Abstract

An automatic test apparatus for refined testing of laser damage is presented that permits an in situ analysis of the tested area before, during, and after pulsed irradiation. Spatial and temporal beam profiling are performed in real time and give access to the localized fluence for each shot. Furthermore, an optimization of the initiation of damage detection is undertaken by use of image processing and yields a resolution better than 1 μm. Through several examples, these conditions are demonstrated to be useful for reaching an understanding of the laser-damage process. A complete study is undertaken of different kinds of glass that permits the main influence of test parameters (shot frequency, shot number, beam profile variation, temporal and spatial meshing, …) on the damage process to be shown. The study was made for different test procedures (1:1, S:1, R:1) and completed by atomic-force microscope analysis. Evidence indicates that the upgrading of metrology associated with an automatic process offers new opportunities for understanding laser-induced damage mechanisms and for emphasizing specific effects such as damage initiation, damage growth, and conditioning for repetitive shots.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002

2001

L. Martin, A. M. Norton, G. Thomas, “Ultrasonic monitoring of laser damage in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3403–3405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Kubota, M.-J. Caturla, J. Stolken, M. Feit, “Densification of fused silica due to shock waves and its implications for 351 nm laser induced damage,” Opt. Express 24, 611–616 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

F. Loewenthal, R. Tommasini, J. E. Balmer, “Single-shot measurement of laser-induced damage thresholds of thin films coatings,” Opt. Commun. 152, 168–174 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

1994

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1989

1988

L. F. D. Merkle, D. Kitriotis, “Temperature dependence of laser-induced bulk damage in SIO2 and borolilicate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1473–1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Petzold, A. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage thresholds determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

1981

E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, W. E. Williams, “Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144–2151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973

1972

M. Bass, H. H. Barrett, “Avalanche breakdown and the probabilistic nature of laser-induced damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 338–343 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Akhouayri, H.

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “Laser-induced damage of materials in bulk, thin film, and liquid forms,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3156–3166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “cw and nano-second laser irradiation on materials: elements of comparison of thermal effects,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 502–508 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “A quantitative study of laser damage probabilities in silica and calibrated liquids: comparison with theoretical prediction,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 295–305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

J. Y. Natoli, P. Volto, M. Pommies, G. Albrand, C. Amra, “Localized laser damage test facility at LOSCM: real time optical observation and quantitative AFM study,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 76–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amra, C.

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “Laser-induced damage of materials in bulk, thin film, and liquid forms,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3156–3166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “cw and nano-second laser irradiation on materials: elements of comparison of thermal effects,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 502–508 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Natoli, P. Volto, M. Pommies, G. Albrand, C. Amra, “Localized laser damage test facility at LOSCM: real time optical observation and quantitative AFM study,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 76–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “A quantitative study of laser damage probabilities in silica and calibrated liquids: comparison with theoretical prediction,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 295–305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arenberg, J. W.

Balmer, J.

Balmer, J. E.

F. Loewenthal, R. Tommasini, J. E. Balmer, “Single-shot measurement of laser-induced damage thresholds of thin films coatings,” Opt. Commun. 152, 168–174 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, H. H.

M. Bass, H. H. Barrett, “Laser-induced damage probability at 1.06 μm and 0.69 μm,” Appl. Opt. 12, 690–699 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bass, H. H. Barrett, “Avalanche breakdown and the probabilistic nature of laser-induced damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 338–343 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

L. D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 772–775 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Bass, H. H. Barrett, “Laser-induced damage probability at 1.06 μm and 0.69 μm,” Appl. Opt. 12, 690–699 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bass, H. H. Barrett, “Avalanche breakdown and the probabilistic nature of laser-induced damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 338–343 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, H. E.

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated pulsed testing using a scatter-probe damage monitor,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 71–76 (1986).

Bercegol, H.

P. Volto, A. Roussel, C. Cordillot, D. Bernardino, H. Bercegol, “Refined statistical measurements of laser damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 332–338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernardino, D.

P. Volto, A. Roussel, C. Cordillot, D. Bernardino, H. Bercegol, “Refined statistical measurements of laser damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 332–338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bettis, J. R.

Burns, S. J.

Casparis, E.

Caturla, M.-J.

