Abstract

A multilayered waveguide holographic read-only memory is a promising candidate for the next generation of optical data storage systems. We improved the data density of the memory by using a multiplexing method with a set of orthogonal optical masks. We multiplexed as many as nine images into one waveguide hologram, and all the observed images had negligible cross talk. This made it possible to achieve a ninefold increase in data density. We provide experimental results for both metallic and liquid-crystal masks.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram grating,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding method,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Barbastathis, M. Levene, D. Psaltis, “Shift multiplexing with spherical reference waves,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2403–2417 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, T. Tamamura, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Multilayered waveguide holographic memory card,” presented at Joint International Symposium on Optical Memory and Optical Data Storage ’99, Hawaii, 11 July 1999.
  6. S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Reduction of stripe noise in MWH-ROM by random phase modulation,” presented at International Symposium on Optical Memory 2000, Chitose, Japan, 5 November 2000.
  7. K. Ishihara, H. Kubo, R. Yoshiyama, K. Yamauchi, M. Kawashima, Y. Miwa, T. Kobayashi, “UV embossing process for multilayered waveguide holographic memory media,” presented at Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting 2001, Santa Fe, Calif., 22 April 2001.
  8. T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Waveguide holograms: a new approach to hologram integration,” Opt. Commun. 19, 353–358 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. R. Brown, A. W. Lohmann, “Complex spatial filtering with binary masks,” Appl. Opt. 5, 967–969 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. W. Lohmann, D. P. Paris, “Binary Fraunhofer holograms, generated by computer,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1739–1748 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Endo, Y. Kurokawa, M. Ueno, T. Tanabe, M. Yamamoto, “Two-dimensional modulation code for multilayered waveguide holographic memory,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1846–1850 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Endo, Y. Kurokawa, M. Ueno, T. Tanabe, M. Yamamoto, “Two-dimensional modulation code for multilayered waveguide holographic memory,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1846–1850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding method,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Waveguide holograms: a new approach to hologram integration,” Opt. Commun. 19, 353–358 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram grating,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1966 (1)

Ashley, J.

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barbastathis, G.

Bernal, M.-P.

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, B. R.

Burr, G. W.

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coufal, H.

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denz, C.

C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding method,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Endo, M.

M. Endo, Y. Kurokawa, M. Ueno, T. Tanabe, M. Yamamoto, “Two-dimensional modulation code for multilayered waveguide holographic memory,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1846–1850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, H.

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, T. Tamamura, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Multilayered waveguide holographic memory card,” presented at Joint International Symposium on Optical Memory and Optical Data Storage ’99, Hawaii, 11 July 1999.

Hoffnagle, J. A.

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Imai, T.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, T. Tamamura, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Multilayered waveguide holographic memory card,” presented at Joint International Symposium on Optical Memory and Optical Data Storage ’99, Hawaii, 11 July 1999.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Reduction of stripe noise in MWH-ROM by random phase modulation,” presented at International Symposium on Optical Memory 2000, Chitose, Japan, 5 November 2000.

Imamura, S.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, T. Tamamura, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Multilayered waveguide holographic memory card,” presented at Joint International Symposium on Optical Memory and Optical Data Storage ’99, Hawaii, 11 July 1999.

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, H. Kubo, R. Yoshiyama, K. Yamauchi, M. Kawashima, Y. Miwa, T. Kobayashi, “UV embossing process for multilayered waveguide holographic memory media,” presented at Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting 2001, Santa Fe, Calif., 22 April 2001.

Jefferson, C. M.

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, M.

K. Ishihara, H. Kubo, R. Yoshiyama, K. Yamauchi, M. Kawashima, Y. Miwa, T. Kobayashi, “UV embossing process for multilayered waveguide holographic memory media,” presented at Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting 2001, Santa Fe, Calif., 22 April 2001.

Kobayashi, T.

K. Ishihara, H. Kubo, R. Yoshiyama, K. Yamauchi, M. Kawashima, Y. Miwa, T. Kobayashi, “UV embossing process for multilayered waveguide holographic memory media,” presented at Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting 2001, Santa Fe, Calif., 22 April 2001.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram grating,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, J.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Waveguide holograms: a new approach to hologram integration,” Opt. Commun. 19, 353–358 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, H.

K. Ishihara, H. Kubo, R. Yoshiyama, K. Yamauchi, M. Kawashima, Y. Miwa, T. Kobayashi, “UV embossing process for multilayered waveguide holographic memory media,” presented at Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting 2001, Santa Fe, Calif., 22 April 2001.

Kurokawa, Y.

M. Endo, Y. Kurokawa, M. Ueno, T. Tanabe, M. Yamamoto, “Two-dimensional modulation code for multilayered waveguide holographic memory,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1846–1850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Reduction of stripe noise in MWH-ROM by random phase modulation,” presented at International Symposium on Optical Memory 2000, Chitose, Japan, 5 November 2000.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, T. Tamamura, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Multilayered waveguide holographic memory card,” presented at Joint International Symposium on Optical Memory and Optical Data Storage ’99, Hawaii, 11 July 1999.

Levene, M.

Lohmann, A. W.

Macfarlane, R. M.

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, B.

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, Y.

K. Ishihara, H. Kubo, R. Yoshiyama, K. Yamauchi, M. Kawashima, Y. Miwa, T. Kobayashi, “UV embossing process for multilayered waveguide holographic memory media,” presented at Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting 2001, Santa Fe, Calif., 22 April 2001.

Nishihara, H.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Waveguide holograms: a new approach to hologram integration,” Opt. Commun. 19, 353–358 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Paris, D. P.

