Abstract

We present a microfabricated grating whose period can be tuned in analog fashion to within a fraction of a nanometer. The tunable angular range is more than 400 µrad in the first diffracted order. The design concept consists of a diffractive grating defined onto a 400-nm membrane, with the membrane subsequently strained in the direction perpendicular to the grating grooves by thin-film piezoelectric actuation. The strain-tuned grating device was fabricated with microelectromechanical processes, utilizing both surface and bulk micromachining. The fabricated piezoelectric film achieved a measured dielectric constant of 1200. Device characterization yielded grating period changes up to 8.3 nm (0.21% strain in the membrane) at 10 V and a diffracted angular change of 486 µrad, in good agreement with the theory. Uniformity across the actuated grating and out-of-plane deflections are characterized and discussed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. B. Apte, F. Sandejas, W. Banyai, D. Bloom, “Grating light valves for high resolution displays,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1994), pp. 1–6.
  2. G. B. Hocker, D. Youngner, E. Deutsch, A. Volpicelli, S. Senturia, M. Butler, M. Sinclair, T. Plowman, A. J. Ricco, “The polychromator: a programmable MEMS diffraction grating for synthetic spectra,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 2000), pp. 89–92.
  3. D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21, 689–691 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. E. Sene, J. W. Grantham, V. M. Bright, J. H. Comtois, “Development and characterization of micro-mechanical gratings for optical modulation,” in Proceedings of the ninth Annual International IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 222–227.
  5. X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, “A MEMS pitch-tunable grating add/drop multiplexers,” in Proceedings of Optical MEMS 2000 IEEE/LEOS International Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. 25–26.
  6. T. Storgaard-Larsen, O. Leistiko, S. Bouwstra, “Optomechanical accelerometer based on strain sensing by a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A 52, 25–32 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991), pp. 799–831.
  8. D. M. Burns, V. M. Bright, “Micro-electro-mechanical variable blaze gratings,” in Proceedings of IEEE MEMS Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), pp. 55–60.
  9. J. Castracane, M. A. Gutin, O. N. Gutin, “Micro-mechanically controlled diffraction: a new tool for spectroscopy,” in Diffractive/Holographic Technologies and Spatial Light Modulators VII, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, R. L. Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE3951, 36–45 (2000).
  10. W.-C. Shih, C. W. Wong, Y. B. Jeon, S.-G. Kim, G. Barbastathis, “Electrostatic and piezoelectric analog tunable diffractive gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Lasers Science Conference, Vol. 73 of 2002 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2002), paper CMP4.
  11. M. S. Weinberg, “Working equations for piezoelectric actuators and sensors,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 8, 529–533 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. D. Senturia, Microsystem Design in (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass.2001), pp. 219–222.
  13. S.-G. Kim, K.-H. Hwang, “Thin-film micromirror array (TMA) for large information display systems,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 8, 177–181 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Liu, J. S. Ko, W. Zhu, “Preparation and properties of multiplayer Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/PbTiO3 thin films for pyroelectric application,” Thin Solid Films 371, 254–258 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. M. Freeman, A. J. Aranyosi, M. J. Gordon, S. S. Hong, “Multidimensional motion analysis of MEMS using computer microvision,” in Technical Digest of the Solid- State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1998), pp. 150–155.

2000 (2)

S.-G. Kim, K.-H. Hwang, “Thin-film micromirror array (TMA) for large information display systems,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 8, 177–181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, J. S. Ko, W. Zhu, “Preparation and properties of multiplayer Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/PbTiO3 thin films for pyroelectric application,” Thin Solid Films 371, 254–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. S. Weinberg, “Working equations for piezoelectric actuators and sensors,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 8, 529–533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. Storgaard-Larsen, O. Leistiko, S. Bouwstra, “Optomechanical accelerometer based on strain sensing by a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A 52, 25–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21, 689–691 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apte, R. B.

R. B. Apte, F. Sandejas, W. Banyai, D. Bloom, “Grating light valves for high resolution displays,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1994), pp. 1–6.

Aranyosi, A. J.

