Abstract

Using high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared absorbance and transmittance spectral data for ammonium sulfate (AMS), calcium carbonate (CAC), and ammonium nitrate (AMN), we made comparisons with previously published complex refractive-index data for AMS and CAC to infer experimental parameters to determine the imaginary refractive index for AMN in the infrared wavelength range from 2 to 20 μm. Subtractive Kramers-Kronig mathematical relations were applied to calculate the real refractive index for the three compositions. Excellent agreement for AMS and CAC with the published values was found, validating the complex refractive index obtained for AMN. We performed backscatter calculations using a log-normal size distribution for AMS, AMN, and CAC aerosols to show differences in their backscattered spectra.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

M. L. Clapp, D. R. Worsnop, R. E. Miller, “Frequency dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. J. Charlson, T. M. L. Wigley, “Sulfate aerosol and climatic change,” Sci. Am. 270, 48–57 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM10 and PM2.5 compositions in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 18, 105–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ben-David, “Wavelength dependence of backscattering and extinction of kaolin dust at CO2 laser wavelengths: effect of multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1598–1605 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

V. Srivastava, M. Jarzembski, D. A. Bowdle, “Comparison of calculated aerosol backscatter at 9.1- and 2.1-m wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1904–1906 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM 10 source apportionment in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 26, 3335–3354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

T. Roush, J. Pollack, J. Orenberg, “Derivation of midinfrared (5–25 μm) optical constants of some silicates and palagonite,” Icarus 94, 191–208 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

O. Toon, J. B. Pollack, C. Sagan, “Physical properties of the particles composing the Martian dust storm of 1971–1972,” Icarus 30, 663–696 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, “The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species: ammonium sulfate, ammonium oxide, and sodium chloride,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733–5748 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1973 (2)

F. E. Volz, “Infrared optical constants of ammonium sulfate, Sahara dust, vocanic pumice, and flyash,” Appl. Opt. 12, 564–568 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Owen, B. N. Khare, “Optical properties of some terrestrial rocks and glasses,” Icarus 19, 372–389 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres,” Icarus 8, 324–360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ben-David, A.

Bentley, F. F.

F. F. Bentley, L. D. Smithson, A. L. Rozek, Infrared Spectra and Characteristic Frequencies ∼700-300 cm-1: A Collection of Spectra Interpretation and Bibliography (Interscience, New York, 1968).

Bowdle, D. A.

Cess, R. D.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, T. M. L. Wigley, “Sulfate aerosol and climatic change,” Sci. Am. 270, 48–57 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, J. C.

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM10 and PM2.5 compositions in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 18, 105–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM 10 source apportionment in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 26, 3335–3354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

Clapp, M. L.

M. L. Clapp, D. R. Worsnop, R. E. Miller, “Frequency dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, J. A.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, D. E.

Coveney, R. M.

Cutten, D. R.

D. R. Cutten, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, S. D. Howard, E. W. McCaul, “Boundary layer aerosol composition over Sierra Nevada Mountains using 9.11- and 10.59-μm cw lidars and modeled backscatter from size distribution data,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published) (2002).

Gosse, S. F.

Hales, J. M.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, J. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, D. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, S. D.

D. R. Cutten, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, S. D. Howard, E. W. McCaul, “Boundary layer aerosol composition over Sierra Nevada Mountains using 9.11- and 10.59-μm cw lidars and modeled backscatter from size distribution data,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published) (2002).

Irvine, W. M.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres,” Icarus 8, 324–360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Jarzembski, M.

Jarzembski, M. A.

D. R. Cutten, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, S. D. Howard, E. W. McCaul, “Boundary layer aerosol composition over Sierra Nevada Mountains using 9.11- and 10.59-μm cw lidars and modeled backscatter from size distribution data,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published) (2002).

Jordan, R.

Keller, R. J.

