Abstract

A new algorithm has been developed for simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical properties and chlorophyll concentrations in case I waters. This algorithm is based on an improved complete model for the inherent optical properties and accurate simulations of the radiative transfer process in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system. It has been tested against synthetic radiances generated for the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) channels and has been shown to be robust and accurate. A unique feature of this algorithm is that it uses the measured radiances in both near-IR and visible channels to find that combination of chlorophyll concentration and aerosol optical properties that minimizes the error across the spectrum. Thus the error in the retrieved quantities can be quantified.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Fast yet accurate computation of the complete radiance distribution in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 207–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Optical remote sensing of waters with vertical structure,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1478–1487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Optical remote sensing of marine constituents in coastal waters: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8318–8326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, “Asian dust aerosol: optical effect on satellite ocean color signal and a scheme of its correction,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17119–17130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13143–13151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

1991

1989

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, X. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 5954–5964 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

H. R. Gordon, “Ocean color remote sensing: influence of the particle phase function and the solar zenith angle,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 14, 1055 (1986).

1981

1980

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CACS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 204, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 714–427 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, X. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 5954–5964 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bezy, J. L.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, “The ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS): requirements to its mission and performance of its system,” in Remote Sensing in Action: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Remote Sensing Society, P. J. Curran, Y. C. Robertson, eds. (Taylor Francis, London, 1995), pp. 125–132.

Bricaud, A.

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 714–427 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CACS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 204, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Erga, S. R.

Esias, W. E.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045661, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045661, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Frette, O.

Fry, E. S.

Fukushima, H.

H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, “Asian dust aerosol: optical effect on satellite ocean color signal and a scheme of its correction,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17119–17130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gjerstad, K. I.

K. I. Gjerstad, “Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transport in the atmosphere and ocean,” M.Sc. thesis (Department of Physics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, 2001).

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, J. K. Lotsberg, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system,”Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Gordon, H. R.

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “A simple, moderately accurate, atmospheric correction algorithm for SeaWiFS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 50, 231–239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Ocean color remote sensing: influence of the particle phase function and the solar zenith angle,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 14, 1055 (1986).

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CACS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 204, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 714–427 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gregg, W. W.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045661, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Hamre, B.

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, J. K. Lotsberg, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system,”Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045661, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Hovis, W. A.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CACS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 204, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, M. M.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 714–427 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jayaweera, K.

Jin, Z.

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kamykowski, D.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Lotsberg, J. K.

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, J. K. Lotsberg, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system,”Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maymon, P. W.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, X. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 5954–5964 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045661, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Mitchell, B. G.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

Montgomery, H. E.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, X. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 5954–5964 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13143–13151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mueller, J. L.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CACS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 204, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ostrow, X.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, X. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 5954–5964 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. L.

T. L. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Visibility Laboratory Rep. 72-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, Calif., 1972).

Pope, R. M.

Rast, M.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, “The ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS): requirements to its mission and performance of its system,” in Remote Sensing in Action: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Remote Sensing Society, P. J. Curran, Y. C. Robertson, eds. (Taylor Francis, London, 1995), pp. 125–132.

Reynolds, R. A.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W.

Saitoh, S.

S. Saitoh, “OCTS on ADEOS,” in Oceanographic Application of Remote Sensing, M. Ikeda, F. W. Dobson, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 473–480.

Salomonson, V. V.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, X. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 5954–5964 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sayed, S. Y. E.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamnes, J. J.

Stamnes, K.

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Fast yet accurate computation of the complete radiance distribution in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 207–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, M. Toratani, W. Li, J. J. Stamnes, “Evaluation of a reflectance model used in the SeaWiFS ocean color algorithm: implications for chlorophyll concentration retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6243–6259 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: how should aerosol optical properties be computed?” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Optical remote sensing of waters with vertical structure,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1478–1487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Optical remote sensing of marine constituents in coastal waters: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8318–8326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting media: atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, K. Stamnes, “Inherent optical properties of Case I waters: a complete model suitable for use in ocean color remote sensing applications,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, J. K. Lotsberg, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system,”Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Stramski, D.

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Strum, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, G. E.

G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Toratani, M.

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, M. Toratani, W. Li, J. J. Stamnes, “Evaluation of a reflectance model used in the SeaWiFS ocean color algorithm: implications for chlorophyll concentration retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6243–6259 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, “Asian dust aerosol: optical effect on satellite ocean color signal and a scheme of its correction,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17119–17130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S. C.

Tsay, S.-C.

Voss, K. J.

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13143–13151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiscombe, W. J.

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, B.

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Fast yet accurate computation of the complete radiance distribution in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 207–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, M. Toratani, W. Li, J. J. Stamnes, “Evaluation of a reflectance model used in the SeaWiFS ocean color algorithm: implications for chlorophyll concentration retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6243–6259 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: how should aerosol optical properties be computed?” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yan, “Radiative transfer modeling in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and its application to the remote sensing of ocean imagery,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, 2001).

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, J. K. Lotsberg, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system,”Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Yang, H.

