Abstract

Ion-beam sputtering deposition has been used in two ways, as granular multilayers and as cosputtered film, to elaborate Ag-Si3N4 nanocermets. Multilayer deposition creates slightly oblate clusters, and cosputtering produces two cluster families: elongated clusters within the Si3N4 matrix and larger ones at the film surface. The transmittance spectra of these nanocermets are characterized by a surface plasmon resonance. In the reported research the position of this resonance is related to the morphological properties of silver nanoclusters, which are studied by transmission-electron microscopy, grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering, and atomic-force microscopy.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Dakka, J. Lafait, M. Abd-Lefdil, C. Sella, M. Maaza, “Optical study of Ag-TiO2 nanocermet thin films prepared by RF sputtering,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 9, 105–114 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Joerger, R. Gampp, A. Heinzel, W. Graf, M. Khöl, P. Ganttenbein, “Optical properties of inhomogeneous media,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 351–361 (1998).
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  5. M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, “Broadband waveguide polarizers based on the anisotropic optical constants of nanocomposite films,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1534–1540 (1996).
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  6. C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Kelin, D. Ricard, P. H. Rossignal, “Nonlinear optics in composite materials,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), Vol. XXIX, pp. 323–411.
  7. E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber, D. M. Krol, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231–254 (1991).
  8. S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. J. C. G. de Sande, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, N. Afonso, D. E. Hole, A. Naudon, “Refractive index of Ag nanocrystal composite films in the neighborhood of the surface plasmon resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1536–1541 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of Ag-SiO2 Cermet films: a comparison of effective-medium theories,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 2897–2906 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Battaglin, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazoldi, C. Sada, X. Zhang, “Formation of metal alloy nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation and annealing in selected atmosphere,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 167–167, 857–863 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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  17. A. Naudon, D. Thiaudière, “Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering. Morphology of deposited clusters and nanostructure of thin films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 822–827 (1997).
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  19. D. Babonneau, I. R. Videnovic, M. G. Garnier, P. Oelhafen, “Morphology and size distribution of gold nanoclusters in a-C:H films studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 195401–195415 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Kutsch, O. Lyon, M. Schmitt, M. Mennig, H. Schmitd, “Small-angle x-ray scattering experiments in grazing incidence on sol-gel coatings containing nano-scaled gold colloids: a new technique for investigating thin coatings and films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 948–956 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Guinier, G. Fournet, Small-Angle Scattering of X-Rays (Wiley, New York, 1955).
  22. V. Ilolý, T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668–10676 (1994)
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. E. Aspnes, “The accurate determination of optical properties by ellipsometry,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Chap. 5, p. 88.
  24. D. A. G. Bruggemann, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 5, 636–664 (1935).
  25. J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385–420 (1904).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 141–148.
  27. E. D. Palik, ed, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), p. 175.
  28. D. Babonneau, A. Naudon, D. Thiaudière, S. Lequien, “Morphological characterization of ion-sputtered C-Ag, C/C-Ag and Ag/C films by GISAXS,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 226–233 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Girardeau, S. Camelio, A. Traverse, F. Lignou, J. Allain, A. Naudon, Ph. Guérin, “Relation between the optical properties of composite Si3N4 thin films with embedded Cu clusters and the clusters’ morphology: irradiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1788–1794 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. C. G. de Sande, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, N. Afonso, D. E. Hole, A. Naudon, “Refractive index of Ag nanocrystal composite films in the neighborhood of the surface plasmon resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1536–1541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. Babonneau, I. R. Videnovic, M. G. Garnier, P. Oelhafen, “Morphology and size distribution of gold nanoclusters in a-C:H films studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 195401–195415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Girardeau, S. Camelio, A. Traverse, F. Lignou, J. Allain, A. Naudon, Ph. Guérin, “Relation between the optical properties of composite Si3N4 thin films with embedded Cu clusters and the clusters’ morphology: irradiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1788–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

