Abstract

The small-signal gain coefficient and the saturation intensity of a copper vapor laser have been measured for both 510.6- and 578.2-nm transitions through the implementation of a discharge driven oscillator-amplifier configuration. Pressure dependence of the gain and saturation property of the laser has been investigated.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. T. Walder, “A new generation of copper vapour lasers for high speed photography,” in 19th Int. Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, W. P. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE1358, 811–820 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, V. G. Mokerov, G. G. Petrash, A. G. Petrova, “Coherent properties of a copper vapor laser and dynamic holograms in vanadium dioxide films,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 245–247 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Yu. M. Mokrushin, O. V. Shakin, “Acoustooptical system for imaging TV information by using a copper vapor laser,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 17, 381–393 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Konagai, Y. Sano, N. Aoki, “Underwater direct metal processing by high power copper vapour laser,” in Pulsed Metal Vapour Lasers—Physics and Emerging Applications in Industry, Medicine and Science, C. E. Little, N. V. Sabotinov, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 371–376.
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Stamp, G. J. S. Fowler, R. Devonshire, J. L. Williams, “The use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of superficial tumours on the bladder wall,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 5–12 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. R. German, “Forensic applications of copper laser technology,” in New Developments and Applications in Gas Lasers, L. R. Carlson, ed., Proc. SPIE737, 28–30 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Grant, “Lasers improve uranium enrichment,” Photonics Spectra 31(10), 46–47 (1997).
  8. B. E. Warner, “An overview of copper-laser development for isotope separation,” in New Developments and Applications in Gas Lasers, L. R. Carlson, ed., Proc. SPIE737, 2–6 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. L. Bass, R. E. Bonanno, R. P. Hackel, P. R. Hammond, “High-average-power dye laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6993–7006 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. V. Zubov, N. A. Lyabin, A. D. Chursin, “Efficient master-oscillator-amplifier system utilizing copper vapor laser active elements,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1606–1610 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Isaev, “Transformation of copper and copper bromide laser radiation in nonlinear processes,” in Pulsed Metal Vapour Lasers-Physics and Emerging Applications in Industry, Medicine and Science, C. E. Little, N. V. Sabotinov, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 789–302.
  12. R. S. Hargrove, R. Grove, T. Kan, “Copper vapor laser unstable resonator oscillator and oscillator-amplifier characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1228–1233 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. W. Coutts, D. J. W. Brown, “Formation of output in copper vapor lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1502–1512 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. A. Naylor, R. R. Lewis, A. J. Kearsley, “Performance of high power copper vapour lasers in an injection-controlled oscillator-amplifier configuration,” in Gas Laser Technology, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, P. P. Chenausky, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 110–117 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. R. Lewis, G. Maldonada, C. E. Webb, “Copper vapor lasers: recent advances,” in Metal Vapor, Deep and Blue and Ultraviolet Lasers, J. J. Kim, R. Kimball, P. J. Wisoff, eds., Proc. SPIE1041, 54–59 (1989).
  16. D. W. Coutts, J. A. Piper, “Evolution of transverse coherence in copper vapour lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CFH5.
  17. M. A. Kazaryan, V. M. Matveev, G. G. Petrash, “Interaction of light bemas in the active medium of a copper vapor image amplifier,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 631–634 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, “Brightness amplifiers in optical systems,” in Metal Vapor, Deep Blue, and Ultraviolet Lasers, J. J. Kim, R. Kimball, P. J. Wisoff, eds., Proc. SPIE1041, 77–84 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Kimura, N. Aoki, C. Konagai, S. Shirayama, T. Miyazawa, “Development of 200-w high-performance copper vapor laser with 6-cm diameter, 300 cm length,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 31, 34–47 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Amit, S. Lavi, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Temporal and spatial properties of an oscillator-amplifier copper vapor laser,” Opt. Commun. 62, 110–114 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. Hopf, High Energy Lasers and Their Applications (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974).
  22. P. Parvin, M. S. Zaeferani, K. Mirabbaszadeh, R. Sadighi, “Measurement of the small-signal gain and saturation intensity of a XeF discharge laser,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1139–1142 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. M. Kalugin, E. N. Kuz’minova, S. E. Potapov, “Investigation of the gain of active media utilizing atomic copper transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 644–646 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Saliminia, P. Parvin, A. Zare, R. Sadighi, “The small signal gain and the saturation intensity measurement of the nitrogen-ion laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 207–211 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

A. Saliminia, P. Parvin, A. Zare, R. Sadighi, “The small signal gain and the saturation intensity measurement of the nitrogen-ion laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 207–211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu. M. Mokrushin, O. V. Shakin, “Acoustooptical system for imaging TV information by using a copper vapor laser,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 17, 381–393 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

