Abstract

Recent radiative transfer models show that: (1) regardless of elastic lidar receiver field of view (FOV), at vanishing lidar depth the lidar-derived attenuation coefficient k lidara, where a is the total absorption coefficient per meter of depth; and (2) for a wide FOV as the lidar sensing depth approaches some large value (depending on water type), k lidarK d, where K d is the diffuse attenuation for downwelling irradiance. As a result, it is shown that a time-resolved, dual-wavelength-laser, elastic-backscattering lidar can retrieve the three principal oceanic optical properties: (1) the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton a ph, (2) the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) a CDOM, and (3) the nonwater total constituent backscattering coefficient b bt. The lidar-retrieved a ph, a CDOM, and b bt inherent optical properties can be used to validate corresponding satellite-derived products such as those from terra moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), Aqua MODIS, Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor, (SeaWiFS), and other ocean color sensors.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Inherent optical properties imagery of the western North Atlantic Ocean: horizontal spatial variability of the upper mixed layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 31129–31140 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next-generation NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. E. Walker, J. W. McLean, “Lidar equations for turbid media with pulse stretching,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2384–2397 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. I. Kopilevich, V. I. Feigels, “On multispectral lidar sounding of ocean waters,” in Ocean Optics: Remote Sensing and Underwater Imaging, R. J. Frouin, G. D. Gilbert, eds., Proc. SPIE4488, 51–60 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Roy, L. R. Bissonnette, C. Bastille, G. Vallee, “Retrieval of droplet-size density distribution from multiple-field-of-view cross-polarized lidar signals: theory and experimental validation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5202–5211 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Cahalan, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (personal communication, 2002).
  11. C. W. Wright, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (personal communication, 2002).
  12. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3778–3786 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. W. McLean, J. D. Freeman, R. E. Walker, “Beam spread function with time dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4701–4711 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100C, 13135–13142 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. K. B. Bishop, “Transmissometer measurement of POC,” Deep-Sea Res. I 46, 353–369 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. K. B. Bishop, S. E. Calvert, M. Y. S. Moon, “Spatial variability of POC in the northeast Subarctic Pacific,” Deep-Sea Res. II 46, 2699–2733 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. I. Feigels, Yu. Kopilevich, “Applicability of lidar remote sensing methods for vertical structure investigation of ocean optical properties distribution,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 449–457 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. C. Guenther, R. W. L. Thomas, P. E. LaRoacque, “Design considerations for achieving high accuracy with the SHOALS bathymetric lidar system,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 54–71 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. Steinvall, K. Koppari, “Depth sounding lidar—an overview of Swedish activities and with future prospects,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 2–25 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. H. Abbot, D. W. Lane, M. J. Sinclair, T. A. Spurling, “Lasers chart waters of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 72–90 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Inherent optical properties imagery of the western North Atlantic Ocean: horizontal spatial variability of the upper mixed layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 31129–31140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next-generation NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100C, 13135–13142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

Abbot, R. H.

R. H. Abbot, D. W. Lane, M. J. Sinclair, T. A. Spurling, “Lasers chart waters of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 72–90 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bastille, C.

Berry, R. E.

Bishop, J. K. B.

J. K. B. Bishop, “Transmissometer measurement of POC,” Deep-Sea Res. I 46, 353–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. K. B. Bishop, S. E. Calvert, M. Y. S. Moon, “Spatial variability of POC in the northeast Subarctic Pacific,” Deep-Sea Res. II 46, 2699–2733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bissonnette, L. R.

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Buntzen, R. R.

Cahalan, R.

R. Cahalan, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (personal communication, 2002).

Calvert, S. E.

J. K. B. Bishop, S. E. Calvert, M. Y. S. Moon, “Spatial variability of POC in the northeast Subarctic Pacific,” Deep-Sea Res. II 46, 2699–2733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Feigels, V. I.

Y. I. Kopilevich, V. I. Feigels, “On multispectral lidar sounding of ocean waters,” in Ocean Optics: Remote Sensing and Underwater Imaging, R. J. Frouin, G. D. Gilbert, eds., Proc. SPIE4488, 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Feigels, Yu. Kopilevich, “Applicability of lidar remote sensing methods for vertical structure investigation of ocean optical properties distribution,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 449–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, J. D.

Gilbert, G. D.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, G. C.

G. C. Guenther, R. W. L. Thomas, P. E. LaRoacque, “Design considerations for achieving high accuracy with the SHOALS bathymetric lidar system,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 54–71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Inherent optical properties imagery of the western North Atlantic Ocean: horizontal spatial variability of the upper mixed layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 31129–31140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next-generation NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3778–3786 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopilevich, Y. I.