Pauliat, G.

C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding method,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Roosen, G.

C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding method,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. M.

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sincerbox, G. T.

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Waveguide holograms: a new approach to hologram integration,” Opt. Commun. 19, 353–358 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Tamamura, T.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, T. Tamamura, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Multilayered waveguide holographic memory card,” presented at Joint International Symposium on Optical Memory and Optical Data Storage ’99, Hawaii, 11 July 1999.

Tanabe, T.

M. Endo, Y. Kurokawa, M. Ueno, T. Tanabe, M. Yamamoto, “Two-dimensional modulation code for multilayered waveguide holographic memory,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1846–1850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tate, A.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, T. Tamamura, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Multilayered waveguide holographic memory card,” presented at Joint International Symposium on Optical Memory and Optical Data Storage ’99, Hawaii, 11 July 1999.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Reduction of stripe noise in MWH-ROM by random phase modulation,” presented at International Symposium on Optical Memory 2000, Chitose, Japan, 5 November 2000.

Tomaru, S.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, T. Tamamura, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Multilayered waveguide holographic memory card,” presented at Joint International Symposium on Optical Memory and Optical Data Storage ’99, Hawaii, 11 July 1999.

Tschudi, T.

C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding method,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, M.

M. Endo, Y. Kurokawa, M. Ueno, T. Tanabe, M. Yamamoto, “Two-dimensional modulation code for multilayered waveguide holographic memory,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1846–1850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, S.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, T. Tamamura, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Multilayered waveguide holographic memory card,” presented at Joint International Symposium on Optical Memory and Optical Data Storage ’99, Hawaii, 11 July 1999.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Reduction of stripe noise in MWH-ROM by random phase modulation,” presented at International Symposium on Optical Memory 2000, Chitose, Japan, 5 November 2000.

Yamamoto, M.

M. Endo, Y. Kurokawa, M. Ueno, T. Tanabe, M. Yamamoto, “Two-dimensional modulation code for multilayered waveguide holographic memory,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1846–1850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Reduction of stripe noise in MWH-ROM by random phase modulation,” presented at International Symposium on Optical Memory 2000, Chitose, Japan, 5 November 2000.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, T. Tamamura, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Multilayered waveguide holographic memory card,” presented at Joint International Symposium on Optical Memory and Optical Data Storage ’99, Hawaii, 11 July 1999.

Yamauchi, K.

K. Ishihara, H. Kubo, R. Yoshiyama, K. Yamauchi, M. Kawashima, Y. Miwa, T. Kobayashi, “UV embossing process for multilayered waveguide holographic memory media,” presented at Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting 2001, Santa Fe, Calif., 22 April 2001.

Yoshiyama, R.

K. Ishihara, H. Kubo, R. Yoshiyama, K. Yamauchi, M. Kawashima, Y. Miwa, T. Kobayashi, “UV embossing process for multilayered waveguide holographic memory media,” presented at Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting 2001, Santa Fe, Calif., 22 April 2001.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram grating,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

J. Ashley, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, B. Marcus, G. W. Burr, R. M. Macfarlane, H. Coufal, R. M. Shelby, H. Guenther, G. T. Sincerbox, J. A. Hoffnagle, “Holographic data storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 341–366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Endo, Y. Kurokawa, M. Ueno, T. Tanabe, M. Yamamoto, “Two-dimensional modulation code for multilayered waveguide holographic memory,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1846–1850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Waveguide holograms: a new approach to hologram integration,” Opt. Commun. 19, 353–358 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding method,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, T. Tamamura, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Multilayered waveguide holographic memory card,” presented at Joint International Symposium on Optical Memory and Optical Data Storage ’99, Hawaii, 11 July 1999.

S. Yagi, T. Imai, A. Tate, Y. Kurokawa, M. Yamamoto, “Reduction of stripe noise in MWH-ROM by random phase modulation,” presented at International Symposium on Optical Memory 2000, Chitose, Japan, 5 November 2000.

K. Ishihara, H. Kubo, R. Yoshiyama, K. Yamauchi, M. Kawashima, Y. Miwa, T. Kobayashi, “UV embossing process for multilayered waveguide holographic memory media,” presented at Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting 2001, Santa Fe, Calif., 22 April 2001.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multilayered waveguide holographic read-only memory.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM micrograph of a waveguide hologram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example image constructed by the waveguide hologram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image construction with aperture multiplexing: (a) first image; (b) second image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Set of single-aperture masks for fourfold multiplexing. The white squares represent the apertures located in (a) upper left; (b) lower left; (c) upper right; and (d) lower right. Each aperture is 0.33 mm × 0.33 mm in size.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity patterns for single-aperture multiplexing on (a) the waveguide plane; (b) the mask plane; and (c) the image plane.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Four distinct images observed using a single-aperture mask.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example set of masks with distributed apertures for multiplexing four images.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

One of the masks with distributed apertures for multiplexing eight images. The other masks in this set can be obtained by shifting this mask cyclically one aperture at a time to the left (right, upward, or downward).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Images observed from a hologram for distributed-aperture multiplexing using the masks shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

One of the eight images observed from a hologram for eight-image multiplexing using the mask shown in Fig. 9.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Nine images separated by a liquid-crystal masking device.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Interference (a) and noninterference (b) types of distributed-aperture multiplexing.

Equations (3)

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Ix, y=|Vx, y|2.
Vx, y= Gξ-x, η-yUx, ydξdη,
A expjkx2+y2+d2x2+y2+d2.

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