A. Kubota, M.-J. Caturla, J. Stolken, M. Feit, “Densification of fused silica due to shock waves and its implications for 351 nm laser induced damage,” Opt. Express 24, 611–616 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Chad, R. J.

Chmel, A. E.

A. E. Chmel, “Fatigue laser-induced damage in transparent materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 49, 175–190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cordillot, C.

P. Volto, A. Roussel, C. Cordillot, D. Bernardino, H. Bercegol, “Refined statistical measurements of laser damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 332–338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dahmani, F.

Dijon, J.

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Lyan, “The CMO YAG laser damage test facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 102–113 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, L. Poupinet, P. Lyan, “Beam characterization: application to the laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 633–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Du, D.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, J.

Eder, D. C.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eichner, M.

Elg, A.

S. Petzold, A. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage thresholds determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Faith, W. N.

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated pulsed testing using a scatter-probe damage monitor,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 71–76 (1986).

Faux, D. R.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M.

A. Kubota, M.-J. Caturla, J. Stolken, M. Feit, “Densification of fused silica due to shock waves and its implications for 351 nm laser induced damage,” Opt. Express 24, 611–616 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foltyn, S. R.

S. R. Foltyn, “Spotsize effects in laser damage testing,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1982, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.669, 368–379 (1983).

Franck, J. B.

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated pulsed testing using a scatter-probe damage monitor,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 71–76 (1986).

Frink, M. E.

Gallais, L.

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “Laser-induced damage of materials in bulk, thin film, and liquid forms,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3156–3166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “cw and nano-second laser irradiation on materials: elements of comparison of thermal effects,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 502–508 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “A quantitative study of laser damage probabilities in silica and calibrated liquids: comparison with theoretical prediction,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 295–305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garrec, P.

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, L. Poupinet, P. Lyan, “Beam characterization: application to the laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 633–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Genin, F. Y.

F. Y. Genin, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Growth of laser-induced damage during repetitive illumination of HfO2-SiO2 multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 273–281 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, H.

K. Mann, H. Gerhardt, “Automated damage testing facility for excimer laser optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.1438, 39–46 (1989).

Guenther, A. H.

K. H. Guenther, T. W. Humpherys, J. Balmer, J. R. Bettis, E. Casparis, J. Ebert, M. Eichner, A. H. Guenther, E. Kiesel, R. Kuehnel, D. Milam, W. Ryseck, S. C. Seitel, A. F. Stewart, H. Weber, H. P. Weber, G. R. Wirtenson, R. M. Wood, “1.06-μm laser damage of thin film optical coatings: a round robin experiment involving various pulse lengths and beam diameters,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3743–3752 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated pulsed testing using a scatter-probe damage monitor,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 71–76 (1986).

A. F. Stewart, A. H. Guenther, “Scattered light as laser damage diagnostic,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1987, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.756, 142–150 (1988).

Guenther, K. H.

Herman, S.

Hodgkin, V. A.

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated pulsed testing using a scatter-probe damage monitor,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 71–76 (1986).

Hue, J.

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Lyan, “The CMO YAG laser damage test facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 102–113 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, L. Poupinet, P. Lyan, “Beam characterization: application to the laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 633–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Humpherys, T. W.

Kiesel, E.

Kitriotis, D.

D. Kitriotis, L. D. Merkle, “Multipulse laser-induced damage phenomena in silicates,” Appl. Opt. 28, 949–958 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. D. Merkle, D. Kitriotis, “Temperature dependence of laser-induced bulk damage in SIO2 and borolilicate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1473–1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koumvakalis, N.

L. D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 772–775 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M.

L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, F. Rainer, “Diagnostics for the detection and evaluation of laser induced damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 13–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M. R.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Genin, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Growth of laser-induced damage during repetitive illumination of HfO2-SiO2 multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 273–281 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, A.

A. Kubota, M.-J. Caturla, J. Stolken, M. Feit, “Densification of fused silica due to shock waves and its implications for 351 nm laser induced damage,” Opt. Express 24, 611–616 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Kuehnel, R.

Kuzuu, N.

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 398–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lambropoulos, J. C.

Lee, G.

Liu, X.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Loewenthal, F.