H. Kimura, N. Aoki, C. Konagai, S. Shirayama, T. Miyazawa, “Development of 200-w high-performance copper vapor laser with 6-cm diameter, 300 cm length,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 31, 34–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

J. M. Stamp, G. J. S. Fowler, R. Devonshire, J. L. Williams, “The use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of superficial tumours on the bladder wall,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 5–12 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Amit, S. Lavi, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Temporal and spatial properties of an oscillator-amplifier copper vapor laser,” Opt. Commun. 62, 110–114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

V. V. Zubov, N. A. Lyabin, A. D. Chursin, “Efficient master-oscillator-amplifier system utilizing copper vapor laser active elements,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1606–1610 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. A. Kazaryan, V. M. Matveev, G. G. Petrash, “Interaction of light bemas in the active medium of a copper vapor image amplifier,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 631–634 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. M. Kalugin, E. N. Kuz’minova, S. E. Potapov, “Investigation of the gain of active media utilizing atomic copper transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 644–646 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. S. Hargrove, R. Grove, T. Kan, “Copper vapor laser unstable resonator oscillator and oscillator-amplifier characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1228–1233 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, V. G. Mokerov, G. G. Petrash, A. G. Petrova, “Coherent properties of a copper vapor laser and dynamic holograms in vanadium dioxide films,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 245–247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Amit, M.

M. Amit, S. Lavi, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Temporal and spatial properties of an oscillator-amplifier copper vapor laser,” Opt. Commun. 62, 110–114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, N.

H. Kimura, N. Aoki, C. Konagai, S. Shirayama, T. Miyazawa, “Development of 200-w high-performance copper vapor laser with 6-cm diameter, 300 cm length,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 31, 34–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Konagai, Y. Sano, N. Aoki, “Underwater direct metal processing by high power copper vapour laser,” in Pulsed Metal Vapour Lasers—Physics and Emerging Applications in Industry, Medicine and Science, C. E. Little, N. V. Sabotinov, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 371–376.
[CrossRef]

Bass, I. L.

Bonanno, R. E.

Brown, D. J. W.

Chursin, A. D.

V. V. Zubov, N. A. Lyabin, A. D. Chursin, “Efficient master-oscillator-amplifier system utilizing copper vapor laser active elements,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1606–1610 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Coutts, D. W.

D. W. Coutts, D. J. W. Brown, “Formation of output in copper vapor lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1502–1512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Coutts, J. A. Piper, “Evolution of transverse coherence in copper vapour lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CFH5.

Devonshire, R.

J. M. Stamp, G. J. S. Fowler, R. Devonshire, J. L. Williams, “The use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of superficial tumours on the bladder wall,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 5–12 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Erez, G.

M. Amit, S. Lavi, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Temporal and spatial properties of an oscillator-amplifier copper vapor laser,” Opt. Commun. 62, 110–114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, G. J. S.

J. M. Stamp, G. J. S. Fowler, R. Devonshire, J. L. Williams, “The use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of superficial tumours on the bladder wall,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 5–12 (1990).
[CrossRef]

German, E. R.

E. R. German, “Forensic applications of copper laser technology,” in New Developments and Applications in Gas Lasers, L. R. Carlson, ed., Proc. SPIE737, 28–30 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Grant, B.

B. Grant, “Lasers improve uranium enrichment,” Photonics Spectra 31(10), 46–47 (1997).

Grove, R.

R. S. Hargrove, R. Grove, T. Kan, “Copper vapor laser unstable resonator oscillator and oscillator-amplifier characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1228–1233 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hackel, R. P.

Hammond, P. R.

Hargrove, R. S.

R. S. Hargrove, R. Grove, T. Kan, “Copper vapor laser unstable resonator oscillator and oscillator-amplifier characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1228–1233 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hopf, F.

F. Hopf, High Energy Lasers and Their Applications (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974).

Isaev, A. A.

A. A. Isaev, “Transformation of copper and copper bromide laser radiation in nonlinear processes,” in Pulsed Metal Vapour Lasers-Physics and Emerging Applications in Industry, Medicine and Science, C. E. Little, N. V. Sabotinov, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 789–302.

Kalugin, M. M.

M. M. Kalugin, E. N. Kuz’minova, S. E. Potapov, “Investigation of the gain of active media utilizing atomic copper transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 644–646 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kan, T.

R. S. Hargrove, R. Grove, T. Kan, “Copper vapor laser unstable resonator oscillator and oscillator-amplifier characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1228–1233 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kazaryan, M. A.