G. Battaglin, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazoldi, C. Sada, X. Zhang, “Formation of metal alloy nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation and annealing in selected atmosphere,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 167–167, 857–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dakka, J. Lafait, M. Abd-Lefdil, C. Sella, M. Maaza, “Optical study of Ag-TiO2 nanocermet thin films prepared by RF sputtering,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 9, 105–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Babonneau, A. Naudon, D. Thiaudière, S. Lequien, “Morphological characterization of ion-sputtered C-Ag, C/C-Ag and Ag/C films by GISAXS,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 226–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Schmidbauer, Th. Wiebach, H. Raidt, M. Hanke, R. Kölher, H. Wawra, “Ordering of self-assembled Si1-xGex islands studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10,523–10,531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Joerger, R. Gampp, A. Heinzel, W. Graf, M. Khöl, P. Ganttenbein, “Optical properties of inhomogeneous media,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 351–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Palpant, B. Prével, J. Lermé, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, M. Treilleux, A. Perez, J. L. Vialle, M. Broyer, “Optical properties of gold clusters in the size range 2–4 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 1963–1970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Naudon, D. Thiaudière, “Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering. Morphology of deposited clusters and nanostructure of thin films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 822–827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Kutsch, O. Lyon, M. Schmitt, M. Mennig, H. Schmitd, “Small-angle x-ray scattering experiments in grazing incidence on sol-gel coatings containing nano-scaled gold colloids: a new technique for investigating thin coatings and films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 948–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, “Broadband waveguide polarizers based on the anisotropic optical constants of nanocomposite films,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1534–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lambrinos, R. Valizadet, J. S. Colligon, “Effects of bombardment on optical properties during deposition of silicon nitride by reactive ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3620–3626 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

V. Ilolý, T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668–10676 (1994)
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

A. Sawaguchi, K. Toda, K. Niihara, “Mechanical and electrical properties of silicon nitride-silicon carbide nanocomposite material,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74, 1142–1144 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber, D. M. Krol, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231–254 (1991).

1989 (1)

J. R. Levine, J. B. Cohen, Y. W. Chung, P. Georgopoulos, “Grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering: new tool for studying thin film growth,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 22, 528–532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of Ag-SiO2 Cermet films: a comparison of effective-medium theories,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 2897–2906 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggemann, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 5, 636–664 (1935).

1904 (1)

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385–420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Abd-Lefdil, M.

A. Dakka, J. Lafait, M. Abd-Lefdil, C. Sella, M. Maaza, “Optical study of Ag-TiO2 nanocermet thin films prepared by RF sputtering,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 9, 105–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. N.

C. N. Afonso, J. Solis, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, J. M. Ballesteros, J. C. G. De Sande, “Pulsed laser deposition of nanocomposite thin films for photonic applications,” in Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing IV, J. J. Dubowski, H. Helvajian, E. W. Kreutz, K. Sugioka, eds., Proc SPIE3618, 453–464 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, N.

J. C. G. de Sande, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, N. Afonso, D. E. Hole, A. Naudon, “Refractive index of Ag nanocrystal composite films in the neighborhood of the surface plasmon resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1536–1541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Allain, J.

T. Girardeau, S. Camelio, A. Traverse, F. Lignou, J. Allain, A. Naudon, Ph. Guérin, “Relation between the optical properties of composite Si3N4 thin films with embedded Cu clusters and the clusters’ morphology: irradiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1788–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “The accurate determination of optical properties by ellipsometry,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Chap. 5, p. 88.

Babonneau, D.

D. Babonneau, I. R. Videnovic, M. G. Garnier, P. Oelhafen, “Morphology and size distribution of gold nanoclusters in a-C:H films studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 195401–195415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Babonneau, A. Naudon, D. Thiaudière, S. Lequien, “Morphological characterization of ion-sputtered C-Ag, C/C-Ag and Ag/C films by GISAXS,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 226–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ballesteros, J. M.

C. N. Afonso, J. Solis, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, J. M. Ballesteros, J. C. G. De Sande, “Pulsed laser deposition of nanocomposite thin films for photonic applications,” in Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing IV, J. J. Dubowski, H. Helvajian, E. W. Kreutz, K. Sugioka, eds., Proc SPIE3618, 453–464 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Battaglin, G.

G. Battaglin, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazoldi, C. Sada, X. Zhang, “Formation of metal alloy nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation and annealing in selected atmosphere,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 167–167, 857–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baumbach, T.

V. Ilolý, T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668–10676 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M. J.

M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, “Broadband waveguide polarizers based on the anisotropic optical constants of nanocomposite films,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1534–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 141–148.

Broyer, M.

