Abstract

Time-resolved Stokes vector components of light transmitted through filamentous tissues were measured with a view to improving the imaging quality right optical images in such tissues. Temporal profiles of the Stokes vectors and the time-resolved degree of polarization (DOP) were calibrated to produce higher image quality than that of images based on time gating, polarization discrimination, or both. A thin chicken bone inserted into chicken breast tissue with filament orientation in different directions with respect to the direction of input linear polarization was scanned to demonstrate images of higher spatial resolution and contrast based on the measurement of time-resolved DOP.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, H. E. Savage, S. P. Schantz, R. R. Alfano, “Parotid gland tissues investigated by picosecond time-gated and optical spectroscopic imaging techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 906–911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, L.-H. Wang, “Propagation of polarized light in birefringent turbid media: time-resolved simulations,” Opt. Express 9, 254–259 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1999 (4)

1998 (1)

S. P. Schilders, X. S. Gan, M. Gu, “Effect of scatterer size on microscopic imaging through turbid media based on differential polarization-gating,” Opt. Commun. 157, 238–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

D. Bicout, C. Brosscau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phy. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Alrubaiee, M.

S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, H. E. Savage, S. P. Schantz, R. R. Alfano, “Parotid gland tissues investigated by picosecond time-gated and optical spectroscopic imaging techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 906–911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, S. K. Gayen, M. Xu, M. Zevallos, M. Alrubaiee, M. Lax, R. R. Alfano, “Optical tomographic image reconstruction from ultrafast time-sliced transmission measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4237–4246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bicout, D.

D. Bicout, C. Brosscau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phy. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brosscau, C.

D. Bicout, C. Brosscau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phy. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Cho, Y.

Demos, S. G.

Gan, X.

Gan, X. S.

S. P. Schilders, X. S. Gan, M. Gu, “Effect of scatterer size on microscopic imaging through turbid media based on differential polarization-gating,” Opt. Commun. 157, 238–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gayen, S. K.

S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, H. E. Savage, S. P. Schantz, R. R. Alfano, “Parotid gland tissues investigated by picosecond time-gated and optical spectroscopic imaging techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 906–911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, S. K. Gayen, M. Xu, M. Zevallos, M. Alrubaiee, M. Lax, R. R. Alfano, “Optical tomographic image reconstruction from ultrafast time-sliced transmission measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4237–4246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grosenick, D.

Gu, M.

X. Gan, S. P. Schilders, M. Gu, “Image enhancement through turbid media under a microscope by use of polarization gating methods,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2177–2184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Schilders, X. S. Gan, M. Gu, “Effect of scatterer size on microscopic imaging through turbid media based on differential polarization-gating,” Opt. Commun. 157, 238–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, K.

Horinaka, H.

Hsu, I.-J.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khong, M. P.

Kiang, Y.-W.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lax, M.

Le Jeune, B.

F. Le Roy-Brehonnet, B. Le Jeune, “Utilization of Mueller matrix formalism to obtain optical targets depolarization and polarization properties,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 21, 109–151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Le Roy-Brehonnet, F.

F. Le Roy-Brehonnet, B. Le Jeune, “Utilization of Mueller matrix formalism to obtain optical targets depolarization and polarization properties,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 21, 109–151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-W.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.-W.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maitland, D. J.

Martinez, A. S.

D. Bicout, C. Brosscau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phy. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moesta, K. T.

Morgan, S. P.

Osawa, M.

Rinneberg, H. H.

Sankaran, V.

Savage, H. E.

S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, H. E. Savage, S. P. Schantz, R. R. Alfano, “Parotid gland tissues investigated by picosecond time-gated and optical spectroscopic imaging techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 906–911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schantz, S. P.

S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, H. E. Savage, S. P. Schantz, R. R. Alfano, “Parotid gland tissues investigated by picosecond time-gated and optical spectroscopic imaging techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 906–911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schilders, S. P.

X. Gan, S. P. Schilders, M. Gu, “Image enhancement through turbid media under a microscope by use of polarization gating methods,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2177–2184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Schilders, X. S. Gan, M. Gu, “Effect of scatterer size on microscopic imaging through turbid media based on differential polarization-gating,” Opt. Commun. 157, 238–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schlag, P. M.

Schmitt, J. M.

D. Bicout, C. Brosscau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phy. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schöonenberger, K.

Somekh, M. G.

Sun, C.-W.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, H.

Wada, K.

Walsh, J. T.

Wang, C.-Y.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

Wang, L.-H.

Wang, X.

Xu, M.

Yang, C. C.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yao, G.

Zevallos, M.

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, H. E. Savage, S. P. Schantz, R. R. Alfano, “Parotid gland tissues investigated by picosecond time-gated and optical spectroscopic imaging techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 906–911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. P. Schilders, X. S. Gan, M. Gu, “Effect of scatterer size on microscopic imaging through turbid media based on differential polarization-gating,” Opt. Commun. 157, 238–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phy. Rev. E (1)

D. Bicout, C. Brosscau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phy. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Le Roy-Brehonnet, B. Le Jeune, “Utilization of Mueller matrix formalism to obtain optical targets depolarization and polarization properties,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 21, 109–151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: BP, beam splitter; P’s, polarizers; QW, quarter-wave plate; D, detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal intensity profiles of an input (solid curve) and a transmitted (dashed curve) signal through chicken breast tissue.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-resolved Stokes element profiles of chicken breast tissue when the input polarization is along the direction of filament orientation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-resolved Stokes element images of the chicken bone in chicken breast tissue when the input polarization is along the direction of filament orientation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

1-D images of the chicken bone in chicken breast tissue when the input polarization is along the direction of filament orientation: (a) time-gated integrated intensity (S 0), (b) time-gated S 1 component, (c) DOP with time gating, and (d) DOP without time gating.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparisons of spatial resolution and contrast of the time-gated image (dashed curve) and the time-gated DOP image (solid curve).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time-resolved Stokes element profiles of chicken breast tissue with the input polarization 30° off the filament orientation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time-resolved Stokes element images of the chicken bone in chicken breast tissue with the input polarization 30° off the filament orientation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

1-D images of the chicken bone in chicken breast tissue with the input polarization 30° off the filament orientation: (a) time-gated integrated intensity (S 0), (b) time-gated S 1 component, (c) DOP with time gating, and (d) DOP without time gating.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S=S0S1S2S3=|Ex|2+|Ey|2|Ex|2-|Ey|22|Ex||Ey|cos δ2|Ex||Ey|sin δ.
S=S0S1S2S3=H+VH-V2P-H-V2R-H-V.
DOP=S12+S22+S321/2S0,0DOP1.
contrast=Amax-AminAmax+Amin.

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