Abstract

Discontinuous surface profiles, e.g., diffractive optical elements (DOEs), are commonly measured by white-light interferometry. White-light interferometry needs significantly more memory capacity and computer time than does phase-shifting interferometry; there are approximately ten times more frames to be taken to gather the required information about the object under test. But usually the grooves of the DOEs are too deep for single-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry. Here we show how phase-shifting techniques can be applied to DOEs. For this purpose three interference patterns are recorded simultaneously by a three-chip color CCD camera at three wavelengths (Red-green-blue). It is possible to calculate separately the optical path difference at each pixel from the three phase patterns modulo 2π. The algorithms used and experimental results are presented.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2001 (1)

1995 (2)

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwider, O. Falkenstörfer, “Twyman-Green interferometer for testing microspheres,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2972–2975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

Burow, R.

Caber, P. J.

Candler, C.

C. Candler, “Gauge measuring interferometers,” in Modern Interferometers, C. Candler, ed. (Hilger Watts, Glasgow, UK, 1951), pp. 195–196.

Cheng, Y.-Y.

Chim, S. S. C.

Creath, K.

K. Creath, “Step height measurement using two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2810–2816 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Creath, “Temporal phase measurement methods,” in Interferogram Analysis, D. W. Robinson, G. T. Reid, eds. (IOP Publishing, London, 1993), pp. 94–140.

J. C. Wyant, K. Creath, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometer and method,” U.S. patent4,832,489 (filed 19March1986, issued 23May1989).

de Groot, P.

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Three-dimensional imaging by sub-Nyquist sampling of white-light interferograms,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1462–1464 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Groot, P. J.

Deck, L.

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Three-dimensional imaging by sub-Nyquist sampling of white-light interferograms,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1462–1464 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dresel, T.

Elssner, K.-E.

Falkenstörfer, O.

J. Schwider, O. Falkenstörfer, “Twyman-Green interferometer for testing microspheres,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2972–2975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grzanna, J.

Häusler, G.

Kino, G. S.

Longhurst, R. S.

R. S. Longhurst, “Method of exact fractions,” in Geometrical and Physical Optics, R. S. Longhurst, ed. (Longman, New York, 1973), pp. 185–187.

Merkel, K.

Notni, G.

R. Recknagel, G. Notni, “Measurement and analysis of microtophography using wavelet methods,” in Optical Inspection and Micromeasurements II, C. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 133–143 (1997).

Pförtner, A.

Recknagel, R.

R. Recknagel, G. Notni, “Measurement and analysis of microtophography using wavelet methods,” in Optical Inspection and Micromeasurements II, C. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 133–143 (1997).

Schwider, J.

Spolaczyk, R.

Venzke, H.

Wyant, J. C.

Y.-Y. Cheng, J. C. Wyant, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4539–4543 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, K. Creath, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometer and method,” U.S. patent4,832,489 (filed 19March1986, issued 23May1989).

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Schwider, O. Falkenstörfer, “Twyman-Green interferometer for testing microspheres,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2972–2975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

R. Recknagel, G. Notni, “Measurement and analysis of microtophography using wavelet methods,” in Optical Inspection and Micromeasurements II, C. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 133–143 (1997).

J. C. Wyant, K. Creath, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometer and method,” U.S. patent4,832,489 (filed 19March1986, issued 23May1989).

K. Creath, “Temporal phase measurement methods,” in Interferogram Analysis, D. W. Robinson, G. T. Reid, eds. (IOP Publishing, London, 1993), pp. 94–140.

R. S. Longhurst, “Method of exact fractions,” in Geometrical and Physical Optics, R. S. Longhurst, ed. (Longman, New York, 1973), pp. 185–187.

C. Candler, “Gauge measuring interferometers,” in Modern Interferometers, C. Candler, ed. (Hilger Watts, Glasgow, UK, 1951), pp. 195–196.

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