M. A. Kazaryan, V. M. Matveev, G. G. Petrash, “Interaction of light bemas in the active medium of a copper vapor image amplifier,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 631–634 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, V. G. Mokerov, G. G. Petrash, A. G. Petrova, “Coherent properties of a copper vapor laser and dynamic holograms in vanadium dioxide films,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 245–247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, “Brightness amplifiers in optical systems,” in Metal Vapor, Deep Blue, and Ultraviolet Lasers, J. J. Kim, R. Kimball, P. J. Wisoff, eds., Proc. SPIE1041, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kearsley, A. J.

G. A. Naylor, R. R. Lewis, A. J. Kearsley, “Performance of high power copper vapour lasers in an injection-controlled oscillator-amplifier configuration,” in Gas Laser Technology, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, P. P. Chenausky, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 110–117 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, H.

H. Kimura, N. Aoki, C. Konagai, S. Shirayama, T. Miyazawa, “Development of 200-w high-performance copper vapor laser with 6-cm diameter, 300 cm length,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 31, 34–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Konagai, C.

H. Kimura, N. Aoki, C. Konagai, S. Shirayama, T. Miyazawa, “Development of 200-w high-performance copper vapor laser with 6-cm diameter, 300 cm length,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 31, 34–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Konagai, Y. Sano, N. Aoki, “Underwater direct metal processing by high power copper vapour laser,” in Pulsed Metal Vapour Lasers—Physics and Emerging Applications in Industry, Medicine and Science, C. E. Little, N. V. Sabotinov, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 371–376.
[CrossRef]

Kuz’minova, E. N.

M. M. Kalugin, E. N. Kuz’minova, S. E. Potapov, “Investigation of the gain of active media utilizing atomic copper transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 644–646 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lavi, S.

M. Amit, S. Lavi, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Temporal and spatial properties of an oscillator-amplifier copper vapor laser,” Opt. Commun. 62, 110–114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, R. R.

G. A. Naylor, R. R. Lewis, A. J. Kearsley, “Performance of high power copper vapour lasers in an injection-controlled oscillator-amplifier configuration,” in Gas Laser Technology, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, P. P. Chenausky, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 110–117 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Lewis, G. Maldonada, C. E. Webb, “Copper vapor lasers: recent advances,” in Metal Vapor, Deep and Blue and Ultraviolet Lasers, J. J. Kim, R. Kimball, P. J. Wisoff, eds., Proc. SPIE1041, 54–59 (1989).

Lyabin, N. A.

V. V. Zubov, N. A. Lyabin, A. D. Chursin, “Efficient master-oscillator-amplifier system utilizing copper vapor laser active elements,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1606–1610 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Maldonada, G.

R. R. Lewis, G. Maldonada, C. E. Webb, “Copper vapor lasers: recent advances,” in Metal Vapor, Deep and Blue and Ultraviolet Lasers, J. J. Kim, R. Kimball, P. J. Wisoff, eds., Proc. SPIE1041, 54–59 (1989).

Matveev, V. M.

M. A. Kazaryan, V. M. Matveev, G. G. Petrash, “Interaction of light bemas in the active medium of a copper vapor image amplifier,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 631–634 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mirabbaszadeh, K.

Miron, E.

M. Amit, S. Lavi, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Temporal and spatial properties of an oscillator-amplifier copper vapor laser,” Opt. Commun. 62, 110–114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, T.

H. Kimura, N. Aoki, C. Konagai, S. Shirayama, T. Miyazawa, “Development of 200-w high-performance copper vapor laser with 6-cm diameter, 300 cm length,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 31, 34–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mokerov, V. G.

K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, V. G. Mokerov, G. G. Petrash, A. G. Petrova, “Coherent properties of a copper vapor laser and dynamic holograms in vanadium dioxide films,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 245–247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mokrushin, Yu. M.

Yu. M. Mokrushin, O. V. Shakin, “Acoustooptical system for imaging TV information by using a copper vapor laser,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 17, 381–393 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Naylor, G. A.

G. A. Naylor, R. R. Lewis, A. J. Kearsley, “Performance of high power copper vapour lasers in an injection-controlled oscillator-amplifier configuration,” in Gas Laser Technology, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, P. P. Chenausky, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 110–117 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Parvin, P.

P. Parvin, M. S. Zaeferani, K. Mirabbaszadeh, R. Sadighi, “Measurement of the small-signal gain and saturation intensity of a XeF discharge laser,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1139–1142 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saliminia, P. Parvin, A. Zare, R. Sadighi, “The small signal gain and the saturation intensity measurement of the nitrogen-ion laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 207–211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petrash, G. G.