D. M. Freeman, A. J. Aranyosi, M. J. Gordon, S. S. Hong, “Multidimensional motion analysis of MEMS using computer microvision,” in Technical Digest of the Solid- State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1998), pp. 150–155.

Banyai, W.

R. B. Apte, F. Sandejas, W. Banyai, D. Bloom, “Grating light valves for high resolution displays,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1994), pp. 1–6.

Barbastathis, G.

W.-C. Shih, C. W. Wong, Y. B. Jeon, S.-G. Kim, G. Barbastathis, “Electrostatic and piezoelectric analog tunable diffractive gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Lasers Science Conference, Vol. 73 of 2002 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2002), paper CMP4.

Bloom, D.

R. B. Apte, F. Sandejas, W. Banyai, D. Bloom, “Grating light valves for high resolution displays,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1994), pp. 1–6.

Bouwstra, S.

T. Storgaard-Larsen, O. Leistiko, S. Bouwstra, “Optomechanical accelerometer based on strain sensing by a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A 52, 25–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bright, V. M.

D. M. Burns, V. M. Bright, “Micro-electro-mechanical variable blaze gratings,” in Proceedings of IEEE MEMS Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), pp. 55–60.

D. E. Sene, J. W. Grantham, V. M. Bright, J. H. Comtois, “Development and characterization of micro-mechanical gratings for optical modulation,” in Proceedings of the ninth Annual International IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 222–227.

Burns, D. M.

D. M. Burns, V. M. Bright, “Micro-electro-mechanical variable blaze gratings,” in Proceedings of IEEE MEMS Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), pp. 55–60.

Butler, M.

G. B. Hocker, D. Youngner, E. Deutsch, A. Volpicelli, S. Senturia, M. Butler, M. Sinclair, T. Plowman, A. J. Ricco, “The polychromator: a programmable MEMS diffraction grating for synthetic spectra,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 2000), pp. 89–92.

Castracane, J.

J. Castracane, M. A. Gutin, O. N. Gutin, “Micro-mechanically controlled diffraction: a new tool for spectroscopy,” in Diffractive/Holographic Technologies and Spatial Light Modulators VII, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, R. L. Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE3951, 36–45 (2000).

Comtois, J. H.

D. E. Sene, J. W. Grantham, V. M. Bright, J. H. Comtois, “Development and characterization of micro-mechanical gratings for optical modulation,” in Proceedings of the ninth Annual International IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 222–227.

Deutsch, E.

G. B. Hocker, D. Youngner, E. Deutsch, A. Volpicelli, S. Senturia, M. Butler, M. Sinclair, T. Plowman, A. J. Ricco, “The polychromator: a programmable MEMS diffraction grating for synthetic spectra,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 2000), pp. 89–92.

Dorschner, T. A.

Freeman, D. M.

D. M. Freeman, A. J. Aranyosi, M. J. Gordon, S. S. Hong, “Multidimensional motion analysis of MEMS using computer microvision,” in Technical Digest of the Solid- State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1998), pp. 150–155.

Friedman, L. J.

Gordon, M. J.

D. M. Freeman, A. J. Aranyosi, M. J. Gordon, S. S. Hong, “Multidimensional motion analysis of MEMS using computer microvision,” in Technical Digest of the Solid- State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1998), pp. 150–155.

Grantham, J. W.

D. E. Sene, J. W. Grantham, V. M. Bright, J. H. Comtois, “Development and characterization of micro-mechanical gratings for optical modulation,” in Proceedings of the ninth Annual International IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 222–227.

Gutin, M. A.

J. Castracane, M. A. Gutin, O. N. Gutin, “Micro-mechanically controlled diffraction: a new tool for spectroscopy,” in Diffractive/Holographic Technologies and Spatial Light Modulators VII, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, R. L. Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE3951, 36–45 (2000).

Gutin, O. N.

J. Castracane, M. A. Gutin, O. N. Gutin, “Micro-mechanically controlled diffraction: a new tool for spectroscopy,” in Diffractive/Holographic Technologies and Spatial Light Modulators VII, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, R. L. Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE3951, 36–45 (2000).

Hobbs, D. S.

Hocker, G. B.