F. Loewenthal, R. Tommasini, J. E. Balmer, “Single-shot measurement of laser-induced damage thresholds of thin films coatings,” Opt. Commun. 152, 168–174 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lyan, P.

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Lyan, “The CMO YAG laser damage test facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 102–113 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, L. Poupinet, P. Lyan, “Beam characterization: application to the laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 633–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mann, K.

K. Mann, H. Gerhardt, “Automated damage testing facility for excimer laser optics,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.1438, 39–46 (1989).

Martin, L.

L. Martin, A. M. Norton, G. Thomas, “Ultrasonic monitoring of laser damage in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3403–3405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, E.

S. Petzold, A. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage thresholds determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, L. D.

D. Kitriotis, L. D. Merkle, “Multipulse laser-induced damage phenomena in silicates,” Appl. Opt. 28, 949–958 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 772–775 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, L. F. D.

L. F. D. Merkle, D. Kitriotis, “Temperature dependence of laser-induced bulk damage in SIO2 and borolilicate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1473–1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

K. H. Guenther, T. W. Humpherys, J. Balmer, J. R. Bettis, E. Casparis, J. Ebert, M. Eichner, A. H. Guenther, E. Kiesel, R. Kuehnel, D. Milam, W. Ryseck, S. C. Seitel, A. F. Stewart, H. Weber, H. P. Weber, G. R. Wirtenson, R. M. Wood, “1.06-μm laser damage of thin film optical coatings: a round robin experiment involving various pulse lengths and beam diameters,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3743–3752 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated pulsed testing using a scatter-probe damage monitor,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 71–76 (1986).

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mohebi, M.

Mordaunt, D. W.

Mourou, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nagafuchi, A.

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 398–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Natoli, J. Y.

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “Laser-induced damage of materials in bulk, thin film, and liquid forms,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3156–3166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “cw and nano-second laser irradiation on materials: elements of comparison of thermal effects,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 502–508 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Natoli, P. Volto, M. Pommies, G. Albrand, C. Amra, “Localized laser damage test facility at LOSCM: real time optical observation and quantitative AFM study,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 76–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “A quantitative study of laser damage probabilities in silica and calibrated liquids: comparison with theoretical prediction,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 295–305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Newnam, B. E.

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated pulsed testing using a scatter-probe damage monitor,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 71–76 (1986).

Norton, A. M.

L. Martin, A. M. Norton, G. Thomas, “Ultrasonic monitoring of laser damage in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3403–3405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Connell, R. M.

Ochi, K.

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 398–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Papernov, S.

Penetrante, B. M.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

Petzold, S.

S. Petzold, A. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage thresholds determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pommies, M.

J. Y. Natoli, P. Volto, M. Pommies, G. Albrand, C. Amra, “Localized laser damage test facility at LOSCM: real time optical observation and quantitative AFM study,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 76–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Porteus, J. O.

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated pulsed testing using a scatter-probe damage monitor,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 71–76 (1986).

Poupinet, L.

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, L. Poupinet, P. Lyan, “Beam characterization: application to the laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 633–644 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, F.

L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, F. Rainer, “Diagnostics for the detection and evaluation of laser induced damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 13–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reichling, M.

S. Petzold, A. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage thresholds determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

S. Petzold, A. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage thresholds determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Riddle, R. A.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roussel, A.

P. Volto, A. Roussel, C. Cordillot, D. Bernardino, H. Bercegol, “Refined statistical measurements of laser damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 332–338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Runkel, M.

R. Sharp, M. Runkel, “Automated damage onset analysis techniques applied to KDP damage and the Zeus small area damage test facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 361–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ryseck, W.

Said, A. A.

Schmid, A. W.

Schwartz, S.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seitel, S. C.

Shapiro, A.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, R.

R. Sharp, M. Runkel, “Automated damage onset analysis techniques applied to KDP damage and the Zeus small area damage test facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 361–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, L.

L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, F. Rainer, “Diagnostics for the detection and evaluation of laser induced damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 13–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, L. M.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

Smirl, A. L.

E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, W. E. Williams, “Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144–2151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

A. A. Said, T. Xia, A. Dogariu, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, M. Mohebi, “Measurement of the optical damage threshold in fused quartz,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3374–3376 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, W. E. Williams, “Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144–2151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, A. F.