R. J. Keller, Sigma Chemical Company, 3050 Spruce Street, St. Louis, Missouri 63103 (personal communication, 2000–2002).

R. J. Keller, Sigma Library of FT-IR Spectra (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, Mo., 1986), Vol. 1.

Khare, B. N.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, “The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species: ammonium sulfate, ammonium oxide, and sodium chloride,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733–5748 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Owen, B. N. Khare, “Optical properties of some terrestrial rocks and glasses,” Icarus 19, 372–389 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Labrie, D.

Lies, K.

Lowenthal, D. H.

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM10 and PM2.5 compositions in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 18, 105–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM 10 source apportionment in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 26, 3335–3354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Magliano, K. L.

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM10 and PM2.5 compositions in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 18, 105–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM 10 source apportionment in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 26, 3335–3354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McCaul, E. W.

D. R. Cutten, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, S. D. Howard, E. W. McCaul, “Boundary layer aerosol composition over Sierra Nevada Mountains using 9.11- and 10.59-μm cw lidars and modeled backscatter from size distribution data,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published) (2002).

Miller, R. E.

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Clapp, D. R. Worsnop, R. E. Miller, “Frequency dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Murray, E. R.

Nakamoto, K.

K. Nakamoto, Infrared Spectra of Inorganic and Coordination Compounds (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1970).

Orenberg, J.

T. Roush, J. Pollack, J. Orenberg, “Derivation of midinfrared (5–25 μm) optical constants of some silicates and palagonite,” Icarus 94, 191–208 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Osborne, G.

Owen, O. B.

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Owen, B. N. Khare, “Optical properties of some terrestrial rocks and glasses,” Icarus 19, 372–389 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, K. F.

K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, “Optical constants of sulfuric acid: application to Venus?” Appl. Opt. 14, 208–219 (1975).
[PubMed]

K. F. Palmer, B. E. Wood, J. A. Roux, “Infrared optical properties of solid mixtures of molecular species at 20 K,” AEDC-TR-80-30 (Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold Air Force Base, Tenn., 1981).

Pollack, J.

T. Roush, J. Pollack, J. Orenberg, “Derivation of midinfrared (5–25 μm) optical constants of some silicates and palagonite,” Icarus 94, 191–208 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

O. Toon, J. B. Pollack, C. Sagan, “Physical properties of the particles composing the Martian dust storm of 1971–1972,” Icarus 30, 663–696 (1977).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, “The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species: ammonium sulfate, ammonium oxide, and sodium chloride,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733–5748 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Owen, B. N. Khare, “Optical properties of some terrestrial rocks and glasses,” Icarus 19, 372–389 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres,” Icarus 8, 324–360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

D. R. Cutten, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, S. D. Howard, E. W. McCaul, “Boundary layer aerosol composition over Sierra Nevada Mountains using 9.11- and 10.59-μm cw lidars and modeled backscatter from size distribution data,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published) (2002).

Querry, M. R.

Richards, L. W.

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM10 and PM2.5 compositions in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 18, 105–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM 10 source apportionment in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 26, 3335–3354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Richwine, L. J.

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roush, T.

T. Roush, J. Pollack, J. Orenberg, “Derivation of midinfrared (5–25 μm) optical constants of some silicates and palagonite,” Icarus 94, 191–208 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roux, J. A.

K. F. Palmer, B. E. Wood, J. A. Roux, “Infrared optical properties of solid mixtures of molecular species at 20 K,” AEDC-TR-80-30 (Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold Air Force Base, Tenn., 1981).

Rozek, A. L.

F. F. Bentley, L. D. Smithson, A. L. Rozek, Infrared Spectra and Characteristic Frequencies ∼700-300 cm-1: A Collection of Spectra Interpretation and Bibliography (Interscience, New York, 1968).

Sagan, C.

O. Toon, J. B. Pollack, C. Sagan, “Physical properties of the particles composing the Martian dust storm of 1971–1972,” Icarus 30, 663–696 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, S. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smithson, L. D.

F. F. Bentley, L. D. Smithson, A. L. Rozek, Infrared Spectra and Characteristic Frequencies ∼700-300 cm-1: A Collection of Spectra Interpretation and Bibliography (Interscience, New York, 1968).

Solomon, P. A.

