Abstract

We demonstrated an intrinsic conversion efficiency of 56% from the input fundamental power to the generated second-harmonic power. The second-harmonic power of 581 mW was obtained from the external cavity with a LiB3O5 crystal through the frequency doubling of a 1.17-W Ti:sapphire laser at 746 nm, when the finesse of the robust external cavity was 260.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Fujii, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, M. Obara, “Development of a high-power deep-ultraviolet continuous-wave coherent light source for laser cooling of silicon atoms,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1457–1459 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. S. Adams, A. I. Ferguson, “Tunable narrow linewidth ultra-violet light generation by frequency doubling of a ring Ti:sapphire laser using lithium triborate in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 90, 89–94 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Bourzeix, M. D. Plimmer, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Efficient frequency doubling of a continuous wave titanium:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 99, 89–94 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. de Angelis, G. M. Tino, P. De Natale, C. Fort, G. Modugno, M. Prevedelli, C. Zimmermann, “Tunable frequency-controlled laser source in the near ultraviolet based on doubling of a semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 333–338 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Sayama, M. Ohtsu, “Tunable UV CW generation by frequency tripling of a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 137, 295–298 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Beier, D. Woll, M. Scheidt, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Second harmonic generation of the output of an AlGaAs diode oscillator amplifier system in critically phase matched LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 315–317 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 239–244 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. K. Goyal, J. D. Bhawalker, Y. Conturie, P. Gavrilovic, Y. Mao, H. Po, J. Guerra, “High beam quality of ultraviolet radiation generated through resonant enhanced frequency doubling of a diode laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2207–2216 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Bhawalkar, Y. Mao, H. Po, A. K. Goyal, P. Gavrilovic, Y. Conturie, S. Singh, “High-power 390-nm laser source based on efficient frequency doubling of a tapered diode laser in an external resonant cavity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 823–825 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imaho, R. Ohmukai, S. Urabe, “Tunable 397-nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. H. Oh, S. G. Kim, Y. S. Song, Y. B. Kim, P. S. Kim, “Second-harmonic generation of GaAlAs diode laser by enhanced doubling in LiIO3 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1634–1636 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleimann, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1997 (3)

S. Sayama, M. Ohtsu, “Tunable UV CW generation by frequency tripling of a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 137, 295–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Beier, D. Woll, M. Scheidt, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Second harmonic generation of the output of an AlGaAs diode oscillator amplifier system in critically phase matched LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 239–244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. de Angelis, G. M. Tino, P. De Natale, C. Fort, G. Modugno, M. Prevedelli, C. Zimmermann, “Tunable frequency-controlled laser source in the near ultraviolet based on doubling of a semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 333–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imaho, R. Ohmukai, S. Urabe, “Tunable 397-nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Oh, S. G. Kim, Y. S. Song, Y. B. Kim, P. S. Kim, “Second-harmonic generation of GaAlAs diode laser by enhanced doubling in LiIO3 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1634–1636 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Bourzeix, M. D. Plimmer, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Efficient frequency doubling of a continuous wave titanium:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 99, 89–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. S. Adams, A. I. Ferguson, “Tunable narrow linewidth ultra-violet light generation by frequency doubling of a ring Ti:sapphire laser using lithium triborate in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 90, 89–94 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleimann, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. S.

C. S. Adams, A. I. Ferguson, “Tunable narrow linewidth ultra-violet light generation by frequency doubling of a ring Ti:sapphire laser using lithium triborate in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 90, 89–94 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Beier, B.

B. Beier, D. Woll, M. Scheidt, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Second harmonic generation of the output of an AlGaAs diode oscillator amplifier system in critically phase matched LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhawalkar, J. D.

Bhawalker, J. D.

Biraben, F.

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 239–244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, M. D. Plimmer, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Efficient frequency doubling of a continuous wave titanium:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 99, 89–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K.-J.

B. Beier, D. Woll, M. Scheidt, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Second harmonic generation of the output of an AlGaAs diode oscillator amplifier system in critically phase matched LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bourzeix, S.

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 239–244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, M. D. Plimmer, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Efficient frequency doubling of a continuous wave titanium:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 99, 89–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleimann, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Conturie, Y.

Couillaud, B.

T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

de Angelis, M.

M. de Angelis, G. M. Tino, P. De Natale, C. Fort, G. Modugno, M. Prevedelli, C. Zimmermann, “Tunable frequency-controlled laser source in the near ultraviolet based on doubling of a semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 333–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Beauvoir, B.

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 239–244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

M. de Angelis, G. M. Tino, P. De Natale, C. Fort, G. Modugno, M. Prevedelli, C. Zimmermann, “Tunable frequency-controlled laser source in the near ultraviolet based on doubling of a semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 333–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Tomasi, F.

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 239–244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

C. S. Adams, A. I. Ferguson, “Tunable narrow linewidth ultra-violet light generation by frequency doubling of a ring Ti:sapphire laser using lithium triborate in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 90, 89–94 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fort, C.

M. de Angelis, G. M. Tino, P. De Natale, C. Fort, G. Modugno, M. Prevedelli, C. Zimmermann, “Tunable frequency-controlled laser source in the near ultraviolet based on doubling of a semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 333–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

Gavrilovic, P.

Goyal, A. K.

Guerra, J.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, K.

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imaho, R. Ohmukai, S. Urabe, “Tunable 397-nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Imaho, H.

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imaho, R. Ohmukai, S. Urabe, “Tunable 397-nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Julien, L.

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 239–244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, M. D. Plimmer, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Efficient frequency doubling of a continuous wave titanium:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 99, 89–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P. S.