Stolken, J.

A. Kubota, M.-J. Caturla, J. Stolken, M. Feit, “Densification of fused silica due to shock waves and its implications for 351 nm laser induced damage,” Opt. Express 24, 611–616 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Stolz, C. J.

F. Y. Genin, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Growth of laser-induced damage during repetitive illumination of HfO2-SiO2 multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 273–281 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

Teppo, A.

Thomas, G.

L. Martin, A. M. Norton, G. Thomas, “Ultrasonic monitoring of laser damage in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3403–3405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tommasini, R.

F. Loewenthal, R. Tommasini, J. E. Balmer, “Single-shot measurement of laser-induced damage thresholds of thin films coatings,” Opt. Commun. 152, 168–174 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Umemura, N.

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 398–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, T. Xia, A. Dogariu, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, M. Mohebi, “Measurement of the optical damage threshold in fused quartz,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3374–3376 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, W. E. Williams, “Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144–2151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Volto, P.

P. Volto, A. Roussel, C. Cordillot, D. Bernardino, H. Bercegol, “Refined statistical measurements of laser damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 332–338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Natoli, P. Volto, M. Pommies, G. Albrand, C. Amra, “Localized laser damage test facility at LOSCM: real time optical observation and quantitative AFM study,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 76–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

Weber, H. P.

Williams, W. E.

E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, W. E. Williams, “Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144–2151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wirtenson, G. R.

Wood, R. M.

Xia, T.

Yagi, K.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup for real-time imaging of the sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Detection of damage on a coating. Top to bottom, image before the shot, image after the shot, and result of processing. (b) Detection of damage in bulk silica. Top to bottom, image before the shot, image after shot, and result of processing. (c) Shot on a defect upon surface silica. Top to bottom, image before the shot, image after the shot, and result of processing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Images of a silica surface after 1, 10, 100, and 1000 shots at the same energy and on the same point. (b) Images of bulk silica after 1, 2, 5, and 30 shots at the same energy and on the same point.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of focused beams and beam profiles with Gaussian fits.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AFM image of damage corresponding to a shot from the laser beam above, illustrating a malfunction of the laser.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Evolution of beam waist diameter during 1000 shots at 20 Hz. (b) Beam pointing variation during 1000 shots at 20 Hz. Beam expansion associated with a pointing variation is observed at this frequency for the first shots.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effective area measurements for several image sizes. Effective area measured at 1/e, comparison with the classic method.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temporal profile at 1064 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Standard deviation measured and calculated at a damage probability of 0.5.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Probability of damage of the site spacing. (b) Image of the sample after test with 0.1 mm between consecutive sites.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Threshold curves for Herasil and BK7 at 1064 nm, with a spot diameter of 12 μm at 1/e 2.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Threshold curves for surface silica with for kinds of polishing.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) View of damage in bulk silica. (b) Front face and (c) rear face, near a low-fluence threshold.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Rear face damage near a high-fluence threshold.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

AFM image of front face damage near a low-fluence threshold.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

AFM image of rear face damage near a low-fluence threshold.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Probabilities of damage after 1, 10, 100, and 1000 shots (P 1, P 10, P 100, and P 1000, respectively). Measurements in bulk BK7 at 1064 nm with a beam diameter of 12 μm.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Laser Energy Stability: Average (μ, in percent) and Standard Deviation (σ, in percent) of Energy Variation for Various Wavelengths and Frequenciesa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Laser Beam Stability: Average (μ, in Micrometers) and Standard Deviation (σ, in Micrometers) of Beam Waist Measurement for Several Wavelengths and Frequenciesa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Laser Beam Stability: Standard Deviation (in Micrometers) of the Beam Pointing for Several Wavelengths and Frequenciesa

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ET=FMπr2,
ET=FMAeff.
FM=Em/Spixel,
Aeff=ETSpixelEm= pixel valuespixel areamaximum pixel value.
σN=p1-pN,
PF=1-exp-dVF,
VT=46 πw022zRu+u36-arctanu,
PF=1-exp-idiViF,
Vi=46 πw022zRui+ui36-arctanui,ui=FTi-1.

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