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM10 and PM2.5 compositions in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 18, 105–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM 10 source apportionment in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 26, 3335–3354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, V.

V. Srivastava, M. Jarzembski, D. A. Bowdle, “Comparison of calculated aerosol backscatter at 9.1- and 2.1-m wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1904–1906 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Cutten, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, S. D. Howard, E. W. McCaul, “Boundary layer aerosol composition over Sierra Nevada Mountains using 9.11- and 10.59-μm cw lidars and modeled backscatter from size distribution data,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published) (2002).

Toon, O.

O. Toon, J. B. Pollack, C. Sagan, “Physical properties of the particles composing the Martian dust storm of 1971–1972,” Icarus 30, 663–696 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, “The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species: ammonium sulfate, ammonium oxide, and sodium chloride,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733–5748 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Tropf, W. J.

W. J. Tropf, “Calcium carbonate, calcite (CaCO3),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids III, (Academic, New York, 1998).

van der Laan, J. E.

Volz, F. E.

Walter, D. P.

Wang, M.

Watson, J. G.

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM10 and PM2.5 compositions in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 18, 105–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM 10 source apportionment in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 26, 3335–3354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wigley, T. M. L.

R. J. Charlson, T. M. L. Wigley, “Sulfate aerosol and climatic change,” Sci. Am. 270, 48–57 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

Wood, B. E.

K. F. Palmer, B. E. Wood, J. A. Roux, “Infrared optical properties of solid mixtures of molecular species at 20 K,” AEDC-TR-80-30 (Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold Air Force Base, Tenn., 1981).

Worsnop, D. R.

M. L. Clapp, D. R. Worsnop, R. E. Miller, “Frequency dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ziman, S. D.

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM10 and PM2.5 compositions in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 18, 105–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM 10 source apportionment in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 26, 3335–3354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM10 and PM2.5 compositions in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 18, 105–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Atmos. Environ. Part A (1)

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal, P. A. Solomon, K. L. Magliano, S. D. Ziman, L. W. Richards, “PM 10 source apportionment in California’s San Joaquin Valley,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 26, 3335–3354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (4)

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres,” Icarus 8, 324–360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Owen, B. N. Khare, “Optical properties of some terrestrial rocks and glasses,” Icarus 19, 372–389 (1973).
[CrossRef]

O. Toon, J. B. Pollack, C. Sagan, “Physical properties of the particles composing the Martian dust storm of 1971–1972,” Icarus 30, 663–696 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Roush, J. Pollack, J. Orenberg, “Derivation of midinfrared (5–25 μm) optical constants of some silicates and palagonite,” Icarus 94, 191–208 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

FTIR absorbance and transmittance spectra from the Sigma Library15 (reproduced with permission from Roger Keller) for (a) AMS, (b) CAC, (c) AMN.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of imaginary refractive index (Toon et al. 6) k for AMS with calculated k from the Sigma FTIR data for the effect of changing the (a) effective composite thickness d eff, (b) conversion factor C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complex refractive index k as a function of wavelength for (a) AMS, (b) CAC, (c) AMN. The Toon et al. data are from Ref. 6. The Querry et al. data are from Ref. 16.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated backscatter coefficient β as a function of wavelength λ for log-normal size distribution having N 0 = 1 particle/cm3, r g = 0.15 μm, and δ g = 1.5 by use of the complex refractive-index values from the Lorentz dispersion theory as shown in Fig. 3 for AMS, CAC, and AMN.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Optical Constants of Ammonium Nitrate

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Table 2 Lorentz Parameters Calculated for Absorbance and Transmittance Spectral Data

Equations (4)

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Tλ=1-R2 exp- αdeff/1-R2 exp- 2αdeff.
Tλ=Cλexp- αdeff, with Cλ=1-R2/1-R2 exp-2αdeff1-R2,
nν=nν0+2ν2-ν02π ×P νloνhiνkνν2-ν2ν02-ν2 dν,
εν=ε+j4πρjνj2νj2-ν2+iγjνjννj2-ν22+γjνjν2,

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