C. H. Oh, S. G. Kim, Y. S. Song, Y. B. Kim, P. S. Kim, “Second-harmonic generation of GaAlAs diode laser by enhanced doubling in LiIO3 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1634–1636 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. G.

C. H. Oh, S. G. Kim, Y. S. Song, Y. B. Kim, P. S. Kim, “Second-harmonic generation of GaAlAs diode laser by enhanced doubling in LiIO3 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1634–1636 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. B.

C. H. Oh, S. G. Kim, Y. S. Song, Y. B. Kim, P. S. Kim, “Second-harmonic generation of GaAlAs diode laser by enhanced doubling in LiIO3 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1634–1636 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kleimann, D. A.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleimann, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, H.

Mao, Y.

Midorikawa, K.

Modugno, G.

M. de Angelis, G. M. Tino, P. De Natale, C. Fort, G. Modugno, M. Prevedelli, C. Zimmermann, “Tunable frequency-controlled laser source in the near ultraviolet based on doubling of a semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 333–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nez, F.

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 239–244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, M. D. Plimmer, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Efficient frequency doubling of a continuous wave titanium:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 99, 89–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

Oh, C. H.

C. H. Oh, S. G. Kim, Y. S. Song, Y. B. Kim, P. S. Kim, “Second-harmonic generation of GaAlAs diode laser by enhanced doubling in LiIO3 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1634–1636 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohmukai, R.

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imaho, R. Ohmukai, S. Urabe, “Tunable 397-nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

S. Sayama, M. Ohtsu, “Tunable UV CW generation by frequency tripling of a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 137, 295–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Plimmer, M. D.

S. Bourzeix, M. D. Plimmer, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Efficient frequency doubling of a continuous wave titanium:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 99, 89–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Po, H.

Prevedelli, M.

M. de Angelis, G. M. Tino, P. De Natale, C. Fort, G. Modugno, M. Prevedelli, C. Zimmermann, “Tunable frequency-controlled laser source in the near ultraviolet based on doubling of a semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 333–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sayama, S.

S. Sayama, M. Ohtsu, “Tunable UV CW generation by frequency tripling of a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 137, 295–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scheidt, M.

B. Beier, D. Woll, M. Scheidt, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Second harmonic generation of the output of an AlGaAs diode oscillator amplifier system in critically phase matched LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S.

Song, Y. S.

C. H. Oh, S. G. Kim, Y. S. Song, Y. B. Kim, P. S. Kim, “Second-harmonic generation of GaAlAs diode laser by enhanced doubling in LiIO3 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1634–1636 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tino, G. M.

M. de Angelis, G. M. Tino, P. De Natale, C. Fort, G. Modugno, M. Prevedelli, C. Zimmermann, “Tunable frequency-controlled laser source in the near ultraviolet based on doubling of a semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 333–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Urabe, S.

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imaho, R. Ohmukai, S. Urabe, “Tunable 397-nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

B. Beier, D. Woll, M. Scheidt, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Second harmonic generation of the output of an AlGaAs diode oscillator amplifier system in critically phase matched LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imaho, R. Ohmukai, S. Urabe, “Tunable 397-nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Woll, D.

B. Beier, D. Woll, M. Scheidt, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Second harmonic generation of the output of an AlGaAs diode oscillator amplifier system in critically phase matched LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

M. de Angelis, G. M. Tino, P. De Natale, C. Fort, G. Modugno, M. Prevedelli, C. Zimmermann, “Tunable frequency-controlled laser source in the near ultraviolet based on doubling of a semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 333–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. de Angelis, G. M. Tino, P. De Natale, C. Fort, G. Modugno, M. Prevedelli, C. Zimmermann, “Tunable frequency-controlled laser source in the near ultraviolet based on doubling of a semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 333–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Beier, D. Woll, M. Scheidt, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Second harmonic generation of the output of an AlGaAs diode oscillator amplifier system in critically phase matched LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleimann, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imaho, R. Ohmukai, S. Urabe, “Tunable 397-nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Oh, S. G. Kim, Y. S. Song, Y. B. Kim, P. S. Kim, “Second-harmonic generation of GaAlAs diode laser by enhanced doubling in LiIO3 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1634–1636 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (5)

T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 239–244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sayama, M. Ohtsu, “Tunable UV CW generation by frequency tripling of a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 137, 295–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Adams, A. I. Ferguson, “Tunable narrow linewidth ultra-violet light generation by frequency doubling of a ring Ti:sapphire laser using lithium triborate in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 90, 89–94 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, M. D. Plimmer, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, “Efficient frequency doubling of a continuous wave titanium:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 99, 89–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for frequency doubling. CL, cylindrical lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plots of the measured second-harmonic output power from the cavity and the conversion efficiency as a function of the incident fundamental power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots of the estimated enhancement factor and the mode-matching efficiency as a function of the incident fundamental power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plots of the single-pass conversion efficiency and the ratio (γmeasuredtheoretical) of the measured single-pass conversion efficiency to the theoretical maximum as a function of the incident fundamental power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plots of the total loss, the nonlinear loss, and the linear loss as functions of the incident fundamental power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plots of the cavity finesse and estimated linewidth as a function of the incident fundamental power.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ2ω=8ω2deff2πnω2n2ω2c3ε0 kl exp-αlh B,ξ,
ε=Pleak,onPleak,off.
Meff=1-Rin,ω1-αtotal2Tin,ω ε,
γ2ω=Pout,2ωTout,2ωPe2,
F=πRin1-Rin2παtotal+Tin.

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