B. Palpant, B. Prével, J. Lermé, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, M. Treilleux, A. Perez, J. L. Vialle, M. Broyer, “Optical properties of gold clusters in the size range 2–4 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 1963–1970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruggemann, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggemann, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 5, 636–664 (1935).

Camelio, S.

T. Girardeau, S. Camelio, A. Traverse, F. Lignou, J. Allain, A. Naudon, Ph. Guérin, “Relation between the optical properties of composite Si3N4 thin films with embedded Cu clusters and the clusters’ morphology: irradiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1788–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cattaruzza, E.

G. Battaglin, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazoldi, C. Sada, X. Zhang, “Formation of metal alloy nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation and annealing in selected atmosphere,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 167–167, 857–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. W.

J. R. Levine, J. B. Cohen, Y. W. Chung, P. Georgopoulos, “Grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering: new tool for studying thin film growth,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 22, 528–532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, J. B.

J. R. Levine, J. B. Cohen, Y. W. Chung, P. Georgopoulos, “Grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering: new tool for studying thin film growth,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 22, 528–532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Colligon, J. S.

Cottancin, E.

B. Palpant, B. Prével, J. Lermé, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, M. Treilleux, A. Perez, J. L. Vialle, M. Broyer, “Optical properties of gold clusters in the size range 2–4 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 1963–1970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dakka, A.

A. Dakka, J. Lafait, M. Abd-Lefdil, C. Sella, M. Maaza, “Optical study of Ag-TiO2 nanocermet thin films prepared by RF sputtering,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 9, 105–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Sande, J. C. G.

J. C. G. de Sande, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, N. Afonso, D. E. Hole, A. Naudon, “Refractive index of Ag nanocrystal composite films in the neighborhood of the surface plasmon resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1536–1541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Afonso, J. Solis, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, J. M. Ballesteros, J. C. G. De Sande, “Pulsed laser deposition of nanocomposite thin films for photonic applications,” in Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing IV, J. J. Dubowski, H. Helvajian, E. W. Kreutz, K. Sugioka, eds., Proc SPIE3618, 453–464 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Debrus, S.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Del Fatti, N.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Kelin, D. Ricard, P. H. Rossignal, “Nonlinear optics in composite materials,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), Vol. XXIX, pp. 323–411.

Fournet, G.

A. Guinier, G. Fournet, Small-Angle Scattering of X-Rays (Wiley, New York, 1955).

Gampp, R.

R. Joerger, R. Gampp, A. Heinzel, W. Graf, M. Khöl, P. Ganttenbein, “Optical properties of inhomogeneous media,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 351–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ganttenbein, P.

R. Joerger, R. Gampp, A. Heinzel, W. Graf, M. Khöl, P. Ganttenbein, “Optical properties of inhomogeneous media,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 351–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garnier, M. G.

D. Babonneau, I. R. Videnovic, M. G. Garnier, P. Oelhafen, “Morphology and size distribution of gold nanoclusters in a-C:H films studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 195401–195415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Georgopoulos, P.

J. R. Levine, J. B. Cohen, Y. W. Chung, P. Georgopoulos, “Grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering: new tool for studying thin film growth,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 22, 528–532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Girardeau, T.

T. Girardeau, S. Camelio, A. Traverse, F. Lignou, J. Allain, A. Naudon, Ph. Guérin, “Relation between the optical properties of composite Si3N4 thin films with embedded Cu clusters and the clusters’ morphology: irradiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1788–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gonella, F.

G. Battaglin, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazoldi, C. Sada, X. Zhang, “Formation of metal alloy nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation and annealing in selected atmosphere,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 167–167, 857–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalo, J.

J. C. G. de Sande, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, N. Afonso, D. E. Hole, A. Naudon, “Refractive index of Ag nanocrystal composite films in the neighborhood of the surface plasmon resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1536–1541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Afonso, J. Solis, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, J. M. Ballesteros, J. C. G. De Sande, “Pulsed laser deposition of nanocomposite thin films for photonic applications,” in Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing IV, J. J. Dubowski, H. Helvajian, E. W. Kreutz, K. Sugioka, eds., Proc SPIE3618, 453–464 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graf, W.

R. Joerger, R. Gampp, A. Heinzel, W. Graf, M. Khöl, P. Ganttenbein, “Optical properties of inhomogeneous media,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 351–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of Ag-SiO2 Cermet films: a comparison of effective-medium theories,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 2897–2906 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Guérin, Ph.