G. B. Hocker, D. Youngner, E. Deutsch, A. Volpicelli, S. Senturia, M. Butler, M. Sinclair, T. Plowman, A. J. Ricco, “The polychromator: a programmable MEMS diffraction grating for synthetic spectra,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 2000), pp. 89–92.

Hong, S. S.

D. M. Freeman, A. J. Aranyosi, M. J. Gordon, S. S. Hong, “Multidimensional motion analysis of MEMS using computer microvision,” in Technical Digest of the Solid- State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1998), pp. 150–155.

Hwang, K.-H.

S.-G. Kim, K.-H. Hwang, “Thin-film micromirror array (TMA) for large information display systems,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 8, 177–181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, Y. B.

W.-C. Shih, C. W. Wong, Y. B. Jeon, S.-G. Kim, G. Barbastathis, “Electrostatic and piezoelectric analog tunable diffractive gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Lasers Science Conference, Vol. 73 of 2002 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2002), paper CMP4.

Kim, S.-G.

S.-G. Kim, K.-H. Hwang, “Thin-film micromirror array (TMA) for large information display systems,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 8, 177–181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Shih, C. W. Wong, Y. B. Jeon, S.-G. Kim, G. Barbastathis, “Electrostatic and piezoelectric analog tunable diffractive gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Lasers Science Conference, Vol. 73 of 2002 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2002), paper CMP4.

Ko, J. S.

W. Liu, J. S. Ko, W. Zhu, “Preparation and properties of multiplayer Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/PbTiO3 thin films for pyroelectric application,” Thin Solid Films 371, 254–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leistiko, O.

T. Storgaard-Larsen, O. Leistiko, S. Bouwstra, “Optomechanical accelerometer based on strain sensing by a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A 52, 25–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Q.

X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, “A MEMS pitch-tunable grating add/drop multiplexers,” in Proceedings of Optical MEMS 2000 IEEE/LEOS International Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. 25–26.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, J. S. Ko, W. Zhu, “Preparation and properties of multiplayer Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/PbTiO3 thin films for pyroelectric application,” Thin Solid Films 371, 254–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Plowman, T.

G. B. Hocker, D. Youngner, E. Deutsch, A. Volpicelli, S. Senturia, M. Butler, M. Sinclair, T. Plowman, A. J. Ricco, “The polychromator: a programmable MEMS diffraction grating for synthetic spectra,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 2000), pp. 89–92.

Resler, D. P.

Ricco, A. J.

G. B. Hocker, D. Youngner, E. Deutsch, A. Volpicelli, S. Senturia, M. Butler, M. Sinclair, T. Plowman, A. J. Ricco, “The polychromator: a programmable MEMS diffraction grating for synthetic spectra,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 2000), pp. 89–92.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991), pp. 799–831.

Sandejas, F.

R. B. Apte, F. Sandejas, W. Banyai, D. Bloom, “Grating light valves for high resolution displays,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1994), pp. 1–6.

Sene, D. E.

D. E. Sene, J. W. Grantham, V. M. Bright, J. H. Comtois, “Development and characterization of micro-mechanical gratings for optical modulation,” in Proceedings of the ninth Annual International IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 222–227.

Senturia, S.

G. B. Hocker, D. Youngner, E. Deutsch, A. Volpicelli, S. Senturia, M. Butler, M. Sinclair, T. Plowman, A. J. Ricco, “The polychromator: a programmable MEMS diffraction grating for synthetic spectra,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 2000), pp. 89–92.

Senturia, S. D.

S. D. Senturia, Microsystem Design in (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass.2001), pp. 219–222.

Sharp, R. C.

Shih, W.-C.

W.-C. Shih, C. W. Wong, Y. B. Jeon, S.-G. Kim, G. Barbastathis, “Electrostatic and piezoelectric analog tunable diffractive gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Lasers Science Conference, Vol. 73 of 2002 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2002), paper CMP4.

Sinclair, M.

G. B. Hocker, D. Youngner, E. Deutsch, A. Volpicelli, S. Senturia, M. Butler, M. Sinclair, T. Plowman, A. J. Ricco, “The polychromator: a programmable MEMS diffraction grating for synthetic spectra,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 2000), pp. 89–92.

