Abstract

The tropospheric particle extinction-to-backscatter ratio, the depolarization ratio, and the water-vapor mixing ratio were measured by use of a Raman lidar and a polarization lidar during the Asian dust seasons in 2001 and 2002 in Tsukuba, Japan. The apparent (not corrected for multiple-scattering effects) extinction-to-backscatter ratios (S p) showed a dependence on the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) obtained from the lidar-derived water-vapor mixing ratio and radiosonde-derived temperature; they were mostly higher than 30 sr in dry air (RHice < 50%), whereas they were mostly lower than 30 sr in ice-supersaturated air (RHice ≥ 100%), where the apparent extinction coefficients were larger than 0.036 km-1. Both regions showed mean particle depolarization ratios of 20%–22%. Comparisons with theoretical calculations and the previous experiments suggest that the observed dependence of S p on RHice is attributed to the difference in the predominant particles: nonspherical aerosols (mainly the Asian dust) in dry air and cloud particles in ice-supersaturated air.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Hara, M. Kido, K. Osada, M. Hayashi, K. Matsunaga, Y. Iwasaka, “Raman lidar and aircraft measurements of tropospheric aerosol particles during the Asian dust event over central Japan: case study on 23 April 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 10.1029/2002JD003150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (8)

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, T. Murayama, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2760–2767 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, “Calculation of the calibration constant of polarization lidar and its dependency on atmospheric temperature,” Opt. Express 10, 805–817 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sassen, “Indirect climate forcing over the western US from Asian dust storms,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.129/2001GL014051, (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ovarlez, J.-F. Gayet, K. Gierens, J. Ström, H. Ovarlez, F. Auriol, R. Busen, U. Schumann, “Water vapour measurements inside cirrus clouds in Northern and Southern hemispheres during INCA,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, S. Hamdi, “Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479–5489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, S. Reichardt, A. Behrendt, T. J. Mcgee, “Correlations among the optical properties of cirrus-cloud particles: implications for spaceborne remote sensing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014836 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Kalashnikova, I. N. Sokolik, “Importance of shapes and compositions of wind-blown dust particles for remote sensing at solar wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014947 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014721 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3123–3126, 2000GL012798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: II. Microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2103–2112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Husar, D. M. Tratt, B. A. Schichtell, S. R. Falke, F. Li, D. Jaffe, S. Gassó, T. Gill, N. S. Laulainen, F. Lu, M. C. Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westphal, B. N. Holben, C. Gueymard, I. McKendry, N. Kuring, G. C. Feldman, C. McClain, R. J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W. E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto, W. C. Malm, “The Asian dust events of 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18317–18330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, J. M. Comstock, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: III. Radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2113–2127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Adachi, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “Calibration method for the lidar-observed stratospheric depolarization ratio in the presence of liquid aerosol particles,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6587–6595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

1999 (2)

K. Gierens, U. Schumann, M. Helten, H. Smit, A. Marenco, “A distribution law for relative humidity in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere derived from three years of MOZAIC measurements,” Ann. Geophys. 17, 1218–1226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Incorporation of mineralogical composition into models of the radiative properties of mineral aerosol from UV to IR wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9423–9444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

M. Hess, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, P. Stammes, “Scattering matrices of imperfect hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 301–308 (1998) ( ftp.lrz-muenchen.de/pub/science/meteorology/cirrus/index.html ).
[CrossRef]

J. Ackermann, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1043–1050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, C. Twohy, G. Sache, S. Oltmans, “Upper-tropospheric relative humidity observations and implications for cirrus ice nucleation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1343–1346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, “Multiple-scattering influence on extinction- and backscatter-coefficient measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Appl. Opt. 37, 417–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part III: light scattering by irregular ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 818–837 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Heymsfield, L. M. Miloshevich, “Relative humidity and temperature Influences on cirrus formation and evolution: observations from wave clouds and FIRE II,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 4302–4326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

A. Macke, “Scattering of light by polyhedral ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2780–2788 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, J. Brechet, J. Picquard, “One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica). Part I: General overview of geometrical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18575–18587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

1990 (2)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, “Aerosol optical properties inferred from simultaneous lidar, aerosol-counter, and sunphotometer measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 729–739 (1990).

1989 (4)

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakainishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki—Part II models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I. Single scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Sun, Z.-P. Li, “Depolarization of polarized light caused by high altitude clouds. 2: Depolarization of lidar induced by water clouds,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3633–3638 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Sun, Z.-P. Li, J. Bosenberg, “Depolarization of polarized light caused by high altitude clouds. 1: Depolarization of lidar induced by cirrus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3625–3632 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

C. M. R. Platt, J. C. Scott, A. C. Dilley, “Remote sounding of high clouds. Part VI: optical properties of midlatitude and tropical cirrus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 729–747 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

1983 (1)

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, W. T. Grandy, “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787–6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. L. Buck, “New equations for computing vapor pressure and enhancement factor,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1527–1532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868–881 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar backscatter from horizontal ice crystal plates,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 482–488 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

W. D. Hall, H. R. Pruppacher, “The survival of ice particles falling from cirrus clouds in subsaturated air,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1995–2006 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Weinman, “Effects of multiple scattering on light pulses reflected by turbid atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1763–1771 (1976).
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T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, S. Hamdi, “Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479–5489 (2002).
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T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, T. Hayasaka, “Troposheric aerosol optical properties derived from lidar, sun photometer, and optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7132–7140 (1994).
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Toon, O. B.