T. Girardeau, S. Camelio, A. Traverse, F. Lignou, J. Allain, A. Naudon, Ph. Guérin, “Relation between the optical properties of composite Si3N4 thin films with embedded Cu clusters and the clusters’ morphology: irradiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1788–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guinier, A.

A. Guinier, G. Fournet, Small-Angle Scattering of X-Rays (Wiley, New York, 1955).

Hache, F.

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Kelin, D. Ricard, P. H. Rossignal, “Nonlinear optics in composite materials,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), Vol. XXIX, pp. 323–411.

Hamanaka, Y.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hanke, M.

M. Schmidbauer, Th. Wiebach, H. Raidt, M. Hanke, R. Kölher, H. Wawra, “Ordering of self-assembled Si1-xGex islands studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10,523–10,531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J. W.

M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, “Broadband waveguide polarizers based on the anisotropic optical constants of nanocomposite films,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1534–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heinzel, A.

R. Joerger, R. Gampp, A. Heinzel, W. Graf, M. Khöl, P. Ganttenbein, “Optical properties of inhomogeneous media,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 351–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hole, D. E.

J. C. G. de Sande, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, N. Afonso, D. E. Hole, A. Naudon, “Refractive index of Ag nanocrystal composite films in the neighborhood of the surface plasmon resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1536–1541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 141–148.

Hunderi, O.

C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of Ag-SiO2 Cermet films: a comparison of effective-medium theories,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 2897–2906 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ilolý, V.

V. Ilolý, T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668–10676 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Joerger, R.

R. Joerger, R. Gampp, A. Heinzel, W. Graf, M. Khöl, P. Ganttenbein, “Optical properties of inhomogeneous media,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 351–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelin, M. C.

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Kelin, D. Ricard, P. H. Rossignal, “Nonlinear optics in composite materials,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), Vol. XXIX, pp. 323–411.

Khöl, M.

R. Joerger, R. Gampp, A. Heinzel, W. Graf, M. Khöl, P. Ganttenbein, “Optical properties of inhomogeneous media,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 351–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kölher, R.

M. Schmidbauer, Th. Wiebach, H. Raidt, M. Hanke, R. Kölher, H. Wawra, “Ordering of self-assembled Si1-xGex islands studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10,523–10,531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

U. Kreibig, M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber, D. M. Krol, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231–254 (1991).

Kutsch, B.

B. Kutsch, O. Lyon, M. Schmitt, M. Mennig, H. Schmitd, “Small-angle x-ray scattering experiments in grazing incidence on sol-gel coatings containing nano-scaled gold colloids: a new technique for investigating thin coatings and films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 948–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lafait, J.

A. Dakka, J. Lafait, M. Abd-Lefdil, C. Sella, M. Maaza, “Optical study of Ag-TiO2 nanocermet thin films prepared by RF sputtering,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 9, 105–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lambrinos, M. F.

Lequien, S.

D. Babonneau, A. Naudon, D. Thiaudière, S. Lequien, “Morphological characterization of ion-sputtered C-Ag, C/C-Ag and Ag/C films by GISAXS,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 226–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lermé, J.

B. Palpant, B. Prével, J. Lermé, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, M. Treilleux, A. Perez, J. L. Vialle, M. Broyer, “Optical properties of gold clusters in the size range 2–4 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 1963–1970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levine, J. R.

J. R. Levine, J. B. Cohen, Y. W. Chung, P. Georgopoulos, “Grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering: new tool for studying thin film growth,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 22, 528–532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lignou, F.

T. Girardeau, S. Camelio, A. Traverse, F. Lignou, J. Allain, A. Naudon, Ph. Guérin, “Relation between the optical properties of composite Si3N4 thin films with embedded Cu clusters and the clusters’ morphology: irradiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1788–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, O.

B. Kutsch, O. Lyon, M. Schmitt, M. Mennig, H. Schmitd, “Small-angle x-ray scattering experiments in grazing incidence on sol-gel coatings containing nano-scaled gold colloids: a new technique for investigating thin coatings and films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 948–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maaza, M.

A. Dakka, J. Lafait, M. Abd-Lefdil, C. Sella, M. Maaza, “Optical study of Ag-TiO2 nanocermet thin films prepared by RF sputtering,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 9, 105–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mattei, G.