Y. I. Kopilevich, V. I. Feigels, “On multispectral lidar sounding of ocean waters,” in Ocean Optics: Remote Sensing and Underwater Imaging, R. J. Frouin, G. D. Gilbert, eds., Proc. SPIE4488, 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kopilevich, Yu.

V. I. Feigels, Yu. Kopilevich, “Applicability of lidar remote sensing methods for vertical structure investigation of ocean optical properties distribution,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 449–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koppari, K.

O. Steinvall, K. Koppari, “Depth sounding lidar—an overview of Swedish activities and with future prospects,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 2–25 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krabill, W. B.

Lane, D. W.

R. H. Abbot, D. W. Lane, M. J. Sinclair, T. A. Spurling, “Lasers chart waters of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 72–90 (1996).
[CrossRef]

LaRoacque, P. E.

G. C. Guenther, R. W. L. Thomas, P. E. LaRoacque, “Design considerations for achieving high accuracy with the SHOALS bathymetric lidar system,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 54–71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, P. E.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Inherent optical properties imagery of the western North Atlantic Ocean: horizontal spatial variability of the upper mixed layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 31129–31140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McLean, J. W.

Moon, M. Y. S.

J. K. B. Bishop, S. E. Calvert, M. Y. S. Moon, “Spatial variability of POC in the northeast Subarctic Pacific,” Deep-Sea Res. II 46, 2699–2733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roy, G.

Schirtzinger, C. R.

Sinclair, M. J.

R. H. Abbot, D. W. Lane, M. J. Sinclair, T. A. Spurling, “Lasers chart waters of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 72–90 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Spurling, T. A.

R. H. Abbot, D. W. Lane, M. J. Sinclair, T. A. Spurling, “Lasers chart waters of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 72–90 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steinvall, O.

O. Steinvall, K. Koppari, “Depth sounding lidar—an overview of Swedish activities and with future prospects,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 2–25 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

Thomas, R. W. L.

G. C. Guenther, R. W. L. Thomas, P. E. LaRoacque, “Design considerations for achieving high accuracy with the SHOALS bathymetric lidar system,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 54–71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, G.

Walker, R. E.

Wright, C. W.

Yungel, J. K.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100C, 13135–13142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (9)

C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next-generation NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Walker, J. W. McLean, “Lidar equations for turbid media with pulse stretching,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2384–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Roy, L. R. Bissonnette, C. Bastille, G. Vallee, “Retrieval of droplet-size density distribution from multiple-field-of-view cross-polarized lidar signals: theory and experimental validation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5202–5211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3778–3786 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. McLean, J. D. Freeman, R. E. Walker, “Beam spread function with time dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4701–4711 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deep-Sea Res. I (1)

J. K. B. Bishop, “Transmissometer measurement of POC,” Deep-Sea Res. I 46, 353–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. II (1)

J. K. B. Bishop, S. E. Calvert, M. Y. S. Moon, “Spatial variability of POC in the northeast Subarctic Pacific,” Deep-Sea Res. II 46, 2699–2733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100C, 13135–13142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Inherent optical properties imagery of the western North Atlantic Ocean: horizontal spatial variability of the upper mixed layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 31129–31140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

Y. I. Kopilevich, V. I. Feigels, “On multispectral lidar sounding of ocean waters,” in Ocean Optics: Remote Sensing and Underwater Imaging, R. J. Frouin, G. D. Gilbert, eds., Proc. SPIE4488, 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Cahalan, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (personal communication, 2002).

C. W. Wright, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (personal communication, 2002).

V. I. Feigels, Yu. Kopilevich, “Applicability of lidar remote sensing methods for vertical structure investigation of ocean optical properties distribution,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 449–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Guenther, R. W. L. Thomas, P. E. LaRoacque, “Design considerations for achieving high accuracy with the SHOALS bathymetric lidar system,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 54–71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Steinvall, K. Koppari, “Depth sounding lidar—an overview of Swedish activities and with future prospects,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 2–25 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Abbot, D. W. Lane, M. J. Sinclair, T. A. Spurling, “Lasers chart waters of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef,” in Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters: From Theory to Practice, V. I. Feigels, Y. I. Kopilevich, eds., Proc. SPIE2964, 72–90 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Equations (4)

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aphλ1+aCDOMλ1=aλ1-awaterλ1, aphλ2+aCDOMλ2=aλ2-awaterλ2,
aphλggλi, λg+aCDOMλdexp-Sλi-λd=aλi-awaterλi,
Dp=h,
bbtλi=Kd-aλi-bb,waterλi,

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