Storgaard-Larsen, T.

T. Storgaard-Larsen, O. Leistiko, S. Bouwstra, “Optomechanical accelerometer based on strain sensing by a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A 52, 25–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991), pp. 799–831.

Volpicelli, A.

G. B. Hocker, D. Youngner, E. Deutsch, A. Volpicelli, S. Senturia, M. Butler, M. Sinclair, T. Plowman, A. J. Ricco, “The polychromator: a programmable MEMS diffraction grating for synthetic spectra,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 2000), pp. 89–92.

Weinberg, M. S.

M. S. Weinberg, “Working equations for piezoelectric actuators and sensors,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 8, 529–533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

W.-C. Shih, C. W. Wong, Y. B. Jeon, S.-G. Kim, G. Barbastathis, “Electrostatic and piezoelectric analog tunable diffractive gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Lasers Science Conference, Vol. 73 of 2002 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2002), paper CMP4.

Youngner, D.

G. B. Hocker, D. Youngner, E. Deutsch, A. Volpicelli, S. Senturia, M. Butler, M. Sinclair, T. Plowman, A. J. Ricco, “The polychromator: a programmable MEMS diffraction grating for synthetic spectra,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 2000), pp. 89–92.

Zhang, X. M.

X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, “A MEMS pitch-tunable grating add/drop multiplexers,” in Proceedings of Optical MEMS 2000 IEEE/LEOS International Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. 25–26.

Zhu, W.

W. Liu, J. S. Ko, W. Zhu, “Preparation and properties of multiplayer Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/PbTiO3 thin films for pyroelectric application,” Thin Solid Films 371, 254–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

M. S. Weinberg, “Working equations for piezoelectric actuators and sensors,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 8, 529–533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

S.-G. Kim, K.-H. Hwang, “Thin-film micromirror array (TMA) for large information display systems,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 8, 177–181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators A (1)

T. Storgaard-Larsen, O. Leistiko, S. Bouwstra, “Optomechanical accelerometer based on strain sensing by a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide,” Sens. Actuators A 52, 25–32 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

W. Liu, J. S. Ko, W. Zhu, “Preparation and properties of multiplayer Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/PbTiO3 thin films for pyroelectric application,” Thin Solid Films 371, 254–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

D. M. Freeman, A. J. Aranyosi, M. J. Gordon, S. S. Hong, “Multidimensional motion analysis of MEMS using computer microvision,” in Technical Digest of the Solid- State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1998), pp. 150–155.

R. B. Apte, F. Sandejas, W. Banyai, D. Bloom, “Grating light valves for high resolution displays,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1994), pp. 1–6.

G. B. Hocker, D. Youngner, E. Deutsch, A. Volpicelli, S. Senturia, M. Butler, M. Sinclair, T. Plowman, A. J. Ricco, “The polychromator: a programmable MEMS diffraction grating for synthetic spectra,” in Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 2000), pp. 89–92.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991), pp. 799–831.

D. M. Burns, V. M. Bright, “Micro-electro-mechanical variable blaze gratings,” in Proceedings of IEEE MEMS Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), pp. 55–60.

J. Castracane, M. A. Gutin, O. N. Gutin, “Micro-mechanically controlled diffraction: a new tool for spectroscopy,” in Diffractive/Holographic Technologies and Spatial Light Modulators VII, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, R. L. Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE3951, 36–45 (2000).

W.-C. Shih, C. W. Wong, Y. B. Jeon, S.-G. Kim, G. Barbastathis, “Electrostatic and piezoelectric analog tunable diffractive gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Lasers Science Conference, Vol. 73 of 2002 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2002), paper CMP4.

S. D. Senturia, Microsystem Design in (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass.2001), pp. 219–222.

D. E. Sene, J. W. Grantham, V. M. Bright, J. H. Comtois, “Development and characterization of micro-mechanical gratings for optical modulation,” in Proceedings of the ninth Annual International IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 222–227.

X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, “A MEMS pitch-tunable grating add/drop multiplexers,” in Proceedings of Optical MEMS 2000 IEEE/LEOS International Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. 25–26.

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