G. Battaglin, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazoldi, C. Sada, X. Zhang, “Formation of metal alloy nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation and annealing in selected atmosphere,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 167–167, 857–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell-Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385–420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

May, M.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazoldi, P.

G. Battaglin, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazoldi, C. Sada, X. Zhang, “Formation of metal alloy nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation and annealing in selected atmosphere,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 167–167, 857–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mennig, M.

B. Kutsch, O. Lyon, M. Schmitt, M. Mennig, H. Schmitd, “Small-angle x-ray scattering experiments in grazing incidence on sol-gel coatings containing nano-scaled gold colloids: a new technique for investigating thin coatings and films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 948–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, A.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Naudon, A.

J. C. G. de Sande, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, N. Afonso, D. E. Hole, A. Naudon, “Refractive index of Ag nanocrystal composite films in the neighborhood of the surface plasmon resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1536–1541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Girardeau, S. Camelio, A. Traverse, F. Lignou, J. Allain, A. Naudon, Ph. Guérin, “Relation between the optical properties of composite Si3N4 thin films with embedded Cu clusters and the clusters’ morphology: irradiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1788–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Babonneau, A. Naudon, D. Thiaudière, S. Lequien, “Morphological characterization of ion-sputtered C-Ag, C/C-Ag and Ag/C films by GISAXS,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 226–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Naudon, D. Thiaudière, “Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering. Morphology of deposited clusters and nanostructure of thin films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 822–827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Niihara, K.

A. Sawaguchi, K. Toda, K. Niihara, “Mechanical and electrical properties of silicon nitride-silicon carbide nanocomposite material,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74, 1142–1144 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Oelhafen, P.

D. Babonneau, I. R. Videnovic, M. G. Garnier, P. Oelhafen, “Morphology and size distribution of gold nanoclusters in a-C:H films studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 195401–195415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Omi, S.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palpant, B.

B. Palpant, B. Prével, J. Lermé, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, M. Treilleux, A. Perez, J. L. Vialle, M. Broyer, “Optical properties of gold clusters in the size range 2–4 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 1963–1970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pellarin, M.

B. Palpant, B. Prével, J. Lermé, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, M. Treilleux, A. Perez, J. L. Vialle, M. Broyer, “Optical properties of gold clusters in the size range 2–4 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 1963–1970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perez, A.

B. Palpant, B. Prével, J. Lermé, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, M. Treilleux, A. Perez, J. L. Vialle, M. Broyer, “Optical properties of gold clusters in the size range 2–4 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 1963–1970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pinçon, N.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prével, B.

B. Palpant, B. Prével, J. Lermé, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, M. Treilleux, A. Perez, J. L. Vialle, M. Broyer, “Optical properties of gold clusters in the size range 2–4 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 1963–1970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prot, D.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Raidt, H.

M. Schmidbauer, Th. Wiebach, H. Raidt, M. Hanke, R. Kölher, H. Wawra, “Ordering of self-assembled Si1-xGex islands studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10,523–10,531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ricard, D.

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Kelin, D. Ricard, P. H. Rossignal, “Nonlinear optics in composite materials,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), Vol. XXIX, pp. 323–411.

Rossignal, P. H.

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Kelin, D. Ricard, P. H. Rossignal, “Nonlinear optics in composite materials,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), Vol. XXIX, pp. 323–411.

Sada, C.

G. Battaglin, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazoldi, C. Sada, X. Zhang, “Formation of metal alloy nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation and annealing in selected atmosphere,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 167–167, 857–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sawaguchi, A.

A. Sawaguchi, K. Toda, K. Niihara, “Mechanical and electrical properties of silicon nitride-silicon carbide nanocomposite material,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74, 1142–1144 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmidbauer, M.

M. Schmidbauer, Th. Wiebach, H. Raidt, M. Hanke, R. Kölher, H. Wawra, “Ordering of self-assembled Si1-xGex islands studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10,523–10,531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmitd, H.

B. Kutsch, O. Lyon, M. Schmitt, M. Mennig, H. Schmitd, “Small-angle x-ray scattering experiments in grazing incidence on sol-gel coatings containing nano-scaled gold colloids: a new technique for investigating thin coatings and films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 948–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M.

