Ω1 sidebands with respect to the dispersion curve of the two cavities (Cav1, Cav2), with respect to the reflectivity of the MI, and with respect to the power built up in the PR cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Second set of sidebands Ω2 will be nonresonant in the arm cavities, bright in the MI, and resonant in the PR-SR cavity. The pickoff field will be detected to generate the error signal for the ϕ- degree of freedom and the ϕ s degree of freedom. Depending on the losses and impedances of the various cavities, it could also make sense to switch to the reflected port for these signals as indicated by the degrees of freedom in parentheses. The Φ- degree of freedom will be detected at the dark port. The inlets show the frequency of the carrier and the Ω2 sidebands with respect to the dispersion curve of the two cavities (Cav1, Cav2), with respect to the reflectivity of the MI, and with respect to the power built up in the PR-SR cavity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modeled amplitudes of the sidebands at different locations versus different tunings in our benchtop interferometer. The upper-left graph shows the amplitudes in the PR cavity versus the tuning of the PR cavity; the upper-right graph shows the amplitudes behind the SR mirror versus the tuning of the SR cavity. The 60-MHz sidebands are amplified by a factor of 10. The lower graphs show the amplitudes in the two arm cavities versus the arm cavity tunings.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Layout of the benchtop experiment at the University of Florida. The details are described in the text. GW, gravitational wave; BS, beam splitter; EOM, electro-optic modulator; AR, antireflection; ND, neutral-density filter; DMI, differential MI; ETM, end test mass; ITM, input test mass.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calibrated error point noise in the dual-recycled configuration in the low-frequency region is approximately an order of magnitude smaller than in the power-recycled configuration. This is caused by the larger optical gain. In the high-frequency region, the displacement noise is equal in both configurations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical gain of the SR cavity. The peak at 2 kHz is an artifact of the feedback loop. The flat region above 2 kHz represents the real gain of 7.4. The increase at approximately 20 kHz is caused by a resonance at 20.5 kHz in one of the actuators.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SR gain is relative to a power-recycled configuration corrected for the Ω1 sideband gain. The flat portion below 100 kHz confirms the gain measured at low frequencies. The 3-dB bandwidth is approximately 335 kHz. The simulated frequency response was calculated for a reflectivity of 78% in the SR mirror.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

SR gain for a resonant and a detuned SR cavity, measured and simulated. We achieved the detuning by adding a dc offset to the SR error signal.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Five Relevant Longitudinal Degrees of Freedom in an Advanced LIGOa

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Table 2 Measured Reflectivities of the Different Mirrors in the Interferometera

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Table 3 Modulation Frequencies and Distances of the Final Design of the Interferometer

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Table 4 Peak Voltage of the Different Frequency Components as Measured by the OSAs at the Different Detection Ports in the LIGO I Configurationa

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Table 5 Peak Voltage of the Different Frequency Components as Measured by the OSAs at the Different Detection Ports in the LIGO II Configuration

Equations (36)

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rcav12ck±i1-a12,
Tk±1=Tk±1, Θexp±iΓ-iϕ+tk±1, Θexp±iβexp±iΓ,
Tk±1, Θexp±iΓ=rp-exp±iΘ1-ā1-rp1-āexp±iΘ,
tk±1, Θexp±iΓ+β=-1-āexp±iΘTp1-1-ārp exp±iΘ2,
Tk±1, Θexp±iΓ=tp1-rp1-āexp±iΘ,
tk±1, Θexp±iΓ+β=tprp1-āexp±iΘ1-rp1-āexp±iΘ2.
Q=E02m2Tkctk±1, Θsinβϕ+,
I=E02m2tkcTk±1, ΘTIϕ++4Φ+-Tkctk±1, Θcosβϕ+,
tan βr2ā sin Θ1+Rp-2rp cos Θ.
tan βp=sin Θrp-cos Θ.
k±22ls+2lp+2l¯=2Nπ.
k±22ls+2lp+2l¯=k±22ls+l¯±Θs+k±22lp+l¯±Θ+.
exp-iΘs=expiΘ+.
exp-ik±22ls+2lp+l¯1-iϕ++ϕs.
Tk±2=T0k±2+iϕ++ϕst+0k±2±iΔa+ϕ-t-0k±2.
T0k±2=rp-r˜s1-rpr˜s, t+0k±2=-Tpr˜s1-rpr˜s2,
t-0k±2=Tpcos Θ+1-rsr˜s±i sin Θ+1+rsr˜s1-rpr˜s2,
T0k±2=tp1-rpr˜s, t+0k±2=tprpr˜s1-rpr˜s2,
t-0k±2=-tprpcos Θ+1-rsr˜s±i sin Θ+1+rsr˜s1-rpr˜s2.
r˜srs1-2ā.
Q=2T0kct-0k±2ϕ-,
I=t0kcT0k±2TIϕ++2Φ+-2T0kct+0k±2×ϕ++ϕs+2T0kct-0k±2ϕ-.
Tk±2=T0k±2+iϕ++ϕst+0k±2-iΔa+ϕ-t-0k±2,
T0k±2=it˜stp1-rpr˜s, t+0k±2=t˜stprpr˜s1-rpr˜s2,
t-0k±2=it˜stprs-rpcos Θ++irs+rpsin Θ+1-rpr˜s2.
I=2T0k±2t0kcTIϕ-+2Φ-.
2πf1cl1-l2-φ1f1+φ2f1π,
Θ+=2πf2c2lp+l¯-φ1f2+φ2f22π.
PRblocked=RpP0+PM, PPblocked=STpP0+PM,
PRlockedrp-rMI1-rprMI2P0+PM,
PPlockedSTp1-rprMI2 P0.
S=5.4×10-2,
RMI=rMI2=0.90±0.02,
PMP0=242 mV±200 mV5025 mV±200 mV=4.8%±4.7%.
Rend=0.91±0.02, PMP0=606±2204661±220=13%±5%.
rSR2rMI2=gSR-112=0.75.

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