Abstract

Frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) is a technique used to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort laser pulses through the optical construction of a spectrogram of the pulse. To obtain quantitative information about the pulse from its spectrogram, an iterative two-dimensional phase-retrieval algorithm must be used. Current algorithms are quite robust, but retrieval of all the pulse information can be slow. Previous real-time FROG trace inversion work focused on second-harmonic-generation FROG, which has an ambiguity in the direction of time, and required digital signal processors (DSPs). We develop a simplified real-time FROG device based on a single-shot geometry that no longer requires DSPs. We use it and apply the principal component generalized projections algorithm to invert polarization gate FROG traces at rates as high as 20 Hz.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 935–943 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2000 (1)

1999 (4)

1998 (2)

D. J. Kane, “Real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses using principal component generalized projections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 278–284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis, V. Wong, I. A. Walmsley, “Direct interferometric techniques for characterizing ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 285–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 935–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Wong, I. A. Walmsley, “Ultrashort-pulse characterization from dynamic spectrograms by iterative phase retrieval,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 944–949 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, A. J. Taylor, M. C. Downer, “Multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating: real-time phase-sensitive imaging of ultrafast dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 22, 624–626 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

L. Cohen, “Time-frequency distributions—a review,” Proc. IEEE 77, 941–981 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1984 (1)

1971 (1)

E. B. Treacy, “Measurement and interpretation of dynamic spectrograms of picosecond light pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848–3858 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. E.

Bromage, J.

Chilla, J. L. A.

Clement, T. S.

D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 935–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L.

L. Cohen, “Time-frequency distributions—a review,” Proc. IEEE 77, 941–981 (1989).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

Fienup, J. R.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1995).

Gallmann, L.

Habetler, G. J.

Iaconis, C.

Jain, A. K.

A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, 1st ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989).

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, “Convergence test for inversion of frequency-resolved optical gating spectrograms,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1216–1218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, “Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 421–431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, “Real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses using principal component generalized projections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 278–284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 935–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort laser pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18, 823–825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

Krumbügel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A.

Martinez, O. E.

Matuschek, N.

Omenetto, F. G.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1995).

Reid, D. T.

D. T. Reid, “Algorithm for complete and rapid retrieval of ultrashort pulse amplitude and phase from a sonogram,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1584–1589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 935–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shuman, T. M.

Siders, C. W.

Stark, H.

Steinmeyer, G.

Sutter, D. H.

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1995).

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, “Measurement and interpretation of dynamic spectrograms of picosecond light pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848–3858 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort laser pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18, 823–825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1995).

Walmsley, I. A.

Waxer, L.

Wong, V.

C. Iaconis, V. Wong, I. A. Walmsley, “Direct interferometric techniques for characterizing ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 285–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Wong, I. A. Walmsley, “Ultrashort-pulse characterization from dynamic spectrograms by iterative phase retrieval,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 944–949 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yudilevich, E.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

D. J. Kane, R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, “Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 421–431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Reid, “Algorithm for complete and rapid retrieval of ultrashort pulse amplitude and phase from a sonogram,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1584–1589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Iaconis, V. Wong, I. A. Walmsley, “Direct interferometric techniques for characterizing ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 285–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, “Real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses using principal component generalized projections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 278–284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. B. Treacy, “Measurement and interpretation of dynamic spectrograms of picosecond light pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848–3858 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 935–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. IEEE (1)

L. Cohen, “Time-frequency distributions—a review,” Proc. IEEE 77, 941–981 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1995).

A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, 1st ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989).

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