M. A. Kazaryan, V. M. Matveev, G. G. Petrash, “Interaction of light bemas in the active medium of a copper vapor image amplifier,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 631–634 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, V. G. Mokerov, G. G. Petrash, A. G. Petrova, “Coherent properties of a copper vapor laser and dynamic holograms in vanadium dioxide films,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 245–247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, “Brightness amplifiers in optical systems,” in Metal Vapor, Deep Blue, and Ultraviolet Lasers, J. J. Kim, R. Kimball, P. J. Wisoff, eds., Proc. SPIE1041, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Petrova, A. G.

K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, V. G. Mokerov, G. G. Petrash, A. G. Petrova, “Coherent properties of a copper vapor laser and dynamic holograms in vanadium dioxide films,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 245–247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

D. W. Coutts, J. A. Piper, “Evolution of transverse coherence in copper vapour lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CFH5.

Potapov, S. E.

M. M. Kalugin, E. N. Kuz’minova, S. E. Potapov, “Investigation of the gain of active media utilizing atomic copper transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 644–646 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sadighi, R.

P. Parvin, M. S. Zaeferani, K. Mirabbaszadeh, R. Sadighi, “Measurement of the small-signal gain and saturation intensity of a XeF discharge laser,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1139–1142 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saliminia, P. Parvin, A. Zare, R. Sadighi, “The small signal gain and the saturation intensity measurement of the nitrogen-ion laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 207–211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, P. Parvin, A. Zare, R. Sadighi, “The small signal gain and the saturation intensity measurement of the nitrogen-ion laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 207–211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sano, Y.

C. Konagai, Y. Sano, N. Aoki, “Underwater direct metal processing by high power copper vapour laser,” in Pulsed Metal Vapour Lasers—Physics and Emerging Applications in Industry, Medicine and Science, C. E. Little, N. V. Sabotinov, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 371–376.
[CrossRef]

Shakin, O. V.

Yu. M. Mokrushin, O. V. Shakin, “Acoustooptical system for imaging TV information by using a copper vapor laser,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 17, 381–393 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shirayama, S.

H. Kimura, N. Aoki, C. Konagai, S. Shirayama, T. Miyazawa, “Development of 200-w high-performance copper vapor laser with 6-cm diameter, 300 cm length,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 31, 34–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stamp, J. M.

J. M. Stamp, G. J. S. Fowler, R. Devonshire, J. L. Williams, “The use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of superficial tumours on the bladder wall,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 5–12 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Walder, B. T.

B. T. Walder, “A new generation of copper vapour lasers for high speed photography,” in 19th Int. Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, W. P. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE1358, 811–820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Warner, B. E.

B. E. Warner, “An overview of copper-laser development for isotope separation,” in New Developments and Applications in Gas Lasers, L. R. Carlson, ed., Proc. SPIE737, 2–6 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Webb, C. E.

R. R. Lewis, G. Maldonada, C. E. Webb, “Copper vapor lasers: recent advances,” in Metal Vapor, Deep and Blue and Ultraviolet Lasers, J. J. Kim, R. Kimball, P. J. Wisoff, eds., Proc. SPIE1041, 54–59 (1989).

Williams, J. L.

J. M. Stamp, G. J. S. Fowler, R. Devonshire, J. L. Williams, “The use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of superficial tumours on the bladder wall,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 5–12 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zaeferani, M. S.

Zare, A.

A. Saliminia, P. Parvin, A. Zare, R. Sadighi, “The small signal gain and the saturation intensity measurement of the nitrogen-ion laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 207–211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zemskov, K. I.

K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, V. G. Mokerov, G. G. Petrash, A. G. Petrova, “Coherent properties of a copper vapor laser and dynamic holograms in vanadium dioxide films,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 245–247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, “Brightness amplifiers in optical systems,” in Metal Vapor, Deep Blue, and Ultraviolet Lasers, J. J. Kim, R. Kimball, P. J. Wisoff, eds., Proc. SPIE1041, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zubov, V. V.