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Zhu, Y.

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Ann. Geophys. (1)

K. Gierens, U. Schumann, M. Helten, H. Smit, A. Marenco, “A distribution law for relative humidity in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere derived from three years of MOZAIC measurements,” Ann. Geophys. 17, 1218–1226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (14)

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, T. Murayama, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2760–2767 (2002).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, T. Hayasaka, “Troposheric aerosol optical properties derived from lidar, sun photometer, and optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7132–7140 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Adachi, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “Calibration method for the lidar-observed stratospheric depolarization ratio in the presence of liquid aerosol particles,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6587–6595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, “Multiple-scattering influence on extinction- and backscatter-coefficient measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Appl. Opt. 37, 417–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, M. Hess, A. Macke, “Lidar inelastic multiple-scattering parameters of cirrus particle ensembles determined with geometrical-optics crystal phase functions,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1895–1910 (2000).
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Y.-Y. Sun, Z.-P. Li, J. Bosenberg, “Depolarization of polarized light caused by high altitude clouds. 1: Depolarization of lidar induced by cirrus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3625–3632 (1989).
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A. Macke, “Scattering of light by polyhedral ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2780–2788 (1993).
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Y. Takano, K. Jayaweera, “Scattering phase matrix for hexagonal ice crystals computed from ray optics,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3254–3263 (1985).
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Y. Mano, “Exact solution of electromagnetic scattering by a three-dimensional hexagonal ice column obtained with the boundary-element method,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5541–5546 (2000).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, S. Hamdi, “Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479–5489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Temporal and vertical cross sections of the backscattering ratio, (b) particle linear depolarization ratio, (c) lidar ratio at the wavelength of 532 nm, and (d) RH with respect to ice obtained with the Raman lidar over Tsukuba from 19:00 JST on 4 April to 5:30 JST on 5 April in 2002.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Vertical profiles of particle optical properties and the RH averaged over 3:01–3:31 on 5 April 2002. The left panel shows the backscattering ratio (solid curve), particle extinction coefficient (dashed curve), and depolarization ratio (dotted curve), and the right panel shows the lidar ratio (solid curve) and the RH with respect to ice (dashed curve) and water (dotted curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 1 but for the period from 19:00 JST on 23 March to 5:30 JST on 24 March 2002.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 2 but averaged over 23:30-0:00 JST on 23 March 2002.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatter plot of the lidar ratio as a function of the RH with respect to ice obtained with the Raman lidar between the altitude range of 3–11 km for the periods of April–May in 2001 and March–May in 2002. The RH was calculated from the lidar-derived water-vapor mixing ratio, and the temperature and pressure were obtained by coincident radiosonde (diamonds) or by interpolation of the radiosonde data launched at 20:30 and 8:30 JST (dots).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histograms of the lidar ratio categorized into the RHice ranges of 0%–50% (bottom), 50%–100% (middle), and ≥100% (top) at temperatures lower than 273.15 K. The data above 273.15 K are included in the category of RHice = 0%–50%. See text for details.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 5 but for the particle depolarization ratio.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as Fig. 6 but for the particle depolarization ratio.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized scattering phase function models of Asian dust calculated by the CFIE method (thick solid curve) and by the semiempirical theory (thin solid curve), water clouds (thick dashed curve), and ice clouds with maximum surface tilt angles (γ) of 1° (thick dotted curve), and 30° (thin dotted curve) at 532 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Vertical profiles of the particle extinction coefficients retrieved, assuming single scattering for Asian dust (triangles with solid curves), water cloud (circles with dashed curve), and ice clouds (squares with dotted curves) whose phase functions are shown in Fig. 9. The thin-dashed line shows the true extinction coefficient profile assumed in the simulation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Vertical profiles of the lidar ratio retrieved, assuming single scattering for Asian dust (triangles with solid curves), water clouds (circles with dashed curve), and ice clouds (squares with dotted curves). Thin lines with symbols show the true lidar ratio profiles assumed in the simulation.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Lidar Ratio of Asian Dust and Clouds at 532 nm

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Table 2 Total Particle Linear Depolarization Ratio of Asian Dust and Clouds at 532 nm

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δpz= δtzRz-δmRz-1,
δtz= δobsz-δcp1-2δsys1-δcp-δcs- δsys1-2δsys,
δobsz= gNzgNz+Nz,

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