B. Kutsch, O. Lyon, M. Schmitt, M. Mennig, H. Schmitd, “Small-angle x-ray scattering experiments in grazing incidence on sol-gel coatings containing nano-scaled gold colloids: a new technique for investigating thin coatings and films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 948–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sella, C.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dakka, J. Lafait, M. Abd-Lefdil, C. Sella, M. Maaza, “Optical study of Ag-TiO2 nanocermet thin films prepared by RF sputtering,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 9, 105–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Serna, R.

J. C. G. de Sande, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, N. Afonso, D. E. Hole, A. Naudon, “Refractive index of Ag nanocrystal composite films in the neighborhood of the surface plasmon resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1536–1541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Afonso, J. Solis, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, J. M. Ballesteros, J. C. G. De Sande, “Pulsed laser deposition of nanocomposite thin films for photonic applications,” in Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing IV, J. J. Dubowski, H. Helvajian, E. W. Kreutz, K. Sugioka, eds., Proc SPIE3618, 453–464 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

C. N. Afonso, J. Solis, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, J. M. Ballesteros, J. C. G. De Sande, “Pulsed laser deposition of nanocomposite thin films for photonic applications,” in Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing IV, J. J. Dubowski, H. Helvajian, E. W. Kreutz, K. Sugioka, eds., Proc SPIE3618, 453–464 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thiaudière, D.

D. Babonneau, A. Naudon, D. Thiaudière, S. Lequien, “Morphological characterization of ion-sputtered C-Ag, C/C-Ag and Ag/C films by GISAXS,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 226–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Naudon, D. Thiaudière, “Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering. Morphology of deposited clusters and nanostructure of thin films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 822–827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toda, K.

A. Sawaguchi, K. Toda, K. Niihara, “Mechanical and electrical properties of silicon nitride-silicon carbide nanocomposite material,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74, 1142–1144 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Traverse, A.

T. Girardeau, S. Camelio, A. Traverse, F. Lignou, J. Allain, A. Naudon, Ph. Guérin, “Relation between the optical properties of composite Si3N4 thin films with embedded Cu clusters and the clusters’ morphology: irradiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1788–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Treilleux, M.

B. Palpant, B. Prével, J. Lermé, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, M. Treilleux, A. Perez, J. L. Vialle, M. Broyer, “Optical properties of gold clusters in the size range 2–4 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 1963–1970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Valizadet, R.

Vallée, F.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Venturini, J.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vialle, J. L.

B. Palpant, B. Prével, J. Lermé, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, M. Treilleux, A. Perez, J. L. Vialle, M. Broyer, “Optical properties of gold clusters in the size range 2–4 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 1963–1970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Videnovic, I. R.

D. Babonneau, I. R. Videnovic, M. G. Garnier, P. Oelhafen, “Morphology and size distribution of gold nanoclusters in a-C:H films studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 195401–195415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, E. M.

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber, D. M. Krol, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231–254 (1991).

Vollmer, M.

U. Kreibig, M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Wawra, H.

M. Schmidbauer, Th. Wiebach, H. Raidt, M. Hanke, R. Kölher, H. Wawra, “Ordering of self-assembled Si1-xGex islands studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10,523–10,531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber, D. M. Krol, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231–254 (1991).

Wiebach, Th.

M. Schmidbauer, Th. Wiebach, H. Raidt, M. Hanke, R. Kölher, H. Wawra, “Ordering of self-assembled Si1-xGex islands studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10,523–10,531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

G. Battaglin, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazoldi, C. Sada, X. Zhang, “Formation of metal alloy nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation and annealing in selected atmosphere,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 167–167, 857–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) (1)

D. A. G. Bruggemann, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 5, 636–664 (1935).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1712–1714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Dakka, J. Lafait, M. Abd-Lefdil, C. Sella, M. Maaza, “Optical study of Ag-TiO2 nanocermet thin films prepared by RF sputtering,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 9, 105–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

A. Sawaguchi, K. Toda, K. Niihara, “Mechanical and electrical properties of silicon nitride-silicon carbide nanocomposite material,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74, 1142–1144 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (4)

J. R. Levine, J. B. Cohen, Y. W. Chung, P. Georgopoulos, “Grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering: new tool for studying thin film growth,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 22, 528–532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Naudon, D. Thiaudière, “Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering. Morphology of deposited clusters and nanostructure of thin films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 822–827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Kutsch, O. Lyon, M. Schmitt, M. Mennig, H. Schmitd, “Small-angle x-ray scattering experiments in grazing incidence on sol-gel coatings containing nano-scaled gold colloids: a new technique for investigating thin coatings and films,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 948–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Babonneau, A. Naudon, D. Thiaudière, S. Lequien, “Morphological characterization of ion-sputtered C-Ag, C/C-Ag and Ag/C films by GISAXS,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 226–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