V. V. Zubov, N. A. Lyabin, A. D. Chursin, “Efficient master-oscillator-amplifier system utilizing copper vapor laser active elements,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1606–1610 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. S. Hargrove, R. Grove, T. Kan, “Copper vapor laser unstable resonator oscillator and oscillator-amplifier characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1228–1233 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. Kimura, N. Aoki, C. Konagai, S. Shirayama, T. Miyazawa, “Development of 200-w high-performance copper vapor laser with 6-cm diameter, 300 cm length,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 31, 34–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Russ. Laser Res. (1)

Yu. M. Mokrushin, O. V. Shakin, “Acoustooptical system for imaging TV information by using a copper vapor laser,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 17, 381–393 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

J. M. Stamp, G. J. S. Fowler, R. Devonshire, J. L. Williams, “The use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of superficial tumours on the bladder wall,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 5–12 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Amit, S. Lavi, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Temporal and spatial properties of an oscillator-amplifier copper vapor laser,” Opt. Commun. 62, 110–114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

A. Saliminia, P. Parvin, A. Zare, R. Sadighi, “The small signal gain and the saturation intensity measurement of the nitrogen-ion laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 207–211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Photonics Spectra (1)

B. Grant, “Lasers improve uranium enrichment,” Photonics Spectra 31(10), 46–47 (1997).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (4)

K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, V. G. Mokerov, G. G. Petrash, A. G. Petrova, “Coherent properties of a copper vapor laser and dynamic holograms in vanadium dioxide films,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 245–247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Zubov, N. A. Lyabin, A. D. Chursin, “Efficient master-oscillator-amplifier system utilizing copper vapor laser active elements,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1606–1610 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kazaryan, V. M. Matveev, G. G. Petrash, “Interaction of light bemas in the active medium of a copper vapor image amplifier,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 631–634 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kalugin, E. N. Kuz’minova, S. E. Potapov, “Investigation of the gain of active media utilizing atomic copper transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 644–646 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

F. Hopf, High Energy Lasers and Their Applications (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974).

K. I. Zemskov, M. A. Kazaryan, G. G. Petrash, “Brightness amplifiers in optical systems,” in Metal Vapor, Deep Blue, and Ultraviolet Lasers, J. J. Kim, R. Kimball, P. J. Wisoff, eds., Proc. SPIE1041, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Isaev, “Transformation of copper and copper bromide laser radiation in nonlinear processes,” in Pulsed Metal Vapour Lasers-Physics and Emerging Applications in Industry, Medicine and Science, C. E. Little, N. V. Sabotinov, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 789–302.

G. A. Naylor, R. R. Lewis, A. J. Kearsley, “Performance of high power copper vapour lasers in an injection-controlled oscillator-amplifier configuration,” in Gas Laser Technology, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, P. P. Chenausky, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 110–117 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Lewis, G. Maldonada, C. E. Webb, “Copper vapor lasers: recent advances,” in Metal Vapor, Deep and Blue and Ultraviolet Lasers, J. J. Kim, R. Kimball, P. J. Wisoff, eds., Proc. SPIE1041, 54–59 (1989).

D. W. Coutts, J. A. Piper, “Evolution of transverse coherence in copper vapour lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CFH5.

B. T. Walder, “A new generation of copper vapour lasers for high speed photography,” in 19th Int. Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, W. P. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE1358, 811–820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Konagai, Y. Sano, N. Aoki, “Underwater direct metal processing by high power copper vapour laser,” in Pulsed Metal Vapour Lasers—Physics and Emerging Applications in Industry, Medicine and Science, C. E. Little, N. V. Sabotinov, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 371–376.
[CrossRef]

B. E. Warner, “An overview of copper-laser development for isotope separation,” in New Developments and Applications in Gas Lasers, L. R. Carlson, ed., Proc. SPIE737, 2–6 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. R. German, “Forensic applications of copper laser technology,” in New Developments and Applications in Gas Lasers, L. R. Carlson, ed., Proc. SPIE737, 28–30 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of standard modulator circuit of a CVL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the oscillator-amplifier. Osc., oscillator; Amp., amplifier; NDF, neutral density filter; E.A, electronic amplification.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Display of the amplified energy output versus input energy for both lines. Circles show experimental data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of the energy gain versus energy difference.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Gain (dB) versus input energy for 510.6-nm transition, (b) Gain (dB) versus input energy for 578.2-nm transition. Experimental data are in good agreement with Hargrove’s model. Corresponding Hopf’s model is shown for comparison.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of the small-signal gain versus pressure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of the saturation intensity versus pressure.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Data for Small-Signal Gain and Saturation Intensity on Several Active Media

Equations (10)

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Eout=Es ln1+expEin/Es-1expg0l,
ln G=g0l-ΔE/AEs,
Eout=expg0lEin,  Ein  Es,
Eout=Ein+Esg0Al,  Ein  Es.
Cur+eCum+e+ΔE  superelastic collision,
Cur+eCu+e+ΔE  superelastic collision,
Cur+eCu++2e-ΔE  ionization,
Cur+NemCu++Ne+e+ΔE  penning ionization,
Cur+MCu+M  collision deactivation,
Cur+wallCu  diffusion and deactivation,

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