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, M. Toratani, W. Li, J. J. Stamnes, “Evaluation of a reflectance model used in the SeaWiFS ocean color algorithm: implications for chlorophyll concentration retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6243–6259 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 714–427 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting media: atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Optical remote sensing of marine constituents in coastal waters: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8318–8326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Optical remote sensing of waters with vertical structure,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1478–1487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: how should aerosol optical properties be computed?” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union

H. R. Gordon, “Ocean color remote sensing: influence of the particle phase function and the solar zenith angle,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 14, 1055 (1986).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, X. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 5954–5964 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, “Asian dust aerosol: optical effect on satellite ocean color signal and a scheme of its correction,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17119–17130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13143–13151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithm for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Fast yet accurate computation of the complete radiance distribution in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 207–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “A simple, moderately accurate, atmospheric correction algorithm for SeaWiFS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 50, 231–239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CACS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 204, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045661, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

S. Saitoh, “OCTS on ADEOS,” in Oceanographic Application of Remote Sensing, M. Ikeda, F. W. Dobson, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 473–480.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, “The ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS): requirements to its mission and performance of its system,” in Remote Sensing in Action: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Remote Sensing Society, P. J. Curran, Y. C. Robertson, eds. (Taylor Francis, London, 1995), pp. 125–132.

G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, K. Stamnes, “Inherent optical properties of Case I waters: a complete model suitable for use in ocean color remote sensing applications,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

T. L. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Visibility Laboratory Rep. 72-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, Calif., 1972).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

B. Yan, “Radiative transfer modeling in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and its application to the remote sensing of ocean imagery,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, 2001).

K. I. Gjerstad, “Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transport in the atmosphere and ocean,” M.Sc. thesis (Department of Physics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, 2001).

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, J. K. Lotsberg, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system,”Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated values of γdiff(765, 865) and ∊(765, 865) as a function of aerosol optical depth τ865 for several aerosol models including maritime, tropospheric, coastal, urban, and oceanic at a RH of 50%. The various aerosol models in the left panel are labeled in the same way as in the right panel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left panel: plot of R w = tρ w (490)/tρ w (555) versus chlorophyll concentration for the maritime aerosol model (RH of 50%) with an aerosol optical depth of τ(865) = 0.1. Right panel: the percentage deviation in the R w ratio for the various aerosol models as compared with the maritime aerosol model at 50% RH.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flow chart of the algorithm for simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical properties and chlorophyll concentration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieved aerosol optical depth at 865 nm compared with the input value. The four panels correspond to the four test cases with different input aerosol models (see text).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retrieved chlorophyll concentration compared with the input value. The four panels correspond to the four test cases with different input aerosol models (see text).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative deviation between the synthetic (measured) and the inferred reflectances ρdiff j ) defined in Eq. (5). The four panels correspond to the four test cases with different input aerosol models (see text).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Retrieved chlorophyll concentration and aerosol optical depth τ(865) for a SeaWiFS image obtained off the East Coast of the United States. The yellow color indicates land areas. Left panel: chlorophyll concentration; right panel: τ(865).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative deviation between measured and inferred reflectances ρdiff j ) [see Eq. (5)] for the SeaWiFS image presented in Fig. 7. The eight panels correspond to the eight wavelengths available for the SeaWiFS instrument.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average Percentage Error ρ̅diffj ) in Eight SeaWiFS Channels with Wavelength λ j and Percentage Number of Pixels with Error Less than 5%

Equations (25)

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pτ, cos Θ=pτ, μ, ϕ; μ, ϕ=m=02M-12-δ0,mpmτ, μ, μ×cos mϕ-ϕ.
pmτ, μ, μ=l=m2M-12l-1glτΛlmμΛlmμ,Λlmμ=l-m!/l+m!1/2Plmμ,
glτ=12-1+1 Plcos Θpτ, cos Θdcos Θ.
cos Θ=cos θ cos θ+sin θ sin θ cosϕ-ϕ.
Lτ, μ, μ0, Δϕ=m=02M-1 Lmτ, μ, μ0cos mΔϕ,
μ dLmτ, μ, μ0dτ=Lmτ, μ, μ0-aτ2-1+1dμpm×τ, μ, μLmτ, μ, μ0-Qmτ, μ, μ0,
Qmτ, μ, μ0=aτF04π pmτ, -μ0, μexp-τ/μ0.
msλ, 865ρpathλ-ρrayλ/ρpath865-ρray865
ρdiffλjρtotmeasλj-ρtotLUTλjρtotmeasλj×100
γdiffλ, 865γλ-γ865,
Lτ, μv, μ0, Δϕ=m=02M-1 Lmτ, μv, μ0cos mΔϕ.
ρtotmeasλ=ρpathλ+tλρwλ,
ρpathλ=ρrayλ+ρaλ+ρraλ.
ρasλ=ρpathssλ-ρrayλ,
ρasλ=ωaλτaλpaθv, ϕv, θ0, ϕ0; λ/4 cos θv cos θ0,
ssλ, 865=ρasλ/ρas865,ss765, 865=ρas765/ρas865,
ρpathλ-ρrayλ=ρaλ+ρraλKλ, ρasλρasλ.
ρasλ=ssλ, 865ρas865.
ρaλ+ρraλ=Kλ, ρasλρasλ.
logeKλ, ρasλρasλ=loge a1λ+a2λlogeρasλ+a3λloge2ρasλ.
ρwλN=ρwλ/t0λ=ρtotmeasλ-ρpathλ/t0λtvλ,
ratio=MaxR12443, R12490, R12510,R=log10ratio,C=100.366-3.067R+1.930R2+0.649R3-1.532R4.
acλ=Kdλ0.901+2.25Rλ-11-Rλ,
Rλ=0.33bbλ/acλ.
bbpλ=bc5500.002+0.010.50-0.25 log10C×550/λ-ν,

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