T. Girardeau, S. Camelio, A. Traverse, F. Lignou, J. Allain, A. Naudon, Ph. Guérin, “Relation between the optical properties of composite Si3N4 thin films with embedded Cu clusters and the clusters’ morphology: irradiation effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1788–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. G. de Sande, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, N. Afonso, D. E. Hole, A. Naudon, “Refractive index of Ag nanocrystal composite films in the neighborhood of the surface plasmon resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1536–1541 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, J. Venturini, “Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469–4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, “Broadband waveguide polarizers based on the anisotropic optical constants of nanocomposite films,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1534–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods B (1)

G. Battaglin, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazoldi, C. Sada, X. Zhang, “Formation of metal alloy nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation and annealing in selected atmosphere,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 167–167, 857–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London (1)

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385–420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber, D. M. Krol, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231–254 (1991).

Phys. Rev. B (5)

B. Palpant, B. Prével, J. Lermé, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, M. Treilleux, A. Perez, J. L. Vialle, M. Broyer, “Optical properties of gold clusters in the size range 2–4 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 1963–1970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of Ag-SiO2 Cermet films: a comparison of effective-medium theories,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 2897–2906 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmidbauer, Th. Wiebach, H. Raidt, M. Hanke, R. Kölher, H. Wawra, “Ordering of self-assembled Si1-xGex islands studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10,523–10,531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Babonneau, I. R. Videnovic, M. G. Garnier, P. Oelhafen, “Morphology and size distribution of gold nanoclusters in a-C:H films studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 195401–195415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Ilolý, T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668–10676 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

R. Joerger, R. Gampp, A. Heinzel, W. Graf, M. Khöl, P. Ganttenbein, “Optical properties of inhomogeneous media,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 351–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

U. Kreibig, M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Kelin, D. Ricard, P. H. Rossignal, “Nonlinear optics in composite materials,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), Vol. XXIX, pp. 323–411.

C. N. Afonso, J. Solis, R. Serna, J. Gonzalo, J. M. Ballesteros, J. C. G. De Sande, “Pulsed laser deposition of nanocomposite thin films for photonic applications,” in Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing IV, J. J. Dubowski, H. Helvajian, E. W. Kreutz, K. Sugioka, eds., Proc SPIE3618, 453–464 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, “The accurate determination of optical properties by ellipsometry,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Chap. 5, p. 88.

A. Guinier, G. Fournet, Small-Angle Scattering of X-Rays (Wiley, New York, 1955).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 141–148.

E. D. Palik, ed, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), p. 175.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the GISAXS geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Complex refractive index N = n + ik of a Si3N4 layer obtained by DIBS (circles and squares). The solid curves correspond to fits of the dispersion curves by Cauchy’s law.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

X-ray reflectivity profiles of the Si3N4 layer, the Ag-Si3N4 multilayer, and Ag-Si3N4 cosputtered film deposited upon a Si substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittance at normal incidence of the Ag-Si3N4 multilayer and of the Ag-Si3N4 cosputtered film deposited upon a glass substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

GISAXS pattern of the Ag-Si3N4 multilayer for grazing incidence of an x-ray beam of 0.32°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Guinier plot ln(I) = f(q 2) of the GISAXS profile collected along the dashed line shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plane view TEM bright-field image of the Ag-Si3N4 cosputtered film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cross-section HRTEM bright-field image of the Ag-Si3N4 cosputtered film.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

GISAXS patterns of the Ag-Si3N4 cosputtered sample for two grazing incident angles, (a) α = 0.25° and (b) α = 0.35°.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic view of the opticalconfiguration. E, electric field.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Transmittance at normal incidence of the as-prepared and a cleaned Ag-Si3N4 cosputtered sample overcoated with a Si3N4 film (see text).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

εeff=εm1+fiεi-εmεm+L1-fiεi-εm
Lxy=ge2e2π2-tan-1ge-g2e2,ge=1-e2e21/2,e2=1-c2a2;
Lxy=14e32e-1-e2ln1+e1-e, e2=1-a2c2.

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